Italy + 3 more

European Parliament resolution of 5 April 2011 on migration flows arising from instability: scope and role of EU foreign policy (2010/2269(INI))

Originally published
View original

The European Parliament ,

– having regard to Regulation (EC) No 1638/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 2006 laying down general provisions establishing a European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument(1) ,

– having regard to Regulation (EC) No 1717/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 November 2006 establishing an Instrument for Stability(2) ,

– having regard to Regulation (EC) No 1889/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 establishing a financing instrument for the promotion of democracy and human rights worldwide(3) ,

– having regard to Regulation (EC) No 1905/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 establishing a financing instrument for development cooperation(4) ,

– having regard to Council Regulation (EC) No 1257/96 of 20 June 1996 concerning humanitarian aid(5) ,

– having regard to the Partnership Agreement between the members of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, of the one part, and the European Community and its Member States, of the other part, signed in Cotonou on 23 June 2000(6) ,

– having regard to Council Decision 2010/427/EU of 26 July 2010 establishing the organisation and functioning of the European External Action Service (EEAS)(7) ,

– having regard to the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, adopted on 18 December 1990,

– having regard to the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and the Protocol of 31 January 1967 relating to the Status of Refugees,

– having regard to the Global Approach to Migration, adopted by the European Council on 13 December 2005, which defines the external dimension of migration policy, and its three main priorities, namely to promote legal migration, to fight irregular migration and to enhance the link between migration and development,

– having regard to the European Pact on Migration and Asylum adopted by the Council in October 2008, the Commission's First Annual Report on Migration and Asylum of 2009 (COM(2010)0214) and the Council Conclusions on the follow-up to the European Pact on Immigration and Asylum of 3 June 2010,

– having regard to the Joint Africa-EU Declaration on Migration and Development signed in Sirte on 23 November 2006, which emphasises the need for African and EU Member States to commit themselves to a partnership between countries of origin, transit and destination with a view to managing migration more effectively, taking into account its link to development,

– having regard to the European Council conclusions of 18 and 19 June 2009 on illegal immigration,

– having regard to the Stockholm Programme for 2010-2014, the European Pact on Immigration and Asylum, and the Commission Action Plan - Implementing the Stockholm Programme (COM(2010)0171),

– having regard to the High Representative and Commission report on Climate Change and International Security of 14 March 2008, the related recommendations of 18 December 2008, and the Council conclusions of 8 December 2009,

– having regard to the Joint Declaration of the Ministerial Conference on ‘Building Migration Partnerships’ held in Prague on 27 and 28 April 2009,

– having regard to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime of December 2000 and the protocols thereto,

– having regard to the agreement on an EU-Libya cooperation agenda on migration, which was signed on 4 October 2010 in Tripoli by Commissioner Malmström, Commissioner Füle and, on behalf of Libya, Mr Moussa Koussa, Secretary of the General People's Committee for Foreign Liaison and International Cooperation, and Mr Yunis Al-Obeidi, Secretary of the General People's Committee for Public Security,

– having regard to its recommendation to the Council of 20 January 2011 on the negotiations on the EU-Libya Framework Agreement,

– having regard to the Tripoli Declaration issued at the Third Africa-EU Summit held in Tripoli, Libya, on 29 and 30 November 2010,

– having regard to the speech made by the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (VP/HR), Catherine Ashton, at the UN Security Council on 4 May 2010, in which she stressed the need for a comprehensive approach to crisis management and peace-building and highlighted the evident links between security, development and human rights,

– having regard to Council Directive 2009/50/EC of 25 May 2009 on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of highly qualified employment (Blue Card Directive)(8) ,

– having regard to the Joint Declaration issued at the Prague Eastern Partnership Summit of 7 May 2009 inaugurating the Eastern Partnership,

– having regard to its resolution of 21 September 2010 on poverty reduction and job creation in developing countries: the way forward(9) , in particular paragraphs 71, 72 and 73 thereof,

– having regard to its resolution of 16 December 2010 on Eritrean refugees held hostage in Sinai(10) ,

– having regard to the Presidency Conclusions from the Conference ‘Towards a multidisciplinary approach to prevention of trafficking of human beings, prosecutions of traffickers and protection of victims’ of 27 January 2011,

