(Extract) A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster On 2 February 2014, The Indonesian Volcanology and Geology Disaster Mitigation Centre (BVMG) set the status of Kelud volcano from NORMAL to AWARE. Eight days later, on 10 February at 16:00, the status was raised to ALERT.
On 13 February 2014 at 21:15, BVMG then increased the status further from ALERT (Level III) to DANGER (Level IV).
Just two hours after the declaration of the DANGER status the first eruption occurred at 22:55. A series of eruptions followed with plumes rising up to 19 km into the atmosphere. Ash and stones were thrown into the air and started falling throughout the nearby Kediri District. By the dawn of 14 February, the volcanic ash had drifted across the provinces of Central and West Java. Eighteen areas have been affected including Kediri, Malang, Blitar, Surabaya,
Ponorogo, Pacitan, Solo, Yogya, Boyolali, Magelang, Purworejo, Temanggung, Wonogiri, Bantul, Sleman, Kulon Progo, Kebumen and Ampenan. In addition, seven international airports were closed. These included major airport hubs of Surabaya, Solo, Yogyakarta, Semarang and Malang.