ACT Appeal Kenya - Drought and famine assistance AFKE42


Appeal Target: US$1,129,084

Geneva, 24 August 2004

Dear Colleagues,

Kenya is suffering a massive crop failure due to irregular rainfall patterns and contamination of grain reserves by afllatoxin, a toxin created by grain mould. This has prompted the Government of Kenya to declare a state of emergency. According to the UN reports, the food production in five out of seven country’s provinces will account for only about 40% of food requirements in 2004.

In response to this massive food deficit, ACT members Lutheran World Federation/Department of World Service (LWF/DWS), Norwegian Church Aid (NCA), Church World Service (CWS) and the Anglican Church of Kenya (ACK) together with their implementing partners National Council Churches of Kenya, Kenya Evangelical Lutheran Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church of Kenya, Catholic Diocese of Lodwar and Rural Community Integrated Development Agency have jointly submitted this appeal to enable them to effectively respond to some of the urgent food needs of vulnerable communities in their respective areas of responsibility.

The appeal is comprising a number of project components designed to help the local population combat the consequences of the drought. Some of them are listed below:

  • ‘Food for work’ assistance
  • Food distribution
  • ‘Food for Assets’
  • emergency water supply
  • capacity building

For your easier review and reference, the budgets are enclosed separately from the main appeal document.

Project Completion Date:

LWF: August 2004 - August 2005 (12 months)
NCA: September 2004 - February 2005 (6 months)
CWS: September 2004 - February 2005 (6 months)
Anglican Church of Kenya: September - November 2004 (3 months)

Summary of Appeal Targets, Pledges/Contributions Received and Balance Requested

Total US$
Total Appeal
Pledges/ Contr. Recd.
Balance requested from ACT

Please kindly send your contributions to the following ACT bank account:

Account Number - 240-432629.60A (USD)
Account Name: ACT - Action by Churches Together
8, rue du Rhône
P.O. Box 2600
1211 Geneva 4
Swift address: UBSW CHZH12A

Please also inform the Finance Officer Jessie Kgoroeadira (direct tel. +4122/791.60.38, e-mail address of all pledges/contributions and transfers, including funds sent direct to the implementers, now that the Pledge Form is no longer attached to the Appeal.

We would appreciate being informed of any intent to submit applications for EU, USAID and/or other back donor funding and the subsequent results. We thank you in advance for your kind co-operation.

ACT Web Site address:

Thor-Arne Prois

Director, ACT Co-ordinating Office

ACT is a global alliance of churches and related agencies working to save lives and support communities in emergencies worldwide.

The ACT Coordinating Office is based with the World Council of Churches (WCC) and The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) in Switzerland.


ACK - Anglican Church Of Kenya
ACT - Action By Churches Together
ALRMP - Arid Land Resources Management Programme
ANF - ACT Nairobi Forum
CBTD - Community Based Targeting Distribution
CCF - Christian Children Fund
CCS - Christian Community Services
CWS - Church World Service
DMO - Drought Monitoring Officer
DMT - Disaster Management Training
DOL - Diocese Of Lodwar
DPRC - District Project Review Committee
DSG - District Steering Group
ELCK - Evangelical Lutheran Church of Kenya
EMOP - Emergency Operation
FFA - Food For Assets
FFT - Food For Training
GOK - Government Of Kenya
IDCCS - Inter Diocesans Christian Community Services
IM - Implementing Member
IP - Implementing Partner
ELCK - Evangelical Lutheran Church of Kenya
KELC - Kenya Evangelical Lutheran Church
KRAP - Kakuma Refugee Assistance Project
KRC - Kakuma Refugee Camp
LWF/DWS - Lutheran World Federation/Department of World Service
NCA - Norwegian Church Aid
NCCK - National Council Of Churches Of Kenya
NFI - Non-Food Items
NGO - Non-Governmental Organization
RACIDA - Rural Community Development Agency
RC - Relief Committee
UNHCR - United Nations High Commission For Refugees
UNICEF - United National International Children Education Fund
WFP - World Food Programme
WVK - World Vision Kenya




