MHub is undertaking field surveys with migrants, refugees and asylum seekers along key migratory routes to build up a body of data over time and to map country and regional level mixed migration trends.
This snapshot presents early survey findings of the profiles, intentions and experiences of those moving in mixed migration flows who have recently arrived in Italy in the last year.
Though these findings cannot be considered statistically representative of the migration population, they do provide key insights into the migration process.
Findings are based on 270 interviews conducted between 3 March and 27 October in Asti, Bologna, Castellammare del Golfo, Milan, Modena, Palermo, Rome, Trapani, and Turin.
ABUSES AND RISKS
97% of respondents have experienced or witnessed at least one type of abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, robbery, racism, detention, forced labor, etc).
Amongst the different abuses reported, physical abuses are the most common with 86% or respondents having experienced/ witnessed beatings or torture along their way.
In 82% of these cases the physical abuse occurred in Libya, 6% in the Sahara Desert, 2% in Niger, 2% in Egypt, and 8% in other places.
Of those 3% that reported experiencing/witnessing no abuses, 15% had traveled through Egypt while 2% traveled through Libya.
Responses show certain nationalities experiencing and witnessing more abuses along their journey. Amongst those that traveled through Libya to Italy – 94% of Senegalese respondents reported having experienced/witnessed at least 5 different kinds of abuse, 88% of Cameroonians, 76% of Ivoirians, 75% of Malians and Central Africans, 70% of Gambians, Togolese, and Eritreans, 66% of Nigerians, 60% of Guineans, 57% of Ghanaians and 50% of Ethiopians.
Responses have shown no strong correlation between incidence of abuse and gender or age.
Those arriving from Libya experience/witness significantly more abuses than those arriving from Egypt. 71% of respondents that passed through Libya and 23% of those that passed through Egypt experienced/witnessed 5 or more abuses.
Physical abuses reported are most often perpetrated by smugglers (36%), followed by militias, desert tribes, bandits, and rebels (19%), police and soldiers (15%), and street gang (13%).
Detention experienced/witnessed were carried out by desert tribes, bandits/rebels (23.5%), police and soldiers (27%), smugglers (24%), street gangs (8%), and militia (6.5%).