A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
The Kenya Meteorological department released an early warning on 25 April 2016, warning of heavy rains and storm surges (80% probability) that were expected to affect different parts of the country in the immediate period. The areas expected to experience heavy rains included Western Kenya, Rift valley, Coast and Central highlands including Nairobi. KRCS response teams in these areas were activated. Early warning messages were sent out through TERA SMS platform to communities living in lowland areas of Garissa, and Tana River warning of a likelihood of floods in these areas. Some of the very first areas to be hit included Vanga in Kwale, Kalokol in Turkana (312 households displaced), 230 households in Moyale in Marsabit County (230 households) and 81 households in Laisamis, Marsabit County. Kenya Inter agency rapid assessment was conducted in Vanga in Kwale County that highlighted Non Food items and seeds as the priority needs for the affected populations. From this assessment, 1800 households needed urgent shelter support. From this assessment, cash transfer was found to be feasible. Other areas (Garissa, Bungoma, Baringo, Embu and Murang’a) reported small magnitude incidents that cumulatively affected about 210 households.
On 29 April 2016 at 21.00 hours, reports came in through KRCS emergency operation centre about a collapse of one of the residential buildings in Kibichuni village Huruma location, Mathare ward, Mathare sub- county the Huruma Estate in the North East of Nairobi city. The building accommodated more than 140 families. The building collapse incident involved a seven-storey building that was occupied. The building had one hundred and ninety-one (191 rooms). During the time of collapse 80% of the building was occupied. Adjacent to this building, there were other permanent buildings and a river bordering the collapsed building on the rear side. The classification of the collapsed building was a ‘pancake collapse’. As of 3 May 2016, Sixteen (16) deaths confirmed, 135 people treated for multiple types of injuries, and 75 reported missing. 34,129 people had been affected by the time of this DREF launch. KRCS activated response teams composed of search and rescue, counsellors, relief distribution teams, first aiders, ambulances, Tracing and Psychosocial support teams to support the community members in rescue efforts of people reported to have been trapped under the rubble. Three EMS Ambulances and approximately 30 KRCS responders were dispatched in the immediate aftermath of the incident. Subsequent joint assessments were later joined by back up teams from KRCS and other agencies including Military, National Youth Service (NYS), National Disaster Management Unit (NDMU), National Disaster Management Operation Centre (NDOC), Nairobi county government, St. John’s ambulance, and Sonko rescue team among others.
On the same day on 29th April, several estates in Nairobi were submerged by floodwaters resulting from the heavy rains. Among the areas in Nairobi that were most affected included parts of South C, Mukuru slums (400HHs), Land Mawe (500HHs), and Kinyago slums (150HHs) in Eastleigh. A perimeter wall at Department of Defense (DOD) along Lenana Road collapsed killing 4 people on the spot. Needs assessment were conducted in the2 affected slum areas within Nairobi. Heavy rainfall continued to be received in various parts of the country. The forecast was released on 3rd May by the Kenya Meteorological department (KMD) indicated a likelihood of continued heavy rains in most parts of the country including parts of Western, Nyanza, Central and Northern Kenya. http://www.environment.go.ke/wpcontent/uploads/2016/05/weather-forecast-may-2016.pdf
During first week of May, reports on dam water levels indicated that the seven folk dams along River Tana basin were operating at full capacity. Masinga and Kiambere Dams began spilling; KRCS started sending early warnings to communities living downstream along river Tana to evacuate. A few days later the flooded river burst its banks and caused displacements and destructions in upper parts of Tana River whereby several farms were flooded and 900 households displaced. Around the same time in May 8th, two landslides were reported in Rwathe and Mukuria areas in Kandara, Murang’a County. Three (3) families had their houses swept away.
Second and third week of May and as predicted, significant amounts of rainfall hit most parts of west Kenya region causing massive displacements of 1335HHs (6,675 people) in Homabay, Busia,
Kakamega (Mumias), Kisumu (Nyando, Nyakach and Muhoroni). Education were amongst the sectors affected where classrooms and latrines were submerged in floodwaters posing great dangers of contamination and outbreak of waterborne diseases. Transport and infrastructure were equally affected. A bridge was swept away by heavy rains along the Kisumu – Londiani road paralyzing transport along the road. In West Kenya, river water volumes continued to rise to alarming levels.
Increased inflows in the 7 folks dams resulted in spillages leading to flooding in the lowland are as of Garissa and Tana River. By 16th May 2016, the floods in parts of Garissa (670HHs) and Tana River (5019HHs) counties had displaced a total of 5689HHs. Further to this, livelihoods were affected in terms of families reporting loss of livestock, and damaged / destroyed crops - approximately 1862 acres belonging to 700 farmers were reported to be submerged in the assessments conducted in Garissa and Tana River Counties. In Magarini sub-county, 66 Households were affected in Bura; Bate and Kaya sub-locations after River Sabaki broke its banks. The main Mambrui - Dagamra road was cut off hence affecting the community’s access to food and medical supplies in the nearby market.
Cumulatively the floods emergency due to rains and dam spillages had affected 49,522 people (approximately 13,000 households) countrywide.