Who is Doing What Where and When (4Ws) in Mental Health & Psychosocial Support in Jordan? - 2017 Interventions Mapping Exercise
The Jordan Context
The Syrian conflict, which is now approaching its seventh year, has forced well over 5.2 million of the country’s citizens to take refuge in neighboring countries. To date, it is estimated that over 654,582 displaced Syrians reside in Jordan1, while according to official 2015 census it is estimated that Syrian refugees in Jordan exceed 1.2 million2. Due to its positioning and security within the region, Jordan has also become host to refugees and migrants from surrounding countries such as Iraq, and Yemen, and occupied Palestinian territories. Exposure to violence, loss and displacement, as well as pre-existing mental health conditions, have various implications on the MHPSS sub-sector and services in Jordan.
To respond to the needs of refugees in Jordan, many INGO, NGO, UN agencies and CBOs have established operations in Jordan, making it the country with the highest number of NGOs in the MENA region. To ensure effective coordination between the various actors the MHPSS working group was established in Amman. The working group co-lead by IMC and WHO meet on a monthly basis to discuss a number of issues including, service updates, contextual factors, and best practices in MHPSS service provision. As part of the working group an annual mapping exercise is conducted to document active MHPSS service providers, and to highlight potential gaps in service delivery.
History and Background of the IASC 4Ws MHPSS Tool and Use in Jordan:
The IASC Global Reference Group and the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a “4Ws” tool (Who, What, When, Where) to map MHPSS services in emergencies. The purpose of the tool is to gain a clearer picture of who is doing what, where and until when. Unlike other “3Ws” mapping tools often used across sectors, this tool also provides a comprehensive overview of the size and nature of an emergency response with respect to MHPSS. WHO and International Medical Corps (IMC) first piloted the tool in Jordan in 2009 in cooperation with UNICEF. A refined tool was applied for the second implementation in 2010, based on emerging issues and lessons learnt from previous mappings conducted in Jordan, Nepal and Haiti.
Using data and feedback collected by agencies piloting the tool, the IASC Reference Group developed a manual to guide the mapping process. This manual was published in 2013 and is available for download from the Mental Health and Psychosocial Support innovation network3. Subsequent mappings were conducted in Jordan in 2010/2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014, with the 2012 and 2013 mappings including Protection elements (specifically Gender-Based Violence and Child Protection), alongside MHPSS. The 2014 mapping however, excluded this additional information in order to allow a more specific focus on MHPSS activities.
The 2017 4Ws Mapping in Jordan
Similar to the 2014 4Ws exercise, the 2017 mapping specifically focuses on the broad range of MHPSS interventions and activities provided to all beneficiary groups in Jordan. The MHPSS activity categories as recommended by the IASC Reference Group, include; community-focused MHPSS, case-focused MHPSS, and general support for MHPSS, the activity categories is provided in Annex 1. This list was slightly modified over the years to capture additional inputs suggested by the Jordan Mental Health and Psychosocial Working Group.
Overall funding to the Syrian crisis has been comparatively limited based on identified needs. The 2017 Syria regional refugee and resilience (3RP) plan, highlighted the need for funding in the region to ensure Syrian refugees are provided with appropriate services. The funding required as outlined in the 3RP was only funded 49.9%, indicating an extreme deficit in funds available which impacts all sectors and actors. The mapping results for 2017 should be interpreted in light of the reduction of funding which was noted in the 2016-2018 Jordan Response Plan (JRP)4 for psychosocial activities. Due to funding constraints and a limitation noted by donors in the lack of evaluation data available on psychosocial interventions implemented in Jordan, funding for psychosocial activities was considerably reduced from that of the previous JRP. As such it was anticipated a slight drop in psychosocial activities would be visible, in favor of other sectors in the JRP.