– having regard to Article 80 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), which states that ‘policies regarding border controls, asylum and immigration shall be governed by the principle of solidarity and fair sharing of responsibility, including its financial implications, between the Member States, and that whenever necessary the Union acts adopted pursuant to this Chapter shall contain appropriate measures to give effect to this principle’,

– having regard to Rule 48 of its Rules of Procedure,

– having regard to the report of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the opinions of the Committee on Development and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (A7-0075/2011),

A. whereas political, social and economic instability, lack of security, political repression and authoritarian regimes are the major driving forces behind migration, depriving affected communities of viable local prospects and income and, hence, of the right to choose whether to migrate or not, putting their lives at constant risk and leaving them with migration as their only option; whereas climate change and environmental degradation are becoming an increasingly common cause of migration,

B. whereas migration arising from instability is triggered in particular by war and armed conflicts or the risk thereof, human rights abuses - including the persecution or the limitation of the rights of political opponents, minorities, including religious, ethnic and LGBTT minorities, and disadvantaged groups - natural and man-made disasters, and the lack of viable economic prospects and of a sustainable structure to guarantee democracy and good governance,andrespect for and the promotion of civil, political, cultural, economic and social rights,

C. whereas migration, as a longstanding worldwide phenomenon, has contributed to the exchange of ideas, but has also entailed challenges in terms of the integration of immigrants into host societies, thus giving rise to both the cultural and economic enrichment of the European Union and issues of social inclusion and adaptation; whereas the EU needs substantial, but controlled, immigration to support its ageing population and address other social and economic challenges,

D. whereas in the past migratory flows have changed their routes according to where most pressure was applied, but have never ceased, and whereas migration cannot be stopped, but is likely to change over the coming decades in terms of its scale and complexity, so that it must be dealt with in order to prevent human suffering,

E. whereas legal migration is a process which is of optimum value for the individuals seeking to move from their country of origin and for the receiving country,

F. whereas the pressure of migratory flows caused by instability and taking the form of illegal migration is being felt to a greater degree by Member States situated at the EU's external borders,

G. whereas no EU Member State has ratified the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families to date; whereas that Convention is the most broadly-based international legal framework for the protection of the rights of migrant workers and their families and gives States guidance as to the approach to be adopted to ensure that migrants' rights are respected when policies relating to the migration of labour are drawn up and implemented,

H. whereas economic instability has a particularly strong impact on younger generations, women and minorities or disadvantaged groups, who are left without employment prospects and may thus more easily fall victim to violence, radicalisation and recruitment by terrorist groups,

I. whereas climate change is linked to food and water scarcity, deforestation and land degradation and is increasingly identified as a major threat to international security and stability,

J. whereas people forced from their homes by large-scale disasters brought on by climate change need to be assisted and protected; whereas, however, existing law on refugees does not recognise the right of climate refugees to international protection,

K. whereas in some regions most affected by climate change and the resulting loss of biodiversity, such as the Sahel, migration has become the only form of adaptation to the changing climate,

L. whereas some migrants may also be asylum seekers and may potentially become officially recognised refugees,

M. whereas the exploitation of irregular migration not only puts the lives of migrants at serious risk, but is very often associated with the worst human rights abuses, including slave labour, sexual exploitation, child abuse and gender violence; whereas action by the EU to prevent such abuses and to protect migrants, including irregular migrants, in situations of distress should be stepped up in order to be more effective,

N. whereas migrant smuggling affects almost every country in the world; whereas the exploitation of irregular migration, which is unfortunately a lucrative commercial activity for those engaged in organised crime, may also be combined with arms smuggling and human and drug trafficking;,whereas the exploitation of irregular migration may be one of the sources of funding for radical and terrorist groups and makes migrants vulnerable to becoming victims of organised crime rings and extremist networks,

O. whereas EU policies should pay particular attention to the most vulnerable migrants, in particular to unaccompanied minors,

P. whereas irregular migration has an impact on the migration-management and integration capacity of both receiving and transit countries; whereas in some cases, as regards transit countries, it might disrupt the sustainability and development prospects of local job markets and fuel more instability,

