Iran

Iran Earthquake Situation Report No.7

Format
Situation Report
Source
Posted
Originally published


Ref: DHAGVA - 97/0264

SECOND INTERNATIONAL APPEAL FOR THE VICTIMS OF THE
EARTHQUAKE IN SOUTHERN KHORASAN/ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN

1. As reported in DHA Geneva Situation Report No. 6 of 19 May 1997 on the earthquake Southern Khorasan, Iran, a joint Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran / United Nations mission visited the disaster affected area during the period of 19-22 May 1997. The mission identified essential requirements for the transition from relief to emergency rehabilitation.

2. Based on the findings of the mission, the United Nations Disaster Management Team (UN-DMT) in Iran prepared the Second International Appeal for the Victims of the Earthquake in South Khorasan, which was launched locally on 26 May 1997 and, at the request of the UN Resident Coordinator in Tehran, is herewith presented to the international community for funding.

3. The objective of the Second International Appeal by the United Nations is to address needs for emergency rehabilitation of the affected areas within the next six months. The appeal seeks a total amount of US $7,741,000 in cash contributions from the international community to re-establish critical public infrastructure in the areas of health, education, drinking water supply / irrigation and income generating activities for women.

4. DHA is prepared to serve as a channel for cash contributions in response to this Appeal, to be used in cooperation/coordination with the Office of the UN Resident Coordinator in Tehran and relevant organizations of the UN system. DHA provides donors with written confirmation and pertinent details concerning the utilization of the funds contributed.

5. Donors wishing to channel their contributions through DHA should transfer funds to DHA account No. CO.590.160.1 at Swiss Bank Corporation, P.O. Box 2770, CH-1211 Geneva 2, with reference: Iran Earthquake/South Khorasan.

6. For further information, please contact DHA Geneva as indicated below, or the Office of the UN Resident Coordinator in Tehran (Tel.: + 98 21 873 15 80, Facsimile: + 98 21 873 88 64).

Telephone No. +41-22-917.12.34
In case of emergency only: Tel. +41-22-917.20.10
Desk Officers: Ms. S. Metzner-Strack, Tel. 41-22-917.21.44
Ms. K. Gotoh, Tel. 41-22-917.12.58
Press to contact: Ms. Moulin-Acevedo, Direct Tel. +41-22-917.28.56
Telex: 414242 DHA CH, Fax: +41-22-917.00.23
Email: DHAGVA AT DHA.UNICC.ORG


Second International Appeal for the Victims of the Earthquake in
Southern Khorasan/Islamic Republic of Iran

A Proposal for Emergency Rehabilitation prepared by the United Nations Disaster Management Team in Iran

I. OBJECTIVE

The objective of the Second International Appeal by the United Nations is to redirect donor pledges already made and to solicit new contributions for the emergency rehabilitation of the affected areas within the next six months. The appeal concentrates on re-establishing critical public infrastructure in the areas of health, education, drinking water supply and irrigation and income generating activities targeted at women.

1. Background

On 10 May an earthquake of 7.1 on the Richter scale struck the southern regions of Khorasan Province. A total of 148 villages suffered 20 to 100 % destruction, rendering 11,000 families (estimated at 52,000 persons) homeless, 2,180 people were injured and 1,570 people are reported to have perished in the earthquake, among them 360 primary school children.

This is the third major earthquake to hit Iran in three months, and the second in Khorasan Province. This particular area was heavily impacted by an earthquake only ten years ago, and is amongst the most deprived parts of the country and has experienced drought followed by flash floods and drought again in the past six months. The likelihood of early recovery from this calamity without substantial external aid, whether national or international, is very limited.

2. Response to the Disaster

The response by the Government and the Iranian Red Crescent Society was fast and efficient. Within hours 20 medical teams were dispatched and tent cities established. Approximately 5,000 relief workers from the Red Crescent Society, the army and para-military forces assisted the population in searching for dead and wounded, and in organizing the relief efforts. Within one week the immediate emergency response phase of the disaster was complete.