The Lutheran World Federation, Department for World Service (LWF/DWS) has for over fifty years been involved in various humanitarian emergencies and relief operations around the world. LWF/DWS has recently been running major emergencies and relief operations in Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of Congo. It has also implemented similar, but smaller, programs in Somalia, Liberia, Zambia, Botswana, Mozambique and Kenya. LWF/DWS is a member of the ACT - Action by Churches Together alliance. Kakuma Refugee Assistance Project (KRAP) is implemented by LWF/DWS Kenya / Sudan Programme under the mandate of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Kenya/Sudan programme has three projects: KRAP, Turkana in northwestern Kenya, and the third in Bahr El Ghazal region in Southern Sudan.

LWF/DWS has been working as an implementing partner for the UNHCR in different countries around the world. Since August 1992, LWF/DWS has been responsible for Kakuma Refugee Camp management and has been the lead agency responsible for the co-ordination of refugee assistance services. This responsibility involves management of water supply and distribution, food and non-food items distribution, three-level education system (pre-school, primary and secondary), as well as community services and development initiatives: gender equity and human rights promotion, child development, peace building and conflict resolution, sports development, community empowerment and reception of newly arriving asylum seekers.

LWF/DWS is also responsible for the co-ordination of security monitoring together with UNHCR and the Government of Kenya (GOK) through inter-agency co-ordination and general camp management, programme support and administration.

In Turkana (Refugee Camp hosting area), LWF/DWS has been operational since 1999, implementing emergency relief distribution until 2002. A 3-year (2003-2005) planning and monitoring document (PMD) for a recovery and development intervention was developed in 2002. The peace component was implemented during 2003 when there was an increase in clashes between the refugees and the host community over resources. In South Sudan, LWF/DWS has been working in relief and rehabilitation in partnership with Church Ecumenical Action in Sudan (CEAS) since 1998.

LWF/DWS has been present in the area, at Kakuma Refugee Camp (KRC) established in mid 1992 following a mass influx of Sudanese refugees fleeing fighting in Southern Sudan. LWF/DWS is the lead agency for KRC, in which over 6 non-governmental organizations, in partnership with UNHCR, support over 89,399 refugees. The involvement of LWF/DWS in both refugees and host community relief and development assistance gives LWF/DWS a unique position of bridging hosts-refugees inequalities, thus promoting peaceful co-existence. In this Appeal, the LWF team will be targeting their interventions to these host communities in the areas surrounding the Kakuma Refugee Camp.


Description of the Current Situation in LWF Operational Areas

The recent long rains were far below normal rainfall levels and as such have adversely affected the food security of well over 70% of the population living in the Oropoi and Kakuma divisions of the Turkana district in northwestern Kenya. The pastoral communities living in these two divisions depend largely on livestock products, that have dwindled as animal access to pasture and water was reduced to close to zero, leaving many animals dead or unproductive. The livestock are so emaciated that they can no longer attract buyers even at the lowest prices. Grain has become very scarce in country’s markets while the unit price has risen by about 100% over the last 6 months. High levels of insecurity have further exacerbated a fragile condition, the recent events in Oropoi with the loss of over a thousand heads of livestock being a good example.

The current intervention by WFP under the Food for Asset project is appropriate for the situation. However, greater co-ordination with other existing actors on the ground is necessary to ensure that the needs of the population are fully met. The immediate need would be to provide food to malnourished children, women and to their immediate families.

In June 2004, Turkana district DSG conducted a Rapid Assessment to ascertain the impact of the scarce rains on livelihood sources in the district. The assessment findings concluded that the reduced rainfalls have resulted in further aggravating the household food insecurity in Oropoi, and Kakuma divisions.