Q. whereas the expected demographic growth in both countries of origin and transit, particularly in the Maghreb, Mashreq and North Africa as a whole, could negatively affect the prospects for economic growth and job creation, thereby exacerbating the social and economic situation in those countries if the necessary political and economical decisions are not taken; whereas this, together with a lack of democratic principles, will give rise to internal tensions and instability, as shown by the recent demonstrations in Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt and several other countries in the Arab world, and will consequently lead to an increase in migration flows, putting further strain on the integration capacity of receiving countries,

R. whereas, in view of current demographic trends, the EU should reflect on how much it wants to open up its borders in coming years to migratory flows from countries of origin and transit in order to offset their internal demographic growth and the social tensions resulting therefrom, thus helping them maintain their internal stability, and how much it needs to invest in a renewed economic agenda for such countries, including an agenda focused on investment and job creation,

S. whereas measures should be taken to avoid new waves of racism and xenophobia in receiving and transit countries,

T. whereas migration towards the EU is only part of a much broader South-North and South-South migratory phenomenon; whereas the geographical proximity to the EU of European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) countries and, at the same time, the marked difference in standards between the migration laws of some ENP countries and those of the EU can create a competitive advantage for those countries, reinforcing their standing as transit countries and limiting their exposure and responsibilities as potential receiving countries,

U. whereas the ENP should more actively support the capacity of the EU's neighbouring States to manage migration,

V. whereas the recent dramatic events in Egypt and other countries in north Africa and the Middle East are likely to increase the flow of both legal and illegal migrants to Europe,

W. whereas tensions between countries of origin and transit and between receiving and transit countries concerning the management of migratory flows could become a source of potential conflict and disagreements in the future in the absence of a more harmonised, coordinated and effective migration policy; whereas, however, a more coordinated and comprehensive approach to migration management can enhance respect for the dignity of all migrants who can potentially contribute to meeting labour needs in countries of transit and destination and boost development in countries of origin; whereas a more coordinated and comprehensive approach to migration management should ensure full respect for the human rights of migrants who may be in situations of distress,

X. whereas legal and transparent remittances can play a potentially positive role in fostering economic development and particular care should be taken to secure the right of migrants' to support their families and invest in their countries,

Y. whereas the European Union needs to develop an efficient and wise migration policy similar to those implemented in Canada, Australia or New Zealand; whereas instability in the EU's neighbouring regions jeopardises the establishment of such a policy,

Z. whereas EU foreign policy can positively complement and strengthen EU policies on migration, and must address all sources of instability in countries of origin and pursue an active dialogue with transit countries on uniform, human rights-based standards for their national laws on migration, thereby creating a level playing field where both receiving and transit countries follow the same rules and offer migrants the same level of protection; whereas the different level of development of transit countries calls for the provision of EU financial assistance to help them reach standards comparable to those of the EU,

AA. whereas the VP/HR has stressed the importance of a comprehensive approach to security and stability issues, through which development strategies and the creation of sustainable economic prospects can complement and further strengthen peace-keeping and peace-building operations, thereby creating the conditions for longer-term stability and security,

AB. whereas the new foreign policy architecture introduced by the Lisbon Treaty and the creation of the EEAS provide an opportunity to develop highly valuable synergies between foreign policy and defence policy, on the one hand, and the ENP and development cooperation policy, on the other, as mutually reinforcing and interconnected dimensions and strategies; whereas the new structure also makes it possible for cultural diplomacy to play a role in the EU's external actions; whereas such synergies should already be taken into consideration at the programming stage,

AC. whereas a distinction needs to be made between migrants and asylum seekers and refugees,

  1. Welcomes the Commission's recent proposals on legal migration for non-asylum seekers, and urges it to develop further instruments to establish a common immigration policy, to manage economic migration with a view to promoting economic and social progress in receiving, transit and origin countries, and to enhance social cohesion by improving the integration of migrants; emphasises the need for adequate information to be provided on possibilities for legal immigration to the EU, in order to prevent illegal migration, make better use of the EU schemes for legal immigration, clarify current prospects and opportunities within the EU and give the lie to the false promises made by traffickers, thereby limiting the profits generated for organised crime and human traffickers by the need for people to move; calls on the Commission to foster protection measures for vulnerable groups and people (mainly women and children) who often become victims of trafficking and sexual exploitation, and urges it to build up information centres on possibilities for migration to the EU in third countries; calls, however, for a balanced approach between promoting legal migration into the EU and ensuring that the EU has the capacity to receive and successfully integrate migrants;