On 11 May the United Nations Disaster Management Team (DMT) in Teheran, through the Department of Humanitarian Affairs in Geneva, launched an international appeal for immediate humanitarian assistance. On the same date a preliminary appeal was launched by the international Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). The response from the international community was overwhelming and an estimated USD 11 million was pledged or given in kind through various channels for the earthquake victims.

However, these first appeals and the generous response by donor governments mostly concentrated on immediate relief items such as tents, blankets, medicine, clothing and foodstuffs. The most urgent relief phase is now over. The entire affected population is housed in tents, has received reasonable medical attention and been provided with food rations for a month. Any further relief operation must therefore concentrate on emergency rehabilitation for these communities in order to restore their self-sufficiency as soon as possible.

3. Government Initiatives

Following the earthquake the Government started a number of initiatives to meet both the immediate and long term needs of the affected communities. All families have received ration books entitling them to a food-basket to cover the first month, and a food support programme will be maintained until they are again able to support themselves. A soft-loan scheme has been announced to assist the reconstruction of their homes and animal shelters. The rural health service has been reinforced temporarily with personnel from other districts, and the Government has clearly stated its obligation to reconstruct all health and school facilities as soon as possible. Heavy equipment is working to help farmers repair their irrigation systems.

4. The Joint United Nations Assessment Mission

In order to review the situation immediately after the initial relief phase, a joint UN Assessment Mission to South Khorasan, 19 - 22 May 1997, was conducted in close cooperation with local, regional and national authorities. The UN field assessment team comprised the following 6 persons: Dr. Reza Hossaini (UNICEF), Mr. Ali Yousef Hakimi (FAO), Mr. Reza Emami (UNDP), Mr. Abdulreza Shaghaghi (Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Mr. Charles Higgins and Mr. Terje Skavdal (DHA/UN Disaster Assessment and Coordination Team). The goal of the mission was to assess the situation in the disaster area in order to quantify specific requirements necessary to cover the transition from sustained relief to emergency infrastructure repair, in the following critical sectors:

Health, Education, Water Supply, Agriculture and Income Generating Activities.

The team was able to meet senior officials at provincial and district level, and to visit the affected area. During the mission, the UN team examined a range of measures to support the affected communities in the period following the end of the search and rescue operation, when effective relief was in place, up to six months from the earthquake. The measures are not aimed at solving the overwhelming task of reconstruction, but to help them gain momentum in their own recovery in the first few weeks after the earthquake, and to bridge the critical transitional phase from emergency relief to reconstruction.

The appeal is based on the findings of the UN team, determined in close cooperation with national authorities. Its aim is not to contribute further to the emergency relief needs created by the earthquake, as these have been adequately addressed already, but to secure international assistance to the government's efforts to restore the rural health service for the health of children and families; to rehabilitate the primary education system; to secure sufficient drinking water supplies until water mains are rebuilt; to facilitate early repair of irrigation systems to avoid damage to crops, orchards and livestock; and finally to support income generating activities in the rural areas.

II. THE JOINT UNITED NATIONS APPEAL

1. Health

1.1 Objective

To provide basic health services to the affected population of 50,000 people within six months, by reconstructing and re-equipping 48 rural health houses, 7 rural health centres and one rural maternity centre.

1.2 Background

The UN assessment mission confirms that all the above facilities were destroyed beyond repair during the earthquake. Through revitalization of these facilities, the immunization programme, family planning, safe delivery of pregnant women, maternal and child care, growth monitoring of children and surveillance for communicable diseases, will all be put back on a routine basis.

The health network will provide services to the following population:

Name of area
Total population
Pregnant
Women
Women of child bearing age
Children
< 1 year
Children
< 5 years
Number of households
Qaen
25,076
419
4,370
837
5,159
7,208
Khaf
8,410
112
897
190
1,097
1,805
Birjand
19,172
287
2,875
433
2,507
3,834
Total
52,658
818
8,142
1,460
8,763
12,847
The affected areas are considered to be amongst the most remote and deprived areas of the country. Nevertheless, through the presence of the primary health care (PHC) network in the area, health indicators have not been lagging behind the national average.

