On September 30, 2009 at 17:16, a powerful earthquake struck off the western Sumatra coast in Indonesia, measuring 7.6 degrees on the Richter Scale. The epicentre was 45 kilometres westnorthwest of the port city of Padang, Sumatra (population approximately 900,000 people). A second quake measuring 6.2 occurred 22 minutes later. A third 6.8 quake struck an inland area 225 km southeast of Padang early the following morning. The cumulative impact of these events left a broad swath of destruction. Three villages in the path of the disaster in Padang Pariaman District appear to have been completely levelled and most of their inhabitants may have been buried due to a subsequent landslide. However, access to these areas remains difficult, and few details are known yet of the extent of the destruction or the loss of life, with rain also hampering early relief efforts.
According to provincial authorities, at time of publication of this document, the official death toll was placed at 739 people, with another 296 people missing and presumed dead, primarily in Padang Pariaman District. 863 people have been seriously injured, 1,356 people slightly injured. Damage to houses was widespread with 121,679 homes severely damaged, 52,206 moderately damaged, and another 57,510 lightly damaged, rendering homeless an estimated 250,000 families, many too frightened to return home. Hospitals, schools, places of worship, government buildings and public infrastructure were also all damaged to one degree or another. 3,108 classrooms and 118 health facilities were damaged, half of them extensively. These numbers are changing daily and are likely to increase, as the assessment extends to rural areas. Hospitals were initially overwhelmed with the injured, particularly in Padang City, where authorities established makeshift temporary hospitals to treat the injured. Health officials expressed concern about the potential for outbreak of diseases including tetanus and skin diseases due to contaminated water.
The initial impact was concentrated in the cities of Padang and Pariaman and adjacent areas. As well as the extensive structural damage to buildings, the earthquakes triggered numerous landslides and other topographical disturbances, particularly in the District of Padang Pariaman. The Indonesian Government's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) confirmed that the most heavily affected areas include: Padang City and Pariaman City (estimated population 49,867 people), along with the districts of Padang Pariaman, Pesisir Selatan and Pasaman Barat. Risk factors included proximity to the epicentre, geological factors, poor construction practices, and pre-existing damage from a 2007 earthquake. Low-lying coastal areas with heavy alluvial silt were also strongly affected, with up to 80% of houses destroyed in neighbourhoods such as Chinatown in Padang.
The West Sumatra earthquake occurred less than a month after a 7.3 earthquake struck Tasikmalaya District, West Java on September 2, killing 81 people, injuring 1,248 others and demolishing 65,643 homes, and extensive public infrastructure. The West Sumatra earthquakes have thus placed a second wave of demands on the disaster management authorities and line ministries. From the outset, the Government of Indonesia led the response to the emergency across the affected regions, coordinated by the BNPB, as well as the Governor of West Sumatra at the provincial level, and involving line ministries such as Health, Education, Social Welfare, Women's Empowerment, Planning, Public Works, the Army and many faith-based organisations. A state of emergency has been proclaimed for one month, and coordinated international assistance has been welcomed.
The UN Resident/Humanitarian Coordinator, supported by the United Nations and international humanitarian community, has been supporting the response of the Government, through the cluster structure already in place. As many as 115 international non governmental organizations were assisting in the response as of the launch of this plan, in addition to significant levels of recorded bilateral assistance contributed or pledged. At least 21 search and rescue teams from 14 countries (688 personnel) completed assessments of 31 collapsed buildings in Padang in the first days after the disaster, as the Indonesian military's emergency response teams deployed heavy equipment and recovered trapped victims. After some initial survivors were pulled from the rubble, including children from a collapsed school, hopes for finding others alive faded, and the search by international teams was called off on October 5. Search and rescue efforts led by national teams continue, although attention is now turning to intensifying vital humanitarian activities for the survivors of the disaster.
In both Padang and Jakarta, OCHA has been working to coordinate the response among international partners, both bilateral and non-governmental; strong emphasis has been placed on the imperative need to work in close coordination with Government, provincial and municipal authorities. The cluster structure has been established on the ground and is in full operation; and an initial rapid assessment was conducted of the affected areas using a planning method previously developed in the cluster system's contingency planning process.
In close coordination with the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the BNPB, and based on reports and assessments from official sources, the UN System, and non-UN partners, have prepared this humanitarian response plan requesting US$ 38,031,101 for 90 days. In-kind logistical contributions (air support, trucks, etc) put at the disposal of the UN operation will be counted against the Plan, reducing the unmet cash requirements accordingly.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Table I. Summary of Requirements - By Cluster and Organisation
2. CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES
2.2 RESPONSE TO DATE
2.3 HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES AND NEEDS ANALYSIS
3. CLUSTER RESPONSE PLANS
3.2 EARLY RECOVERY
3.4 FOOD AND NUTRITION
3.6 LOGISTICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS
3.9 WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE (WASH)
3.10 COORDINATION AND SAFETY
4. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
ANNEX I. LIST OF PROJECTS
PROJECTS GROUPED BY SECTOR/CLUSTER
PROJECTS GROUPED BY ORGANISATION
SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS BY IASC STANDARD SECTOR
ANNEX II. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ANNEX III. IFRC Emergency Appeal
Please note that this plan will be revised regularly.
Full project details can be viewed, downloaded and printed from www.reliefweb.int/fts.