  2. Recalls that well-managed legal migration can also bring benefits to third countries through the funds which immigrants remit to their countries of origin; furthermore, stresses the importance of supporting initiatives designed to promote the involvement of migrants in development and training projects in their countries of origin;

  3. Calls on the Member States to work collaboratively with non-EU countries to ensure that information relating to legal migration is readily available and that legal migration is actively advocated;

  4. Believes that forced migration is, inter alia , a result of failing economies, impoverishment, human rights violations, environmental degradation, the widening gap between rich and poor countries, civil war, wars for control of natural resources and political persecution;

  5. Supports the VP/HR's analysis and policy line highlighting the need for a comprehensive and cohesive approach based on targeted development and human rights strategies as an additional vital EU foreign policy instrument to tackle stability and security problems and enhance the effectiveness of peace-keeping and peace-building operations; in that context, calls for the role of FRONTEX to be strengthened so that it can better control migration flows; believes that, in the context of the new foreign policy architecture introduced by the Lisbon Treaty and the creation of the EEAS, it would be important to consolidate further interinstitutional dialogue and reflection on the foundations and objectives of such a comprehensive approach, in particular as regards targeted programming and partnerships with beneficiary countries that can deliver a sustainable process of democratisation, good governance, respect for human rights and economic growth and thus strengthen security and stability;

  6. Urges the Commission to develop a permanent monitoring system for all FRONTEX activities linked to the management of migration flows; considers that the human rights dimension of FRONTEX operations must be reflected clearly throughout the text of the amended version of the FRONTEX Regulation, especially the right of a person to leave his or her country, the ban on refoulement and the right to seek asylum; welcomes the successful activities carried out by FRONTEX and its cooperation with Member States to implement the Common European Asylum System, and likewise welcomes the establishment of the European Asylum Support Office (EASO); considers that the activities and operations of FRONTEX and EASO need to be stable and permanent, so that the necessary support can be given to particularly badly affected Member States; stresses the need for greater solidarity among all EU Member States, in particular the most vulnerable ones, in order to achieve the most efficient policy coordination and burden sharing;

  7. Notes that against a background of increasing multilateralism with several international players and major donors, such as the EU, the US, Japan, China and, potentially, in the longer term, other BRIC countries, such as Brazil and India, stability and security are a shared objective and an essential precondition for global economic growth; notes, further, that the stability and security challenges are such that they require not only relevant resources, at a time of budget constraints, but also economies of scale and coordinated efforts; believes that a process of reflection should be started on an active dialogue between the EU, the US, Japan and China and international financial institutions on coordinated geographical and thematic security, stability and aid strategies, which would make for greater collective leverage and the more balanced, targeted and efficient allocation of resources, whilst ensuring fair burden-sharing; believes, also in the light of the recent White House foreign aid review, which highlighted the value of aid coordination with other major donors, that an important first step in such a process of reflection could be an EU-US summit on enhanced cooperation on humanitarian and development aid in order to identify, from a transatlantic perspective, shared areas of interest and the bases for policy coordination;

  8. Urges the Commission to ensure that any readmission agreement signed by the EU and its Member States fully respects human rights and the principle of ‘non-refoulement’ and does not put at risk any persons in need of international protection;

  9. Notes that there are significant benefits to sheltering refugees in neighbouring countries, and calls for the EU to consider this as a priority;

  10. Expresses its concern that there are currently around 38 fragile states (Failed States Index 2010; Fund for Peace) worldwide in which 1 billion (World Bank) people are affected by instability-related problems; notes that fragile states are the most vulnerable to internal and external shocks, both political and economic, and that state instability contributes to the migration process;

  11. Considers that support for politically and economically fragile states, as a likely source of irregular migration and security- and stability-related tensions, should always include - in addition to budgetary relief and support, and strategies to establish or consolidate stability - direct investment and EU market-access strategies, rural development and food security strategies, MDG support, job-creation policies, infrastructure development, support for SMEs, microcredit facilities and strategies geared to promoting democratisation and good governance, social inclusion, the empowerment of women and minority or disadvantaged groups and ethnic and religious tolerance, thereby maximising local prospects and alternatives for potential migrants; firmly believes that such strategies must be based on active partnerships which draw on the principles of ownership and empowerment of the beneficiary countries, but also on targets, clear roadmaps and conditions for their achievement co-defined with donor countries, and on benchmarks and strict accountability standards; points out that programmes receiving such funding must have as their basic criterion the attainment of added value at both regional and local level, thereby ensuring that they contribute substantially to the development of local economies;

