2018 IN REVIEW
This Annual Report presents information on the achievements of the Iraq Humanitarian Fund during the 2018 calendar year. However, because grant allocation, project implementation and reporting processes often take place over multiple years (CBPFs are designed to support ongoing and evolving humanitarian responses), the achievement of CBPFs are reported in two distinct ways:
Information on allocations for granted in 2018 (shown in blue). This method considers intended impact of the allocations rather than achieved results as project implementation and reporting often continues into the subsequent year and results information is not immediately available at the time of publication of annual reports.
Results reported in 2018 attributed to allocations granted in 2018 and prior years (shown in orange). This method provides a more complete picture of achievements during a given calendar year but includes results from allocations that were granted in previous years. This data is extracted from final narrative reports approved between 1 January 2018 – 31 January 2019.
Figures for people targeted and reached may include double counting as individuals often receive aid from multiple cluster/sectors.
Contribution recorded based on the exchange rate when the cash was received which may differ from the Certified Statement of Accounts that records contributions based on the exchange rate at the time of the pledge.
Humanitarian situation in 2018
The humanitarian context in Iraq transitioned into a new phase in 2018. Although Iraq is currently in a post-conflict landscape after the end of military operations against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), unpredictable dynamics remained throughout the country in 2018, impacting humanitarian programming. Asymmetric attacks by armed groups continued to be carried out along with small scale military operations, resulting in new displacement and impacting the IDP return rate. In tandem, new sources of instability also emerged linked to rising poverty rates, delays in community reconciliation, lack of livelihood opportunities, and political and social tensions which caused small-scale new displacement.
By the end of 2018, the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) returning to their areas of origin reached 4 million, while approximately 2 million remained displaced. Although major efforts have been initiated to rebuild the country and jumpstart local economies, significant barriers to return endure, including security concerns, fear and trauma; lack of social cohesion; issues related to documentation; lack of livelihoods; and destroyed or damaged housing. As return rates level out, protracted displacement and the sustainability of returnees are concerns which need to be addressed, as a growing number of Iraqis are forced to make increasingly negative or high-risk choices in order to cope. With protracted displacement expected to endure in 2019, humanitarian assistance must continue targeting IDPs both in-camp and in out-of-camp settings. At the end of the year, an estimated 6.7 million people in Iraq, including 3.3 million children (under age 18) and 3.3 million women and girls, continue to need some form of humanitarian assistance and protection.
Multiple Needs and Vulnerabilities
While the combat operations against ISIL ended in 2017, reverberations from the conflict continued throughout 2018, resulting in new vulnerabilities. For example, in areas of displacement rent prices increased, negatively affecting IDPs, host communities and returnees1; unpredictable customs procedures instituted during the latter half of 2018 caused a temporary spike in some food and non-food items (NFI) prices; communicable diseases—including measles, acute flaccid paralysis, and meningitis— were recorded, primarily in Ninewa, Sulaymaniyah and Dahuk. While almost all gover-1. World Bank “Iraq Reconstruction and Investment Part 2 – Damage and Needs Assessment of Affected Governorates”. norates are considered drought prone, forecasts indicate that moderate to severe droughts are expected in certain locations until 20262 . Iraq also experienced severe floods in February, May and November 2018. During the November floods alone, thousands of people were displaced and several IDP camps were partially inundated, leading to the temporary relocation of already at-risk IDPs. Other circumstances which jeopardize the well-being of IDPs also rose unexpectedly, including over half of in-camp IDPs receiving only half food rations in October 2018 due to an unexpected pipeline break in the World Food Programme’s (WFP) distribution network, and an estimated 230,000 more receiving less than the recommended daily amount of water. With just under a third of hospitals in Ninewa alone not functional, and many primary health facilities also destroyed, daily heath needs of IDPs have moreover not been adequately met. According to the Iraq 2019 HNO, on average, out of-camp IDPs in Anbar and Ninewa face overlapping needs in more than four humanitarian sectors 3.
Centrality of Protection In 2018, Protection remained the overarching humanitarian priority, and was the highest-funded Cluster under the IHF 2018 First Standard Allocation. The importance of safe, voluntary, informed, dignified and sustainable return of displaced people cannot be overestimated if Iraq is to thrive in a post-ISIL context with the number of returns having effectively plateaued as 2018 continued, leaving a large number of Iraqis in a situation of protracted displacement. Multiple pressing protection concerns remained, including retaliation against people with perceived affiliations to extremist groups; ethno-sectarian violence; forced, premature and obstructed returns; a lack of civil documentation; IDPs and returnees who require specialized psychosocial support; high UXO contamination of land (including private houses) and housing, land and property issues. Incursions and intimidation by armed security actors continue to be recorded both in-camp and in informal settlements. Women and children continue to be exposed to multiple protection risks; child labour and child marriage among IDP and returnee children is more prevalent than in recent years, while over 10 per cent of children are reported to experience psychosocial distress4.
Humanitarian Response Plan
- 8.7M People in need
- 3.4M People targeted
- $569M Funding requirement
- UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
- To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit https://www.unocha.org/.