1. Executive Summary
Kenya has been providing protection and lifesaving assistance to refugees since the 1960s. During the 1990s major influxes were witnessed from Sudan, Somalia and Ethiopia. While returns took place as the situation improved in places of origin for Sudanese to South Sudan and Ethiopians to Ethiopia, a significant number of refugees remained and continue to be hosted in Kenya. As well, 2011 saw an unprecedented influx of Somalis as a result of drought and insecurity in their homeland.
Since the 2011 influx, humanitarian actors in Kenya have collectively spent close to $1 billion in the provision of protection and assistance to refugees and asylum seekers. The bulk of the resources was spent in Dadaab refugee camp where the number of refugees approached the half a million mark. More recently as a result of the growing influx from South Sudan and Sudan, the Kakuma programme in Turkana has been expanding, and is receiving greater donor support.
The 2014 Kenya Comprehensive Refugee Programme, seeks to present a consolidated view of refugee related programmes being implemented by humanitarian actors including UNHCR, non-governmental organizations (NGO’s), United Nations Agencies and government entities. It should be read in conjunction with the UNHCR Global Appeal for 2014, the Inter-agency Appeal for South Sudan launched in March 2014 and other programme documents and appeals for 2014 issued by organisations involved in protection and assistance to refugees. It is not meant to supersede any of these programmes and activities, but to bring them together in an effort to present a coherent summary of the Kenya refugee programme with combined requirements for priority interventions.
The approach represents an inclusive planning process and asks for complementary resources to those UNHCR centrally allocates for the Kenya operation, part of which is distributed and implemented through partners. The considerable resources and capacity of all partners are fully represented, allowing stakeholders to better account for the resources being brought to the operation. Most importantly, this approach is an attempt to plan and prioritise resources in a comprehensive manner to ensure funds are used in relation to one set of priorities with complementary targets to reduce duplication.
The needs review and detailed planning process of the past few months were significantly affected by the ongoing influx from South Sudan and the need to heavily invest in developing the new sites in Kakuma. These specific requirements, which are also summarised in the Inter-Agency Appeal for South Sudan (2014) mentioned above, added more than $45.7 million to the requirements jointly assessed before the influx began in late 2013. Consequently, the Kenya refugee operation requires an estimated $375 million in 2014. The funds are expected to cover the basic food requirements of all refugees in Kenya, emergency assistance including food and infrastructure investments for the new arrivals estimated to be at least 50,000 South Sudanese refugees, continued care and maintenance for an estimated 575,000 refugees by year end, and the voluntary repatriation of 10,000 Somalis. The food requirements of $122 million represent 33% of the total requirement.
Non-food assistance and protection in the camps in Dadaab and Kakuma as well as in the urban programme require about $253 million in 2014, with the greater portion being $141 million for Dadaab, $84 million for Kakuma, and some $27 million 1 for the urban programme.
As of 1 April 2014, the total resources available for the programme had reached $149 million, or $220 million considering funds received for food assistance. The additional South Sudan requirements have so far received a limited response from donors, with some $7.3 million received or pledged.
As outlined in this document, available resources have been allocated across 15 priority sectors. There are, however, a number of activities that could not be covered in the first round of prioritisation that require additional support. The estimated total for this category of prioritised, but so far unfunded activities, is $72 million ($124 million inclusive food). Of this amount $31.5 million, or $82.5 million with food included, is for the most urgent and critical gaps that require attention in the coming months.
In 2014, predictable and continued donor support for the Kenya refugee operation is required despite its protracted nature and the global funding climate of competing priorities. In the next stages of the process, partners plan to develop a joint strategy to support resource mobilisation, stronger coordination and monitoring of activities, and greater partnerships with development actors.
This overview is published at a time when the Government has issued a Directive requesting that all urban refugees be relocated to camps. The impact of the directive on the urban refugee programme and the scope of possible exemptions remains unknown thus programmes and activities will be reviewed accordingly in the course of the year.