  12. Emphasises that any research and analysis of future migration trends and forms of migration such as short-term migration, circular migration and seasonal migration should take into account possible triggers of migration, for example political and economic crises or the impact of climate change in the countries of origin;

  13. Calls on the European Union and the Member States to take action both internally and at international level to encourage countries of origin to adopt and implement measures and policies which enable them to develop socially, economically and democratically, so that their nationals are not compelled to migrate;

  14. Calls on the Commission and the EEAS to make further efforts with regard to the development and democratisation of countries of origin and to promote the rule of law, in order to tackle the problems associated with migration at their root;

  15. Encourages the establishment of migration information and management centres outside the EU in order to help third countries of origin or transit to define a migration policy in response to the concerns of potential migrants and returning migrants, offer guidance on legal immigration, as well as on job opportunities and living conditions in countries of destination, and help with job training for would-be migrants, building on the experience gained with the pilot project in Bamako, Mali (CIGEM); asks the Commission to provide the its committee responsible with regular reports on new initiatives to establish such centres;

  16. Recalls that, in its resolution of 21 September 2010 on poverty reduction and job creation in developing countries: the way forward(11) , it emphasised that the EU should not hesitate to apply sanctions when countries fail to respect their governance and human rights obligations under trade agreements, asked the EU authorities to ensure scrupulous respect for the principle of conditionality, as stipulated in the Cotonou Agreement, and emphasised that the same conditionality criteria should apply to the provision of support under both the European Development Fund (EDF) and the Financing Instrument for Development Cooperation (DCI); stresses that similar conditionality criteria also should apply to EU assistance other than development assistance and humanitarian aid, including the macro-financial aid provided via IMF loans, as well as lending operations by the EIB and EBRD programmes, and that such assistance should be based on partnership, shared objectives and values and allegiance and should be able to fulfil the expectations of both the donor and the beneficiary; stresses, further, that the active support from the EU to beneficiary countries should be effective and results-oriented and that the EU's core values should be respected; asks the VP/HR and the Commission to pursue the objective of allegiance to the EU and its core values when shaping the architecture of EU financial assistance and in bilateral relations with countries which are beneficiaries of such assistance; believes that a process of reflection should be started at EU level on the bases of and scope for the application of conditionality criteria to EU financial assistance;

  17. Welcomes the human rights clauses in all EU bilateral trade agreements and supports the incorporation of the principle of conditionality in trade arrangements with developing countries via the Generalised System of Preferences; recognises that this conditionality principle is not always applied, as the Commission has proven to be reluctant to impose sanctions on developing countries which fail to honour commitments made regarding respect for human rights, good governance and democratisation; urges the Commission to consider sanctions whenever needed, but asks it to examine carefully the consequences of such sanctions for the populations of the beneficiary countries before doing so;

  18. Considers that policies similar to those for countries of origin should also be applied to transit countries, for example regarding poverty-reduction strategies, direct investment and market access and the emphasis on an employment agenda, which can guarantee effective long-term social inclusion prospects, stabilise the internal job market and enhance the long-term potential of transit countries;

  19. Considers that in their management of irregular migration flows the EU and its Member States must fully respect the rights of asylum seekers and refrain from taking any actions that would discourage potential refugees from requesting protection;

  20. Calls on the Commission to develop a mechanism for establishing where responsibilities lie for accommodating asylum seekers and examining their applications, as well as combating illegal migration, two areas in which a disproportionate burden is being borne by certain Member States by virtue of their geographical location or their demographic breakdown;

  21. Urges the Commission to establish a monitoring system to check that refugees' and asylum-seekers' rights are respected when entry (and pre-entry) controls are carried out under the Schengen Borders Code, so that possible flaws can be detected promptly;