Immunization coverage for children under one year: > 95 percent
Care of pregnant women: 63 percent
Deliveries carried out by trained TBAs: 60 percent
Family planning (use of contraceptives): 32 percent

The collapse of the PHC network deprives the people in this area of not only much needed preventative health services but also curative health care, as the village houses and rural health centres are the only places where people could seek assistance. The breakdown of the PHC system, and with it the referral system, will jeopardize the lives of pregnant women and neonates, particularly if emergency care is needed.

1.3 Strategy

Overall responsibility for reconstruction belongs to the Government, represented by the Ministry of Health in close cooperation with authorities on Provincial and District level. The Government will be responsible for planning, coordination, transport, manpower and infrastructure support.

UNDP will be responsible for the purchase and delivery of building materials, for monitoring the construction work and for ensuring that accepted standards for the construction of earthquake resistant structures are followed. UNICEF and WHO will work closely with national and local health authorities in planning for health care delivery and developing strategies to deal with aftermath consequences of the earthquake. UNICEF is also responsible for the purchase of drugs, medical supplies, and equipment, either nationally or internationally.

1.4 Budget

The estimated budget for this emergency healthcare rehabilitation proposal is USD 2,287,471 (or, approximately USD 2,287,000) which covers the construction of the centres, and the provision of supplies, equipment, ambulances and capacity for the communication of health education information.

The budget breakdown is as follows:

Health Facilities
Unit
Unit Cost ($)
Total Cost ($)
Supplies and equipment for health houses
48
6,439.74
309,107
Motor cycle for health houses
48
3,200
153,300
Construction of health houses
48
17,000
816,000
Sub-total
1,278,407
Supplies and equipment for RHC
7
27,309
191,164
Ambulance
7
25,000
175,000
Construction
7
84,000
588,000
Sub-total
954,164
Supplies & equipment for RMC
1
7,500
7,500
Ambulance
1
25,000
25,000
Construction
1
22,400
22,400
Sub-total
54,900
Grand total
2,287, 471
(app. 2,287,000)
2. Education

2.1 Objective

To equip and construct 572 classrooms in 144 school buildings with 12,263 students in order to get schools functioning again within six months, before the next academic year.

2.2 Background

The UN team confirms the extensive damage to all schools, and recommend that special efforts be made to reconstruct them to new earthquake resistant standards. Although local officials ensured that tents were set up in order to return children to school as soon as possible, this was a temporary measure to help them pass their end of year examinations scheduled for May and now expected to take place in June. There is an urgent need to reconstruct the schools before the next academic year in the autumn, when rain and cold temperatures will make the use of tents very uncomfortable.

It is worth mentioning that of the total of 1,568 deaths in this disaster, 7 were teachers and 355 were school children. This is one in five of all deaths, and 123 of these children died in their classrooms when the earthquake struck.

The following table shows the number of schools destroyed:

Type of School
No. of Schools
No. of Classrooms
No. of Students
Primary school
110
390
7,798
Guidance school
27
137
3,447
High School
6
38
1,243
Boarding school
1
7
125
Total
144
572
12,613
Under the prevailing circumstances school children are especially vulnerable to drop-out and extra measures need to be taken to encourage them to attend school. The provincial and district education departments would be in charge of the implementation and monitoring of the proposed activities, with UN assistance in the latter area.

2.3 Strategy

Overall responsibility for reconstruction belongs to the Government, represented by the Ministry of Education in close cooperation with authorities on Provincial and District level. The Government will be responsible for planning, coordination, all construction, transport, manpower and infrastructure support.

UNDP will be responsible for the purchase and delivery of building materials, for monitoring the construction work and for ensuring that accepted standards for the construction earthquake resistant structures are followed. UNICEF and UNESCO will work closely with national and local authorities in planning for education service delivery in this area and developing strategies to reach all children, in particular girl students. UNICEF will be responsible for the purchase of educational materials and school equipment, either nationally or internationally.

