This report contains the main findings of the rapid baseline survey for pastoralist drop-outs within Garissa Municipality in North Eastern Province (NEP) of Kenya. The survey was commissioned by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and carried out between September and October of 2009. Essentially, the purpose was to assess pastoralist drop-outs in order to determine and document their sources of livelihood, which define indicators and profiles of vulnerability. This was done with a view to understanding the extent to which vulnerability makes pastoralist drop-outs easy prey for irregular migration. The assessment was also aimed to determine the pastoralist dropouts' current micro-business engagement and skill gaps in order to recommend on skills enhancement and alternative sources of livelihood.
Findings of the survey
The survey established that pastoralist drop-outs suffer from disadvantaged socio-economic status arising from the loss of livestock and debilitating drought. These adversities led them to abandon their nomadic pastoralist lifestyles and move from their rural habitats to settle in peri-urban villages on the fringes of Garissa Municipality known as bullas. Moreover, pastoralist drop-outs are not the only victims of irregular migration, but their vulnerability has definitely made them easy prey to irregular migration including smuggling and human trafficking. The main drivers of irregular migration are threefold. These include the lure of greener pastures elsewhere, instability in neighbouring Somalia and high unemployment rates. The latter is punctuated by dismally low or non-existent income for livelihood and survival.
Demographic factors: in terms of demographic factors, a majority of pastoralist drop-outs (64 per cent) who participated in the survey were between the ages of 20-40 years, while 24 per cent were between the 41-60 age group. Further analysis shows that 69 per cent were married, 14 per cent single, 12 per cent widows and 2 per cent widowers and those in other categories were divorcees. In relation to the gender of the respondents, a majority of those interviewed were female, who represented a proportion of 58 per cent, while 42 per cent were male.
Socio-economic aspects: pastoralist drop-outs face problems of inadequate food, insufficient water supply and availability as well as poor access to healthcare, all of which are directly affected by low income. As a result of this, pastoralist drop-outs mainly depend on relatives and support from relief agencies to help meet the survival gap. Other sources of income are self employment (mainly doing odd jobs) with 64 per cent of the respondents being involved in manual work. They live in dilapidated housing structures with limited or no access to running water and pit latrines. 40 per cent had semi permanent structures and 32 per cent were prefabricated carton boxes. A proportion of 56 per cent of the pastoralist drop-outs did not have access to any pit latrine, while only 22 per cent who had access to pit latrines reported that those latrines were semi permanent.
Pseudo-business Survival skills: statistics show that only 4 per cent of participating pastoralist dropout households had professional trainings such as driving, weaving, sewing and hair dressing. Those with these skills had trainings for less than 5 years. Concerning types of businesses, 12 per cent run tea shop within the bullas. 7 per cent do hawking and 9 per cent run other types of businesses. Findings further show that 59 per cent of pastoralist drop-outs have not had any business experience. Goods and services that the respondents felt they could provide are weaving garments or making cultural items. Specifically, 23 per cent felt they could weave, 13 per cent would like to make traditional ornaments and 12 per cent would like to build traditional houses. However, the respondents felt that they would be successful with financial and marketing support. On agropastoralism, the survey found out that 39 per cent of the respondents do not own any livestock. Of the 61 per cent who owned livestock, majority owned cattle, sheep and goats.
Access to education: the assessment established that 88 per cent of the respondents had never attended school, 9 per cent and 2 per cent had attained education up to primary and secondary levels respectively. Analysis further shows that of those who are self employed, 92 per cent of those who are not involved in any source of income generating activity had never attained any education.
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