The months of May to October are a period during which pastoralists can provide enough milk to every member of the family. The assessment report highlighted that most households in the project area continued to experience acute food stress linked to very low access to animal-based food sources. The current acute food shortage is attributed to last year’s rains failure and to very poor rains in 2004, hence adversely affecting the performance of key food security sector, in particular of livestock. Pastoralists households’ access to animal products, especially milk, has declined so much that only 7% of the households could provide milk only to the young members of the household and about 70% of the households could provide no milk to any of their members. The long dry season has already set in and will worsen the nutrition of the pastoralists’ households, since improvement of pasture - and thus milk yields - can be expected only with the arrival of rains in April of next year.

The assessment team, GoK and WFP have recommended a Food for Assets project to cover 70,000 residents (about 70% of the host population) in the Oropoi and Kakuma divisions. The project will continue to support the 70,000 people until August 2005. The actual amount of food to be handled per month will depend on the number of Food for Assets projects approved and the number of workers engaged in them. In this appeal, the Turkana project under LWF/DWS Kenya/Sudan programme estimates to handle about 600 metric tones of food. As from August 2004 WFP and GoK are planning to supply the food requirements of cereals, pulses and vegetable oil and supplementary food, whereas LWF/DWS will implement the project based on a Community Based Targeting and Distribution (CBTD) methodology within the mandate of the Turkana District Steering Committee (DSG). The object of this proposal is to raise the shortfall in funds of about USD126,125 to enable LWF/DWS to partner with WFP and GoK in the implementation of the FFA from August 2004 to August 2005 (1year).

Project Location

The Kakuma and the Oropoi divisions of the Turkana district are located in the North Western corner of Kenya. The area borders Sudan and Uganda on the northern and western boundaries, respectively. This region covers an estimated 15,458.8 square kilometres of arid and semi-arid land. The main economic activity of the people in Turkana is nomadic pastoralism. Alternative economic activities are small-scale trading, agro-pastorals and wage employment in the upcoming urban centres. An estimated 100,000 Turkana people live in the project area (the Kakuma and Oropoi divisions). The Kakuma Refugee Camp (KRC), with an estimated population of 90,000 refugees, mainly from South Sudan, is located within the project area. The impact of KRC on local conditions has been felt in the environmental, socio-cultural and economic areas. While some of the results are positive in terms of inter-dependence between the refugees and the hosts, others - such as unequal access to basic services/resources - have had a negative impact, or have possible far-reaching consequences if not addressed. In material terms, the people of Turkana are undoubtedly less well off than the refugees of KRC. This situation holds a potential conflict between the refugees and the host population.



To meet the immediate critical food needs through the provision of food assistance, and use the available food in the long-term in order to create community assets that are related to disaster preparedness.


  • Meet the immediate identified crucial food needs of the community in the Oropoi and Kakuma divisions

  • Create assets for the community that will benefit both women and men, such as the provision of drinking water, the repair of irrigation systems and the establishment of green belts.

  • Provide short-term employment opportunities, and alleviate the food insecurity of the most vulnerable in the community.

  • Address inequality between the host and the refugee communities.


The FFA project will utilise community based targeting and distribution (CBTD) methodology in selecting the most vulnerable community members. The community based food aid targeting and distribution means that the communities themselves are given the power to make decisions about who amongst them is most in need to receive food, leaving it up to the communities to manage the actual distribution of food. Relief/Rehabilitation Committees and Divisional Development Committee under the Turkana district administration are key players in selecting the beneficiaries. The key to methodology is information, so that the people receiving the food are able to understand the mechanisms by which it is distributed. The methodology aims to help the beneficiaries to make decisions for themselves, rather than competing to get on a list controlled by agencies who are remote from their immediate environment and to whom there is no right of appeal.

The communities can start more than one FFA project, but ensure that each household works in a project at any given period. A household cannot be registered and receive food aid from more than one project at a time. Food will be allocated to the project in keeping with the approved project proposal. At the end of every month the Drought Monitoring Officer (DMO) and the implementing partners will develop a monthly distribution plan. WFP will develop dispatch orders to the district based on this information. The amount of food aid requested under the distribution plan will be based on the mount of work days accomplished. The RCs will distribute the food to the beneficiaries that have worked on the project. Payment to the beneficiaries will be based on the work norms (task rates achieved). RCs members will receive food ration based on the number of days worked, or number of days spent at the project site overseeing the implementation.