2.4 Budget

The estimated budget for this emergency education rehabilitation proposal is USD 1,644,000 which covers the construction of the primary, guidance and secondary high schools, as well as the provision of supplies and equipment for the schools.

The budget breakdown is as follows:

Type of School
No. of Classrooms
Unit Cost ($)
Total Cost ($)
Primary
390
2,400
936,000
Secondary
137
2,400
329,000
High school
38
3,000
114,000
Boarding school
13
4,000
52,000
Supplies & equipment
579
150
87,000
Stationary
12,613 students
10
126,000
Grand total
1,644,000
3. Drinking Water Supplies and Irrigation

3.1 Objective

To restore safe and sufficient drinking water supplies in order to prevent the outbreak of disease and to secure sufficient irrigation water in order to avoid immediate and long-term negative effects on agricultural production.

3.2 Background

Irrigation in the affected area is achieved using a traditional system in existence for thousands of years and known as ghanat. They consist of a number of shallow wells approximately 20 m apart linked by a horizontal shaft connecting the bottom of the wells thereby creating an underground tunnel. The ghanats are located in gentle hillsides or seasonal riverbeds where rainwater collects in the permeable ground. The depth of the wells varies from a few meters to as many as 30. The flow of water in the ghanat depends on the water table in the area, and upon its length. This can be anything from 100 m up to 1km or even longer, with many secondary branches. The digging and maintenance of a ghanat is hard and dangerous work, although a good ghanat can produce water for an entire village, smaller ones sufficient for only a few farmers. From the ghanat the water is then distributed through a system of channels or pipes.

According to the assessment done by regional and local authorities, a total of 240 ghanats have sustained damage, affecting 39 km of channels carrying 432 litres of water per second. 54 wells have also been destroyed causing losses of over USD 2 million. In addition, three earth dams creating reservoirs were also totally destroyed. The UN team confirms the extensive damage to the existing water system leaving many villages without sufficient drinking water and irrigation. The high priority accorded to an early restoration of irrigation was confirmed by the number of villagers already engaged in the repair of their ghanats.

The ghanats are the source of drinking water in most of the affected villages, although distribution systems are not equally developed in all villages. In some, each household is connected to the system, in others there is hardly any piping at all. One of the highest priorities for all villages is clean and sufficient drinking water. A failure to achieve this will put the population at risk of waterborne diseases, and an increase in diarrhoea has already been reported. Only a piped water system from a protected water source, adequate water storage facilities, the ability to chlorinate and a system for the disposal of waste water and sewage will secure sufficient safe drinking water.

3.3 Strategy

Open distribution irrigation channels need clearing and in many places repair, whilst drinking water intakes, storage and distribution systems will be protected from contamination. The proposal envisages completing the water mains system to public buildings including health houses and schools, and undertaking the first stage of the water distribution system to private dwellings, which will be completed when the main housing reconstruction programme takes place.

Overall responsibility for reconstruction belongs to the Government, represented by the Ministry of Jihad in close cooperation with authorities on Provincial and District level. The Government will be responsible for planning, coordination, transport and infrastructure support. Manpower will be provided by each individual village, since the bulk of the work involves manual clearing of the wells and in many cases the digging of new wells and shafts. To achieve this it will be necessary to extract the water from the working area with pumps.

UNDP will be responsible for the purchase of equipment and materials either nationally or internationally, and monitoring the repair work.

3.4 Budget

The estimated budget for this emergency irrigation rehabilitation proposal is USD 1,777,000 which covers equipment urgently needed for the repair of ghanats and the re-establishment of systems for the distribution or irrigation water, as well as materials needed to protect the water intakes, water storage and piped distribution system against contamination.

