Kenya Floods Situation Report No. 2

Originally published
DHAGVA - 97/0863


1. The current short rains season in Kenya has seen exceptionally heavy rainfall, in many areas the most intense in 40 years. The worst-affected districts are in Coast Province (Kwale, Kilifi, Mombasa, Malindi, Tana River), North Eastern Province (Garissa, Mandera, Wajir) and Eastern Province (Moyale, Marsabit). Additionally, heavy rains have been experienced elsewhere.

2. Surface transport links to the North East and to the Tana River delta have been rendered impassable with the exception of the Nairobi-Garissa road. It is not possible to lend assistance to the vast majority of the flood victims or to replenish stocks of food, fuel, medicines etc by road. If there is no further rain, road links could begin to be restored from about 15 December onwards. A more realistic scenario involves continuing but declining rains in December and no significant restoration of road links before 15 January 1998.

3. This initial appeal covers:

a) preliminary emergency phase of ten days, involving extensive use of aircraft and helicopters ferrying such humanitarian supplies as are currently available in Kenya, from Government of Kenya stocks or donor supplies.

b) second phase of twenty days, consolidating the emergency effort, with a possible extension into January and February 1998 depending on weather patterns in the first half of December. Further appeals for assistance may be necessary.


4. The Government of Kenya issued an appeal to donors for assistance on 26 November.

The main items of the appeal are:

Cereals: 21,479 Mt

Beans: 3,642 MT

Vegetable Oil: 1,219 MT

Fuel for aircraft: USD 887,000

Cargo-carrying helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft

Medicines, water, purifying tablets and chemicals

Additional supplies required:

High energy biscuits


Shelter material/plastic sheeting/blankets

Kerosene for cooking


5. At this stage, UN agencies are not in a position to verify the precise needs as initially quantified. To some limited extent they can be met from stock available in-country (this is especially true for medicines and some food commodities). Needs will continue to be evaluated as relief activities progress, and more precise estimates will be provided on a regular basis.

Proposed Approach

6. The United Nations Disaster Management Team chaired by the Resident Coordinator will work in close contact with the Office of the President and Kenya's National Disaster Committee. WFP will assume responsibility for logistics coordination. Close contact will also be maintained with the IFRC/KRC and the donor community. It has been agreed that the Red Cross, which launched an appeal on 21 November, will concentrate its efforts on Coast Province, and the United Nations on North Eastern and Eastern Provinces. Nevertheless, given the extent of the floods in Tana River, Garissa and Wajir, the Red Cross and the United Nations will work together in these Districts under the coordination of Kenya's National Disaster Committee.

7. The operation will dovetail with, but not detract from, the Somalia emergency logistics operation which is also being managed by WFP from bases in Kenya. Contacts have already been established with the United Nations Somalia team, also based in Nairobi.

The Appeal

8. The number and location of people estimated to be in serious need as a result of the flooding are as follows:

Coast Region
Kwale 6,000
Mombasa 2,300
Kilifi 5,000
Malindi 14,500
Lamu 14,700
Tana River 55,400
Subtotal 97,900
Garissa 50,600
Wajir 64,200
Mandera 62,800
Subtotal 177,600
Marsabit 11,000
Moyale 9,200
Subtotal 20,200
Total 295,700

I. Funding for Air Operations (WFP Appeal on behalf of UN)

9. The Government is mobilizing military and parastatal aircraft (two Pumas and one KWS helicopter, two Buffalo and one Caravan aircraft). To complement these the appeal seeks to mobilize from donors additional fixed wing aircraft and helicopters. These would provide a mix of capabilities (passengers, cargo, short take-off/landing, airdrop, airlift). The aircraft provided by parastatals such as Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), will be fuelled under the appeal.

10. Airlift and possibly airdrop capacity is needed for districts such as Marsabit, Moyale, Mandera, Wajir, Garissa and Tana River. Air capacity is required to move Government, UN, donor and NGO personnel and priority cargoes such as medicines, water purifying tablets and equipment, blended food, high energy biscuits, blankets and plastic sheeting, and agricultural seeds.

Anticipated Air Cargo (for one month)

High energy biscuits 40
UNIMIX/blended food 100
Bulk Foods 1,740
Water purifying tablets/ equipment 20
Blankets 10
Drugs 10
Seeds 20
Plastic sheeting 20
Cooking sets 10
Kerosene 100
TOTAL 2,070

Aircraft Needs (for one month)

Payload Cost/Ton USD Cost USD'000
Caravan (12 pax or 1 MT freight) 60 trips x 2.5 hours 30 3,500 105
150 block-hours at USD700/bh
Twin Otter (10 pax and 1 MT)60 trips x 2.5 hours 60 1,750 105
150 block-hours at USD700/bh
Buffalo (6 MT) 90 trips x 2 hours 540 933 504
180 block-hours at USD2,800/bh
Hercules (14 MT) 60 trips at USD15,000 840 1,071 900
Days 1-10 6 helicopters at USD13,000/day 360MT 780
Days 11-30 2 helicopters at USD11,000/day 240MT 440
Fuel for GOK aircraft
2 Buffalo 90
3 Helicopters 47
1 Caravan 11
Subtotal 148
Total Aircraft/Fuel costs 2,982
Indirect Support costs at 6 per cent 179
Grand Total 3,161

II. Funding for Dadaab Refugee Air Bridge (WFP Appeal)

11. At the time of writing, it is probable that WFP will have to uplift 850 MT of food from Mombasa and Garissa for the 122,000 refugees in Dadaab refugee camp. The food is required to maintain the 1 January food distribution for refugees who have little or no alternative form of family income. The incremental cost (that is, in excess of the provision already made for road transport) is estimated to be USD450 per MT. WFP is therefore appealing for USD382,500 for this purpose.