Proposed Food For Assets Assistance And Implementation

Composition of the food basket

Food rations will be provided to the selected workers as an incentive for working in the project. The size of a ration will approximately equal the income that could be generated for purchasing food. The daily ration for a days’ work will be composed of 2.5 kg of cereals, 0.5 kg of pulses, and 0.5 ltr of oil, all estimated at a value of about Ksh 100. This amount is approximately the income that a working household member would earn and use towards buying food. In case these commodities will not be available, their value will be replaced by using as basis the cost of maize at Ksh 18 per kg, of pulses at Ksh 35 per kg, of oil at Ksh 65 per ltr, and of corn soya bean (CSB) at Ksh 70 per kg. The operational expenses such as the cost of transport, fieldwork supervision, training, and follow-up have to be included in every project even when GoK transports the food to be distributed.

An additional 10% of the total food aid requirement for the project may be added to cater to food insecure households that do not have members that can work in the FFA projects, such as orphans, households with parents that are physically handicapped, sick parents, or others.


Role of Stakeholders in FFA Project (activities to be undertaken)

LWF will play the following roles during the implementation of FFA Project:

  • Ensure proper targeting of food aid to the most vulnerable population

  • Train rehabilitation committees

  • Assist/ advise the rehabilitation committees on how to develop FFA projects at community level

  • Co-ordinate field implementation of the FFA projects

  • Refine the FFA proposals made by communities

  • Submit the FFA proposals to the DPRC

  • Monitor and evaluate technical and social indicators of project progress and provide regular reports to DPRC, DSG and WFP.


  • Identify needs per projects

  • Prioritise projects

  • Provide unskilled labour, tools and materials available locally

  • Offload the food aid from trucks

  • Sustaining the project assets that have been created


  • Allocate food aid commodities to this appeal

  • Develop policy guidelines on FFA implementation and prepare necessary documentation

  • Monitor overall project implementation and develop monitoring guidelines

  • Assist in implementing partners’, DPRC and WFP staff training

  • Participate in feasibility identification of projects

  • Review projects recommended by DPRC and forward them to NPRC

  • Co-ordinate the release of funds for non-food items (NFI) based on FFA project proposals and progress reports

Selection, Verification and Registration of Food Beneficiaries:

The core of targeting and verification of beneficiaries is the responsibility of the community-based Relief/Rehabilitation Committees. The project monitors (LWF/DWS staff) will facilitate, provide training and guidance to the RCs in order to build their capacity to identify the most viable projects and vulnerable beneficiaries. A set of vulnerability criteria norms defined by the community members will govern the process of targeting. The criteria generally targets households owning less than 10-20 goats, households where no member is employed or involved in viable business, poor female-headed households, the aged and disabled households, orphaned households, malnourished children below five years and pregnant or lactating mothers. The registration of beneficiaries will follow a selection and will be done by the RCs with the assistance of the food monitors. The records of beneficiaries will updated regularly in order to facilitate accountability and reporting.

Training/Capacity Building of existing Relief Committees :

Most training sessions by the project monitors will be carried out informally at the project site. The principles and application of the CBTD process will be an integral part of the training. During the discussions on local environmental issues, the project monitors will lobby for the local communities to implement measures to conserve the natural environment in the process of harnessing its resources. The objective is to minimize harmful exploitation of the very environment that supports the people's livelihoods. Two training sessions are planned to be held during the implementation period.

Training of Project Staff in the Project Identification Process :

The project monitors will be gaining skills and knowledge from the training that will enable them to contribute effectively towards achieving the project objectives. Two training workshops (one in each division) will be conducted during the implementation period. These workshops will cover the project identification methodology.