The budget breakdown is as follows:

List of required items by sector:
Drinking Water and Irrigation
No. of Units
Unit Cost ($)
Total Cost ($)
Mud extractors
15
6,500
98,000
Motor pumps 100 hp
6
7,000
42,000
Motor pumps 77 hp
15
6,000
90,000
Pipes (194 km)
194 km
5,000
970,000
Pipes (6 and 4 inch)
5,000
23 per m
115,000
Repair of deeps wells
8
33,000
264,000
Pumps for drinking water stations
7
20,000
140,000
Chlorination equipment (units)
5
1,660
9,000
MT of chlorine
10
1,600
17,000
Transportable public bath
1
32,000
32,000
Total
1,777,000
4. Agriculture

4.1 Objective

To provide supplies and equipment to support the veterinary services, to safeguard crops and to restore a system for animal quarantine to avoid the spread of disease amongst livestock.

4.2 Background

The disaster was particularly damaging to the rural economy. The people of the affected area are predominantly low income farmers and nomads whose livelihood is based on the production of crops and the husbandry of free-range livestock. The main agricultural products from the region are wheat, barley, cotton and sugar beet. Saffron, zereshk (local berries) and various fruits are also prevalent and are mainly exported to other parts of the country or to the international market.

Cultivated land in the affected area included the following:

orchards
2,520 ha.
wheat
2,300 ha. (due to be harvested three weeks after the earthquake)
barley
850 ha.
sugar beet
850 ha.
saffron
800 ha.
cotton
450 ha.
The communities are very dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Total losses are 19,000 sheep and goats, 2,900 cattle, 1,416 horses and donkeys, and an unspecified number of poultry. The total value of this stock is estimated at over USD 3 million. An added complication is the fact that farmers were already struggling to secure enough feed for their animals due to drought, and an estimated import of 20,000 MT of barley is urgently required to avoid a drastic decline in the number of livestock remaining.

The two veterinary laboratories sustained extensive damage and loss of equipment. During the rescue phase the district veterinary organization was responsible for the burial or destruction of all dead livestock as well as the disinfection of villages. The UN team visited one of the veterinary laboratories and noted that it was beyond viable repair.

Support to the agricultural sector should take account of the area's susceptibility to drought, earthquakes and floods, as well as its sustainability in the future. In addition to the need for replacement laboratory equipment, preventive measures will have to be taken to avoid further damage in this sector from ticks and other diseases, occurring through existing unsanitary conditions, and which could threaten both livestock and human populations.

4.3 Strategy

Overall responsibility for reconstruction belongs to the Government, represented by the Ministries of Agriculture and Jihad in close cooperation with authorities on Provincial and District level. The Government will be responsible for planning, coordination, transport, manpower and infrastructure support. Their responsibility also includes restoration of the livestock quarantine system.

FAO will be responsible for purchasing the replacement of laboratory equipment, insecticide sprayers and refrigerated stores for vaccines, as well as a fully equipped mobile veterinary unit.

4.4 Budget

The estimated budget of this emergency agricultural support is USD 127,000 which covers the provision of supplies and equipment, and the restoration of the animal quarantine system.

The budget breakdown is as follows:

List of required items by sector: Agriculture
No. of Units
Unit Cost ($)
Total Cost ($)
Mobile veterinary unit
1
50,000
50,000
Sprayers (100 litre)
3
1,300
5,000
Sprayers (8 litre)
5
400
2,000
Vet. lab equipment
1
50,000
50,000
Animal quarantine
2
10,000
20,000
Total
127,000
5. Income Generating Activities

5.1 Objective

To provide tools, equipment and materials for the early revitalization of income generating activities, in particular to support the re-establishment of workshops and local industry.

5.2 Background

The earthquake has devastated local rural industry leaving many people without means of income generation. Most of the single parent families are women who require support to recommence production at home. These activities include cloth manufacturing, carpet weaving and the manufacture of handicrafts. The highest losses have been sustained by the weaving industry, which employs some 2,742 women who lost most of their tools and materials. Losses to rural industry include 43 motor mills, 12 carpentry workshops, 30 welding workshops, 5 mosaic (tile) factories and a brick-field. This is estimated to amount to USD 4 million.