  22. Stresses the value of EU election observation missions (EOM) as an important step in any process of democratisation and good governance, and believes that such missions should be part of a broader framework of support for a long-term democratisation process; urges the VP/HR to strengthen follow-up procedures and missions to verify whether EOM recommendations are implemented and emphasises, in this respect, that it is crucial to ensure adequate follow-up of the implementation of such recommendations; highlights the importance of mediation and conflict-prevention and resolution strategies, and of institution- and capacity-building for regional organisations, such as the African Union (AU), which plays an important role in peace-keeping and peace-building operations; believes that support for the AU should include the development of its border-control capacity and the provision of relief for all migrants in situations of distress; considers that the effective strengthening of regional organisations, such as the AU, the Union for the Mediterranean or the Eastern Partnership, as multipliers of regional peace and stability will foster regional integration and the emergence of cross-border economic areas;

  23. Notes that progress has been made in implementing the Global Approach to Migration, which aims to promote comprehensive partnerships with countries of origin and transit and encourages synergies between migration and development; emphasises the need to improve further the use of the main tools of the Global Approach to Migration (mobility partnerships, migratory missions, migration profiles, cooperation platforms); stresses the continuing need to put migration policy objectives at the centre of the political dialogue with countries of origin and of transit, as well as the need to enhance policy coherence in this respect, in particular with development policy; takes the view that the various dialogue processes should be rationalised, whilst the synergies between migration and development should be strengthened; believes that efforts should be stepped up in order to support development projects in countries of origin and transit that raise these countries' living standards, increase their regulatory and institutional capacities, and enhance their infrastructure, in order to manage migratory flows effectively, whilst ensuring respect for international protection standards and the application of the principle of non-refoulement;

  24. Stresses the important role of the Global Forum on Migration and Development, which provides a structured framework for the promotion of enhanced dialogue and cooperation between both governmental and non-governmental actors, including civil society;

  25. Deplores the fact that in the current circumstances the only option available was the suspension of the agreement on EU-Libya cooperation, and takes the view that the suspension should be revoked as soon as there is a new transitional government willing to promote the democratic and human rights-based implementation of such an agreement, the aim being to provide financial support for African countries in order to create viable alternatives to migration and for the development in Libya of a more efficient system to manage labour migration, by maximising the skills of the migrants already present in the country, increasing the Libya's capacity to attract and socially and economically integrate migrants, in particular from countries on its southern borders, and creating the foundations for an effective migration management system in Libya; stresses, in this context, the need for the EU to use its influence to persuade Libya to allow the UNHCR to return to the country; believes that agreements on a cooperation agenda on migration should be reached with other countries in geographic proximity to the EU with a view to providing joint support, in accordance with international agreements, to fragile States in their neighbourhood;

  26. In addressing the current humanitarian crisis in northern Africa, notes that Frontex cannot be the main tool to deal with the resulting migration flows originating in the region, and calls on the EU to devise a prompt and coordinated response as part of a coherent, long-term strategy to deal with political transitions and fragile States, thus addressing the root causes of migration flows; urges the Council to put in place a burden-sharing action plan to help resettle refugees from the region, based on the solidarity clause set out in Article 80 of the TFEU, and to provide support for displaced persons in accordance with the provisions laid down in Council Directive 2001/55/EC of 20 July 2001 on minimum standards for giving temporary protection in the event of a mass influx of displaced persons, and on measures promoting a balance of efforts between Member States in receiving such persons and bearing the consequences thereof;;calls on the Council urgently to move forward with the adoption of a Common EU Asylum System and to complete the codecision procedures relating to the establishment of a Joint EU Resettlement Programme and the European Refugee Fund for the period 2008-2013, as recommended by Parliament in May 2010; recalls that Member States are required to observe the principle of non-refoulement;

  27. Stresses the key importance of the European Parliament in enhancing freedom and democracy in our neighbourhood; in this context, believes that the European Parliament should monitor closely the democratisation process in the southern Mediterranean, and therefore suggests regular ad hoc structured dialogue with the VP/HR to assess developments in this region and so identify short- and long-term objectives and the relevant support measures required;

  28. Insists that genuine attention should be paid to the dialogues on human rights and democracy in the revised ENP; believes that pro-democracy movements and demonstrations and their brutal repression by the authorities in countries such as Tunisia and Egypt prove that the ENP dialogues on democracy and human rights have not been effective;

