1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The crisis which followed the 2007 presidential elections in Kenya gave rise to a sudden and large scale humanitarian emergency, the effects of which were felt far beyond Kenya's borders. Violence in many parts of the country led to the killing of approximately 1,300 persons and the displacement of over 500,000 people. The disruption of livelihoods and essential services affected large numbers throughout the country and the interruption of transport hampered the delivery of humanitarian aid to neighbouring countries and economic activity in the region. Thanks to progress in political processes and the joint efforts of humanitarian stakeholders, the situation has stabilised since the outbreak of violence, with many internally displaced persons (IDPs) returning to their homes and resuming their livelihood activities. As of 2 February 2009, the Government of Kenya estimates that 347,418 IDPs have returned to pre-displacement areas or transit areas. The returns process was facilitated by the launch of the Government's Operation Rudi Nyumbani (Return Home) in May 2008.
Over the past five months since the development of the 2009 EHRP, there has, however, been deterioration in the humanitarian situation in Kenya. Poor rains, food shortages and high commodity prices have deepened food and livelihood insecurity, and there is evidence of sharp declines in nutritional status for vulnerable populations. Insecurity and instability in Somalia has prompted marked increase in refugees entering Kenya, worsening the living conditions in already overcrowded camps. Humanitarian partners have therefore revised their programmatic requirements to respond to existing and emerging needs. The total requirements for the Kenya Revised EHRP have increased from $390,051,584 to $575,806,092 — an increase of 48%. This increase in requirements can be mainly attributed to four clusters: early recovery and food security (+67%), food (+53%), nutrition (+94%) and multi-sector (refugees) (+55%). The original requirements for these four clusters were $325.6 million and the revised requirements are $506.1 million — a difference of $180 million or 55%.
A number of factors, including poor short rains, rising food and commodity prices, reduced cereal production, and livestock diseases, have converged to dramatically increase food insecurity among many vulnerable populations throughout the country. This led the president to declare an emergency on 16 January 2009 and launch an appeal for assistance for 37 billion Kenyan shillings (US$ 481 million). The food crisis has particularly affected the pastoral arid and semi-arid (ASAL) areas, the marginal agricultural areas of south-eastern and coastal lowlands, and vulnerable populations in the urban centres. According to the 2009 short rains assessment (SRA), poorly distributed rains in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas resulted in lack of adequate water and pasture, while endemic livestock diseases and decreasing livestock prices coupled with high food prices significantly decreased pastoralists' purchasing power. Chronic food insecurity in the ASAL region has been compounded by insecurity and incidents of conflict caused by competition for increasingly scarce resources and incidents of cattle rustling. The south-eastern and coastal marginal agricultural lowlands witnessed successive poor rain seasons over the past three years, and according to the SRA findings, a particularly poor short rains season in 2008-2009. This resulted in near-total crop failure in the lowlands, including those in Central province. Escalating costs of production due to price hikes for fuel and other agricultural inputs precluded proper planting procedures during the 2008 planting season, while displacement of farmers from main grain production centres following the post-election violence (PEV) and conflict in Mt. Elgon limited farmers' access to land and other productive assets and reduced agricultural production. Emergency interventions are essential to ensure life-saving food supplies for an estimated 3.5 million vulnerable persons, while longer-term non-food interventions to enhance and diversify food production and support the livelihoods of the most-at-risk populations are required to mitigate the impact of the current crisis and cushion future shocks. Food aid funding requirements in this plan have therefore increased from $172.8 million to $263.8 million, and early recovery/food security from $16.7 million to $28 million.
In addition to increased food insecurity, Kenya's porous border areas are witnessing continued refugee inflows, despite the official border closure between Somalia and Kenya. More than 60,000 Somalis crossed the border into Kenya in 2008 alone, and more than 14,000 new refugees have already registered in 2009, adding to a refugee population that already far exceeds the capacity of existing camps and support mechanisms. It is expected that this constant inflow will persist in the coming months and further escalate as a result of ongoing violence in Somalia. To date the majority of the influx is being accommodated in three refugee camps in Dadaab. If the current situation persists, it is expected that the refugee and asylum-seeker population in Kenya will well exceed 400,000, of which more than 300,000 people will be in Dadaab alone. There will be immediate need in 2009 to decongest existing camps, provide assistance to cater the chronically unmet needs of the existing population, accommodate the new arrivals, and provide some assistance to local host communities to avoid conflicts and to get much-needed additional land for decongestion and new arrivals for construction of new camps with full-fledged infrastructure.
During 2008 and 2009, humanitarian actors have faced a multitude of challenges due to the changing nature of humanitarian needs in the country. Stakeholders have worked together to respond flexibly to new developments, despite the many competing priorities. Thanks to the generous support of donors, a total of $94.6 million (including carry-over) has been committed to the Emergency Humanitarian Response Plan (EHRP) 2009, representing 26% of the original funds requested ($390,051,584). This includes nearly $5 million contributed through the rapid response window of the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF). These funds have been prioritised for protection and assistance needs related to the influx of refugees from Somalia.
This revised appeal outlines key response and preparedness requirements, as well as early recovery strategies in eleven sectors, and requests a total of $575,806,092. The revised EHRP includes 28 new projects and 38 revised projects (with changes in budget, text, or both); four projects have been withdrawn or merged with existing projects. More than 70 projects remain unchanged.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Table I. Summary of Requirements (grouped by cluster)
Table II. Summary of Requirements (grouped by priority)
Table III. Summary of Requirements (grouped by appealing organisation)
2. 2008-2009 IN REVIEW
3. REVISED 2009 COMMON HUMANITARIAN ACTION PLAN
3.1 THE CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES
3.3 STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES FOR HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE IN 2009
3.4 CLUSTER/SECTOR RESPONSE PLANS
3.4.2 Early Recovery and Food Security
3.4.4 Food Aid and Nutrition
3.4.6 Multi-Sector: Protection of Refugees and Asylum-Seekers in Kenya
3.4.7 Protection/ Human Rights/ Rule of Law
3.4.8 Shelter/NFI and Camp Coordination and Camp Management
3.4.9 Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
4. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION AND PRIORITISATION OF PROJECTS
5. STRATEGIC MONITORING PLAN
6. COMPLEMENTARITY WITH OTHER ACTORS
ANNEX I. SECTOR RESPONSE: ACHIEVEMENTS IN 2008 AND CHALLENGES
ANNEX II. STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE
ANNEX III. TABLE IV. LIST OF PROJECTS (GROUPED BY CLUSTER)
ANNEX IV. TABLE V. SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS (GROUPED BY IASC STANDARD SECTOR)
ANNEX V. DONOR RESPONSE TO THE 2008 APPEAL
ANNEX VI. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Please note that appeals are revised regularly. The latest version of this document is available on http://www.humanitarianappeal.net
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