MHub is undertaking field surveys with migrants, refugees and asylum seekers along key migratory routes to build up a body of data over time and to map country and regional level mixed migration trends.
This snapshot presents early survey findings of the profiles, intentions and experiences of those moving in mixed migration flows who have recently arrived in Italy in the last year.
Though these findings cannot be considered statistically representative of the migration population, they do provide key insights into the migration process.
Findings are based on 239 interviews conducted between 3 March and 22 September in Turin, Asti, Milan, Bologna, Modena, Rome, Palermo, Trapani and Castellammare del Golfo.
Most respondents started their journey alone (76%).
56% of respondents migrated because of abuse by family, oppression, and persecution by their local community, 22% left for economic reasons, 9% to escape an oppressive government or compulsory military service (mostly Eritrean respondents), 5% to escape forced marriage or female genital mutilation (mainly female migrants from Cameroon and Cote d’Ivoire), 4% to escape political persecution, and 4% to escape conflict/war (respondents from Mali,
Sudan, Cote d’Ivoire and Central African Republic).
The average length of journey was 15 months to arrive in Italy.
The average time spent in Libya was 3 months for those that came from countries in the Horn of Africa, all of which intended to only pass through Libya en route to Europe.
Respondents from West and Central African countries stayed in Libya an average of 14 months, which in part is explained by the 35% of Central and Western African respondents that had originally intended Libya as their final destination.
Respondents from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, and Somalia paid much more to cross the Mediterranean Sea than those originating from West and Central African countries. 21% of respondents did not pay to cross the sea.
44% of respondents started their journey with the intention to settle in another African country. Of those, 73% intended on Northern African countries (65% Libya, 8% other Maghreb countries), and 27% to neighboring Sub Saharan countries.
Of those that did not intend to stay in Africa, 19% left without a planned destination, 16% intended to reach Italy and 21% to other European countries (mainly UK, Holland, Germany).
31% of respondents made the journey to Italy as a way to leave Libya after encountering unexpected risks and abuses.
- 21% of respondents were forced by someone else to cross the Mediterranean Sea (15% by smugglers, 4% by traffickers, and 2% by an employer or “friend”). 17% of respondents arrived in Italy because it is en route to their planned final destination, and 19% because it was perceived as easier to reach. 3% came to Italy for a specific reason, such as because they had relatives or could get a visa.
ABUSES AND RISKS
Nigerian respondents witnessed or experienced the following abuses: 82% physical abuse, 74% death, 69% sexual abuse, 66% racism/ discrimination, 58% detention, 53% robbery, 45% forced labour, 40% trafficked/sold, and 21% documents destroyed.
69% of respondents changed their migration plans while en route, primarily because of the difficult conditions encountered at their originally planned destination or because of abuses and dangers encountered in transit.