12. In the event that heavy rains continue through December, it may also be necessary to make further food air-bridge arrangements. It is estimated that 990 MT of food will need to be transported for the 15 January (and subsequent) distribution at a provisional incremental transport cost of USD445,500.

III. Additional Food Needs (WFP Appeal)

13. As a first response to meeting the food needs of destitute people in flood locations, high energy biscuits are required. These require no cooking or preparation, and can when required be packaged for air-dropping into flood areas. It is estimated that 40 MT of biscuits will be required for the initial phase of this operation.

14. WFP currently has 6,442 MT of maize, 930 MT of sorghum, 647 MT of beans and 262 MT of vegetable oil in stock for victims of the 1996/97 drought. WFP is prepared to make this food available for flood victims in Mandera, Marsabit, Moyale, Wajir, Garissa and Tana River districts. It is expected that this food will be distributed in the months of December 1997 to February 1998 inclusive.

15. At the time of writing, donor contributions totaling 6,638 MT of maize are still required for EMOP 5803 Expansion 1 (monetary value including transport and support costs: USD2,808,651). WFP is reviewing the need for additional food contributions.

IV. Direct support cost: logistic, airlift, supervision and monitoring (WFP Appeal)

16. Support for logistics/airlift/airdrop operations, additional communications equipment, vehicle hire, field supervisors and monitors costing USD150,000 is provisionally estimated to be required for this operation. The exact figure can only be calculated when the terms and conditions of the various aircraft engagement have been finalized.

V. Health, Water and Sanitation and Shelter (UNICEF Appeal)

17. UNICEF will be responsible for health, nutrition, water and sanitation and shelter-related interventions.

18. The affected population was recovering from drought-related food distress, with relatively high levels of malnutrition in children under five. The floods have washed away food stocks and are likely to reverse the trend towards recovery. Additional pre-cooked high energy and fortified food is therefore required for those individuals who are most vulnerable and most in need. An estimated additional 100 MT of UNIMIX will be required immediately, sufficient for about 30,000 individuals/children for 10 days.

19. Close monitoring of nutritional status is required in those areas where groups of people have gathered. As the water sources have been destroyed or contaminated, it is imperative that purification and the repair of water supply systems start as soon as possible. Water purifying tablets and basic equipment have been identified.

20. Immediately following the floods there will be an increased prevalence of communicable diseases, most likely a malaria epidemic and a high prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases including cholera. This will increase the demand for drugs including Oral Rehydration Solution, antibiotics and anti malarials. WHO will provide a package of cholera kits containing essential drugs and supplies to treat 100 cases of cholera.

21. Most health facilities in the affected areas have not been supplied with drugs during the last half year. Therefore, it is proposed to provide a number of essential drug kits for those facilities. Ten kits for the first month will be sufficient to cover most needs, provided distribution can be effective throughout the districts. As many households will have lost their cooking utensils, it will be important to provide these to those most affected. Plastic sheeting will also be made available to provide at least temporary shelter facilities.

VI. UNDP Appeal

22. UNDP expects to provide limited quantities of fuel for flights in the first emergency phase: to provide logistical backstopping and subsequent resource mobilization, monitoring and evaluation support to the operation, and subsequently, to work with FAO and NGOs to provide seed for affected populations.

23. Considerable needs remain to be met, especially for aircraft and fuel in the first days of the operation. Early commitments on the part of donors will be essential.

VII. Summary of Appeal Items

Aircraft (including indirect support costs) 1,711
Helicopters (including indirect support costs) 1,293
Fuel for GOK aircraft (including indirect support costs) 157
High energy biscuits 65
Water purifying tablets/equipment 50
Blankets 25
Drugs 25
Plastic sheeting 20
Seeds 50
Cooking sets 25
Kerosene 30
Dadaab air-bridge (December) 382.5
Logistics/airlift supervision costs 150
Total 3,983.5

24. Requirements for this appeal total therefore USD 3,983,500

25. DHA is prepared to serve as a channel for cash contributions, to be used during the immediate relief phase, in coordination/consultation with relevant organizations of the United Nations system. DHA provides donors with written confirmation and pertinent details concerning the utilization of the funds contributed.

26. Donors wishing to channel their contributions through DHA should transfer funds to DHA account No. CO.590.160.1 at the Swiss Bank Corporation, Case Postale, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland, with reference: Kenya Floods.

27. For coordination purposes, donors are requested to inform DHA Geneva, as indicated below, of relief missions/pledges/contributions and their corresponding values by item.

Telephone number: +41-22-917 12 34
In case of emergency only: Tel.+41-22-917 20 10
Desk Officer: Ms. K. Gotoh, direct Tel. +41-22-917 12 58
Press to contact: Ms. M. Moulin-Acevedo, direct Tel. +41-22-917 28 56
Telex: 414242 DHA CH
Fax: + 41-22-917 00 23
E-mail: info at