5.3 Strategy

Overall responsibility for the support of income generating activities belongs to the Government, represented by the Ministry of Jihad in close cooperation with authorities on Provincial and District level. The Government will be responsible for planning, coordination, and infrastructure support.

UNDP will be responsible for the local or national purchase of new equipment.

5.4 Budget

The estimated budget of this emergency income generation support is USD 1,906,000 which covers the provision of new equipment and supplies for weavers and local workshops.

The budget breakdown is as follows:

List of required items by sector: Income Generating Activities
No. of Units
Unit Cost ($)
Total Cost ($)
Equipped for weavers
2,000
300
600,000
Materials for weavers
2,000
250
500,000
Carpentry equipment
12
8,000
96,000
Motorized mills
43
10,000
430,000
Welding workshops
30
6,000
180,000
Brick factory
1
100,000
100,000
Total
1,906,000
III. SUMMARY

1. Total Budget

The total budget breakdown by sector for this joint UN appeal is as follows:

Serial
Sector
Total Cost USD $
1
Health
2,287,000
2
Education
1,644,000
3
Drinking Water Supply and Irrigation
1,777,000
4
Agriculture
127,000
5
Income Generating Activities
1,906,000
Total Cost
7,741,000
2. Time frame for Implementation and Reporting

The period envisaged for the full implementation of the programme is eight months.

3. Implementation Mechanism

This is a joint appeal by all UN agencies working in Iran and it is therefore envisaged that donors could donate their contributions through DHA to be channelled through the respective implementing UN agencies. This would enable the UN system to better coordinate activities supported by this appeal. All components will be implemented by counterpart government ministries and organizations, as indicated in the Summary Implementation Table attached below. All disbursements to these government organizations and the reporting on the use of funds will follow procedures established and managed by the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs (UNDHA) for emergency appeals.

At the field level the appropriate UN agencies will be responsible for monitoring and reporting on the progress of work. The budget for each sector includes operational support costs.

The overall monitoring of national implementation for the contributions made in response to this appeal will be conducted jointly by the Disaster Task Force (DTF) of the Ministry of Interior in liaison with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the UNDMT. DTF will assume the national coordinating role for the implementation of the contributions. An joint inter-agency report on the use of the funds and progress of work will be submitted to donors within 8 months of the appeal.

Summary Table of Rehabilitation Costs and Governmental Responsibilities

Serial
Rehabilitation Requirements
Cost (US $)
Government Implementing Organization
1
Health service
Construction costs
1,426,000
Housing Foundation /Ministry of Health & UNDP
Supplies and equipment
508,000
Ministry of Health & UNICEF
Ambulance and bikes
353,000
Ministry of Health & UNICEF
Sub total
2,287,000
2
Education
Construction
1,431,000
Ministry of Education & UNDP
Supplies and equipment
87,000
Ministry of Education & UNICEF
Stationary
126,000
Ministry of Education & UNICEF
Sub total
1,644,000
3
Drinking Water Supply and Irrigation
Pumps and extractors
370,000
Ministries of Agriculture and Jihad & UNDP
Construction
264,000
Ministries of Agriculture and Jihad & UNDP
Chlorination equipment and chlorine
26,000
Ministries of Health and Jihad & UNDP
Pipes
1,085,000
Ministry of Jihad & UNDP
Water tanker/mobile bath
32,000
Ministry of Jihad & UNDP
Sub total
1,777,000
4
Agriculture
Equipment: Sprayers, laboratory equipment, etc.
107,000
Ministry of Agriculture & FAO
Construction of animal sheds
20,000
Ministries of Agriculture and Jihad & FAO
Sub total
127,000
5
Income Generating Activities
Materials for weavers
500,000
Ministry of Jihad & UNDP
Equipment for weavers
600,000
Ministry of Jihad & UNDP
Equipment for welding, carpentry, etc.
706,000
Ministry of Jihad & UNDP
Construction
100,000
Ministry of Jihad & UNDP
Subtotal
1,906,000
GRAND TOTAL
7,741,000