Education Cluster Team, Iraq
Education in Emergencies (EiE): refers to the quality learning opportunities for all ages in situations of crisis, including early childhood development, primary, secondary, non-formal, technical, vocational, higher and adult education. Education in emergencies provides physical, psychosocial and cognitive protection that can sustain and save lives (INEE, 2010).
Teaching and Learning: There are diverse approaches to teaching which also implicitly reflect the approach to learning. The didactic approach mainly entails lecturing and is typically teacher-centered and content-oriented, i.e. teaching as transmission where the learners are considered to be the passive recipients of information transmitted. Teaching can also be seen as supporting the process of learners' knowledge construction and understanding, building on what is already known by the learner and involving a learner-centered approach, i.e. teaching as facilitation. Another approach emphasizes the development of learners' cognitive processes and awareness and control of thinking and learning (UNESCO-IBE, 2013).
Education Personnel: Education personnel can be organized into four main functional categories based on their primary or major functions. The classification is: 1) instructional personnel; 2) professional support for students; 3) management/quality control/administration; and 4) maintenance and operations personnel. Teaching staff (teachers) and teachers' aides are considered instructional personnel. For the purposes of the ratio of students to teaching staff, only teaching staff is taken into account (OECD, 2009).
Education Policy: Education policy is the structural and systemic arrangements put in place that maximize the likelihood that educators and school systems will deliver desired experiences and outcomes for students (Kablau Communications, 2011).
Strengthening of context analysis and key issues: protection, psychosocial support, conflict mitigation, disaster risk reduction, early childhood development, gender, HIV and AIDS, human rights, inclusive education, inter-sectoral linkages (health; water, sanitation and hygiene promotion; shelter; food and nutrition) and youth.
Formal Education: Education that is institutionalized, intentional and planned through public organizations and recognized private bodies and – in their totality – constitute the formal education system of a country. Formal education programmes are thus recognized as such by the relevant national education authorities or equivalent authorities, e.g. any other institution in cooperation with the national or sub-national education authorities. Vocational education, special needs education and some parts of adult education are often recognized as being part of the formal education system (UNESCO-IBE, 2013).
Non-Formal Education: Non-formal education is an addition, alternative and/or complement to formal education within the process of the lifelong learning of individuals. It is often provided to guarantee the right of access to education for all. It caters to people of all ages but does not necessarily apply a continuous pathway-structure; it may be short in duration and/or low-intensity, and it is typically provided in the form of short courses, workshops or seminars. Non-formal education mostly leads to qualifications that are not recognized as formal or equivalent to formal qualifications by the relevant national or subnational education authorities or to no qualifications at all. Nonformal education can cover programmes contributing to adult and youth literacy and education for out-of school children, as well as programmes on life skills, work skills, and social or cultural development (UNESCO-IBE, 2013).
School Based Management (SBM): School-based management is the systematic decentralization to the school level of authority and responsibility to make decisions on significant matters related to school operations within a centrally determined framework of goals, policies, curriculum, standards, and accountability (Caldwell, B. J. (2005). School-based management; UNESCO-IIEP and International Academy of Education).
Parent/teachers association (PTA): is a formal committee composed of parents, teachers and staff that is intended to facilitate parental participation in a school.
Curriculum is the selection and organization of learning experiences for students that are deemed important for their personal and community development.
It encompasses knowledge, values, attitudes, and skills that should be well-selected and appropriately sequenced in compliance with learning and development needs at different ages and education stages.
One should distinguish between the intended (usually written and official curriculum), the applied curriculum in the context of classroom interaction, the realized/effective curriculum as assessed/proven outcomes of learning and the hidden curriculum, i.e. values, beliefs, attitudes, and skills that people hold based on their personal experiences. Usually, a curriculum is laid down through specific documents, e.g. curriculum frameworks, syllabi, textbooks, and other learning resources, comprising education aims, learning objectives, and expected outcomes (student competencies), learning content and methods, including student activities and strategies for assessment and evaluation (INEE, 2010, Guidance Notes on Teaching and Learning).
Text Books: Developed from the curriculum to support teaching and learning of the body of knowledge in the curriculum. Teaches several topics within a subject according to scope.
Psychosocial Support (PSS) refers to the processes and actions that promote the holistic wellbeing of people in their social world. It includes support provided by family and friends. PSS can also be described as a process of facilitating resilience within individuals, families and communities. PSS aims to help individuals recover after a crisis has disrupted their lives and to enhance their ability to return to normality after experiencing adverse events (INEE, 2018, INEE Guidance Note on Psychosocial Support).
Life skills: Life Skills are those skills and abilities for positive behavior that enable individuals to adapt to and deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. They help people think, feel, act, and interact as individuals and as participating members of society. Life Skills fall into three inter-related categories: cognitive; personal or emotional; and inter-personal or social (INEE, 2010). life skills for lifelong learning through four pillars of education: Learning to Know, Learning to Be, Learning to Live Together and Learning to Do (UNICEF MENA, 2015, Quality Learning through Life Skills).
Out-of- school children: Children in the official primary school age range who are not enrolled in either primary or secondary schools are known as out-of-school children (UNESCO-UIS, 2014, UIS Glossary).
Accelerated learning is an approach to teaching and learning, informed by research in the cognitive and neuro-sciences, that provide more engaged, proficient and faster development of learned knowledge and basic skills (the Accelerated Education Working Group, 2016, Key Programme Definitions).
Catch Up Program. A short-term transitional education programme for children and youth who had been actively attending school prior to an educational disruption, which provides students with the opportunity to learn content missed because of the disruption and supports their re-entry to the formal system (the Accelerated Education Working Group, 2016, Key Programme Definitions).
Remedial program is an additional targeted support, concurrent with regular classes, for students who require short-term content or skill support to succeed in regular formal programming (the Accelerated Education Working Group, 2016, Key Programme Definitions).
Early Childhood Development (ECD) is the processes through which young children, aged 0-8 years, develop their optimal physical health, mental alertness, emotional confidence, social competence, and readiness to learn. These processes are supported by social and financial policies and comprehensive programming that integrate health, nutrition, water, sanitation, hygiene, education, and child protection services. All children and families benefit from high-quality programs, but disadvantaged groups benefit the most. Alternative definition: Children’s cognitive, physical, language, motor, and social and emotional development, between conception and age 8 (WHO, 2017,Nurturing Care for Early Childhood Development).