Conduct regular field visits to project sites:

The Project Officer will undertake field visits to ensure operation procedures, and that project identification and implementation processes are observed.

Supervision of Project Monitors:

The Project Officer will supervise and appraise the project monitors to ensure their performance.

Supervision of RCs:

The project monitors and the RCs will together establish a checks and balance system and a structure in the election and performance of the committee members. This is meant to promote transparency in the leadership and management of the RCs.

Program Support:

The project will receive financial control and reporting from Kakuma Refugee Assistance Project, and overall administration and monitoring support from the Programme level in Nairobi. A budgetary provision to cover this support is required.


Project Administration, Finance, Monitoring and Reporting

This project will be run by LWF/DWS Turkana Project based at Kakuma in the Turkana District. The Project Officer (PO) will be responsible for the overall implementation of the activities and co-ordination with partners at the district level. A team of 5 project staff, including the project officer, 3 project monitors and 1 driver, will be involved in the day-to-day implementation of project activities under the management of the Project Officer (PO). The PO will be reporting to the Programme Co-ordinator based in Nairobi on all matters relating to project planning, implementation and reporting.


A bank account will be maintained at the town of Lodwar (120 kms Southeast of Kakuma). Project expenses will be paid from Kakuma and the finance department of Kakuma Refugee Assistance Project will process the accounts and share reports with the Project Officer and the Finance Manager, LWF/DWS Kenya / Sudan Programme in Nairobi. Quarterly and annual reports will be shared with ACT during project implementation.

Monitoring and Reporting

ALRMP, the lead agency for FFW projects, will co-ordinate and monitor implementation of both the projects and the food distribution. Monthly distribution reports will also be submitted to WVK who will in turn report to the DSG and WFP. The DSG monitoring and evaluation team (DPRC) will also be involved in ensuring application of the appraisal and approval methodology and transparency in targeting affected households. The internal LWF/DWS Programme Co-ordinator will monitor implementation through field visits and through monthly and quarterly reports and updates submitted by the Project Officer. In September 2005 LWF/DWS will submit the first year project report to ACT.

Reporting Schedule

Interim narrative and financial reports - 30 November 2004, 28 February 2005, 31 May 2005, 31 August 2005

Final narrative and financial reports - 30 November 2005 the latest

Audit report - Spring 2006


This appeal will be implemented over 12 months starting mid August 2004 and up to August 2005.


DSG/DPRC is the technical arm to run the projects. DPRC will co-ordinate FFA activities in the district, including developing a system to ensure that all the relevant knowledge, experience, and resources are utilised for the benefit of the FFA programme. Other than developing a thorough vulnerability analysis of the district and prioritising food insecure areas for FFA, the DPRC, of which the LWF/DWS Turkana project is member, will also provide advisory assistance to the projects, make project recommendations, monitor and evaluate the projects and provide technical review of the projects in co-ordination with WFP. ALRMP is the lead agency and also chair of DPRC; World Vision is the main implementing partner as well as secretary to the PRC, while LWF/DWS and CCF are partner agencies.

At the national level the LWF/DWS Programme office in Nairobi attends and participates in monthly meetings of the Kenya Food Security Meeting (KFSM), which serves to co-ordinate all EMOP or FFW/A activities taking place across the drought-prone areas of northern Kenya. This is a useful forum for exchanging and sharing experiences and ideas.

Budget Summary

WFP/GoK are donating and meeting the cost of transporting the food to the final distribution points. WFP/WVK are contributing to some salary and transport costs (see budget breakdown). LWF/DWS will be meeting part of the personnel costs, transport costs, supervision, administration and implementation costs of this project. These cost categories are listed below:

  • Food for assets : distribution, including salaries and allowances

  • Logistics : hire of one 4WD vehicle, plus fuel and lubricants

  • Personnel, administration and operations support costs

  • Staff travel, e-mail & radio communications

  • Audit, banking and evaluation of ACT funds

  • Training and capacity building of the staff and of the RCs

BUDGET - see appendix I

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