  29. Welcomes the completion of the negotiations on the EU-Turkey Readmission Agreement and calls for the successful completion of all the necessary phases to ensure that the Agreement is implemented fully, as soon as possible, by all parties;

  30. Calls on the Commission to step up cooperation with the countries of transit and origin of illegal migrants under agreements concluded or to be concluded by the EU and under bilateral agreements between Member States and third countries, so as to curb illegal migration and encourage compliance with the law to the benefit of migrants and the inhabitants of the Member States and countries of origin;

  31. Considers that harmonisation – in cooperation with the Member States – of migration-related statistics is essential to the effective planning, adoption, implementation and assessment of migration policy; stresses the importance of the European Migration Network (EMN), which could make a substantial contribution in this area;

  32. Emphasises the urgent need for consistent, comprehensive and comparable statistical data about the migrant population, given that the constant changes in that population and the nature of current migration flows present a real challenge to policy-makers, who need reliable data and information on which to base their decisions;

  33. Calls on the Commission to consider, as part of its ongoing review of the ENP, the provision of specific funding for the development of a renewed, strong economic agenda in ENP countries, including an employment agenda; believes that a roadmap should be discussed with ENP countries on the alignment of their national migration laws with EU standards, including human rights standards, such as the right to asylum, a protection system for irregular migrants and equal rights for all migrants; encourages the conclusion of more mobility partnership agreements with ENP countries, in addition to the existing ones with Moldova and Georgia;

  34. Calls for the establishment of a comprehensive migration policy which is linked to all development strategies and instruments and founded on a high level of political and operational solidarity, mutual trust, transparency, partnership, shared responsibility and joint efforts based on common principles and concrete actions, and on the values enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty;

  35. Calls on the Commission to develop a comprehensive approach to legal migration, taking into consideration the European labour market's need for a labour force and the each Member State's capacity to receive and integrate migrants; believes that a common EU policy on legal migration can be a stimulus both for the European economy and for the economies of the countries of origin;

  36. Takes the view that agreements with third countries that concern several EU Member States should be negotiated at European level in full compliance with Article 218 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union;

  37. Calls on the EU institutions and the Member States to coordinate donor aid more effectively so as to guarantee a more comprehensive and sustainable approach to migration-flow management;

  38. Urges that development assistance be decoupled from migration-flow management and that development aid should not be made conditional on return migration; stresses that EU development aid should aim to eliminate the reasons for migration, such as poverty, climate change and hunger;

  39. Emphasises the added value that the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) and the Eastern Partnership initiative (EaP) could bring in dealing with the issue of migration and its implications; calls on the VP/HR and the Member States to step up efforts to make the UfM fully operational; believes that the issue of migratory flows should be a priority for action in the framework of the UfM and EaP;

  40. Calls on the European Union to consider steps to revise the DCI, the EDF and the Instrument for Humanitarian Aid so as to enhance the positive effects of migration in terms of promoting human development and democracy in fragile states;

  41. Calls for additional efforts to promote policy coherence for development within the EU's migration policy and to refrain from using Official development Assistance (ODA) for policies aimed at deterring and controlling migration in ways which involve the violation of migrants' human rights; considers that ODA should, however, be used to further effective development, thereby reducing migration caused by poverty, political instability and political oppression;

  42. Welcomes the Tripoli Declaration issued at the conclusion of the Third Africa-EU Summit, which reaffirms the need for joint efforts to address the realities and challenges of migration and its links to development;

  43. Calls for more effective partnerships with institutions promoting regional and economic integration, which can also contribute to finding lasting, long-term solutions to the realities of South-South migration;

  44. Stresses that the Commission should do more research into climate-induced South-South migration, including into the number of people affected, vulnerable regions, migration movements and host countries' capacities; calls also for the research capacity of developing countries to be fostered;

  45. Stresses the importance of integrating migration into partner countries' national development strategies in order to reduce poverty and achieve the MDGs;

  46. Welcomes the creation of the ACP Observatory on Migration as a useful instrument for providing policy-makers in ACP countries with data and tools to improve their national migration strategies, and the proposal to create a Migration Observatory responsible for permanently and closely monitoring all issues in connection with migratory flows in Latin America, under the supervision and coordination of the Europe–Latin America and Caribbean Foundation;

  47. Recommends that the financial resources for strengthening the ‘migration-development nexus’ should be allocated more efficiently; recognises the need to improve the arrangements for the complementary and timely mobilisation of the EU's various financing instruments for its external action;

  48. Stresses the need to strengthen LRRD strategies (aimed at linking relief, rehabilitation and development) in order to secure sustainable solutions for displaced persons and refugees; recognises the importance of a coordinated humanitarian response as a precursor to a viable development policy in post-conflict countries;

  49. Calls on the VP/HR to invest in expertise and to establish a clear mandate for staff at both headquarters and delegation level in order to achieve better coordination between the Thematic Programme on Migration and Asylum and the geographic programmes under the DCI;

  50. Calls for clarification of the respective roles of the EEAS and DEVCO, and for coordination between them; urges DEVCO to play a leading role in the programming phase for migration policy;

  51. Stresses the importance of taking on board the lessons learnt from the Thematic Programme on Migration and Asylum in terms of policy dialogue at country level in order to ensure more coherent and effective programming in the context of country and regional strategy papers.

  52. Urges the stepping-up of efforts to reduce the negative effects of the brain drain and the exodus of professionals, which particularly affect key sectors such as health and education; emphasises the importance of promoting brain gain, assisted return programmes and circular migration, regulating recruitment practices and supporting capacity-building by means of measures such as the development of vocational training; asks the Commission to study whether circular migration schemes are a useful instrument and which types of circularity (one-shot/recursive; short-term/long-term; spontaneous/managed) could produce the best results for both developing and developed countries;

  53. Calls on the Commission, when preparing the new external action instruments for the period after 2013, to ensure that the proposed architecture allows for synergies and mutual reinforcement between the development pillar and the security and stability pillar and provides for the rapid allocation of emergency and recovery funds, a rapid response in order to provide relief and assistance for migrants in a situation of distress - particularly those who are in a very vulnerable situation, such as women and unaccompanied minors - specific programmes to provide active support for minorities, including religious, ethnic and LGBTT communities, which may be under threat, shelter in the EU for human rights defenders in a situation of distress and support measures to mitigate the consequences of climate change, deforestation, desertification and biodiversity loss and to preserve the economic and social environment of affected communities;

  54. Calls for the development of policies which take into account the specific situation of vulnerable groups, such as women, children and persons with disabilities, and, by extension, for the provision of relevant infrastructure, such as hospitals, schools and educational equipment, and the necessary social, psychological and administrative support;

  55. Draws attention to the important role that rehabilitation centres for victims of torture have played in the successful integration of migrants, including refugees and asylum seekers, in the EU; notes with concern the decision that funding for these centres in the EU under the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) is to be gradually phased out; calls on the Commission to ensure that funding for these centres is not cut and is not left only in the hands of the Member States;

  56. Asks the Commission to publish the external evaluation of the Regional Protection Programmes (RPPs) and to initiate a debate on whether the RPPs should be continued.

  57. With regard to CSFP/CSDP missions, believes, as also emphasised by the VP/HR, that it would be important to supplement security and stability strategies with ad hoc supporting development assistance and human rights strategies in order to ensure that in the long term the root causes of insecurity and instability are eradicated; in this context, points out that such a comprehensive approach requires not only better coordination, through the EEAS, ut also additional ad hoc budgetary appropriations for such supporting strategies;

  58. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the President of the European Council, the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, the President of the Commission, the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the EIB, the governments and parliaments of the Member States, the governments and parliaments of the EU candidate countries, the government and parliaments of the EURONEST and EUROMED member countries, the US State Department, the EBRD, the World Bank, the IMF, the African Union, the Pan-African Parliament, the International Organisation for Migration and the UNHCR.

(1) OJ L 310, 9.11.2006, p. 1. (2) OJ L 327, 24.11.2006, p. 1. (3) OJ L 386, 29.12.2006, p. 1. (4) OJ L 378, 27.12.2006, p. 41. (5) OJ L 163, 2.7.1996, p. 1. (6) OJ L 317, 15.12.2000, p. 3. (7) OJ L 201, 3.8.2010, p. 30. (8) OJ L 155, 18.6.2009, p. 17. (9) Texts Adopted, P7_TA(2010)0327. (10) Texts Adopted, P7_TA(2010)0496. (11) Texts adopted, P7_TA(2010)0327.