A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Since the first 6.4 magnitude earthquake hit Lombok, province of West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, on 29 July 2018, four further earthquakes and multiple aftershocks impacted the districts of North Lombok, East Lombok, West Lombok, Central Lombok, Mataram, and Sumbawa island, in addition to Bali island. The Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management (Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana or BNPB) reported more than 564 fatalities and almost 150,000 houses damaged due to the earthquakes.
Another magnitude 5.8 earthquake shook the Island of Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara on 17 March 2019, with depth of 19 km and followed within minutes by another earthquake of 5.2 magnitude with depth of 10 km and epicentre located in East Lombok. The earthquake was felt strongly in West Lombok, North Lombok, East Lombok, and mildly in Central Lombok and Mataram. No tsunami alert was issued by the authorities; however, people in Lombok panicked and evacuated to the nearest higher ground.
On 18 March 2019, PMI/ IFRC joint teams visited North Lombok and East Lombok districts for further assessment of damage and needs. An information bulletin was published on 22 March. The findings of the assessment did not reflect major needs. PMI, supported by IFRC, provided assistance to affected families without the need to revise the emergency plan of action.
COVID-19 Pandemic On 13 April 2020, the Government declared a state of emergency for COVID-19 as a non-natural disaster in Indonesia. The number of confirmed cases has continued to increase significantly since the announcement of the first two cases in March 2020. Based on Indonesia Ministry of Health data as of 30 April 2020, 9,771 people have tested positive, of which 784 cases have been fatal. The Indonesian Ministry of Health on 10 March 2020 activated 132 referral hospitals in 33 provinces for COVID-19 case management. The government also established an emergency hospital for COVID-19 quarantine and treatment in Galang Island of Riau Islands Province.
The declaration allows the government to invoke powers to ease the entry of international aid, as well as to generate or allocate funds to respond to the pandemic. The president also formed the COVID-19 acceleration Task Force, with the Head of BNPB (National Agency of Disaster Management) as leading the task force. BNBP stated a 91-day emergency status on the pandemic starting from 29 February until 29 May 2020. Task forces have also been established for 25 provinces, of which 11 provinces have declared an emergency status. The task force is assigned to lead the prevention, response and recovery activities, as well as to employ experts to support the responses. The task force is also required to consult the policy plan with the head of the national task force.
On 16 March 2020, the Ministry of Internal Affairs issued a temporary restriction to export antiseptics, materials for masks manufacturing and personal protective equipment (PPE). On 3 April 2020, the Ministry of Health released guidelines to large-scale social restrictions (Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar, PSBB). The guidelines restrict public activities in certain provinces that have been hit by COVID-19. The regulation also became the basis for closing of schools and offices; restrictions on religious activities in communal areas, activities in public spaces and facilities, social and cultural activities; limitation of public transport modes and private vehicles; and other restrictions concerning defence and security aspects. On 10 April, Jakarta, with the highest number of positive cases in Indonesia, became the first province that implanted PSBB. On 21 April, the government also banned the traditional “Mudik” or mass exodus of people to go to home provinces, starting on 24 April 2020 until June.
All 34 Provinces in Indonesia identified with positive cases: the top five highest numbers being in DKI Jakarta, West Java, Banten, East Java and Central Sulawesi provinces.
Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) province is one of the emergency red zone provinces due to the COVID-19 virus.
Projecting the number of patients infected in the province will assist the government in taking practical policies and preventing problems that may occur due to this virus.
Provincial Health Office is coordinating with health posts of ports and harbors as well as with Provincial Tourism Office for regular monitoring of people in and out of the province, especially those arriving from country/provinces with confirmed cases. The Corona Crisis Centre has been established and based in NTB Governor Office and acts as the COVID-19 public information center. Thermal scanners have been made available in all entry points such as Lombok airport and seaports.
Government at provincial and district level have imposed more strict restrictions to reduce the risk of spreading COVID19 disease by issuing several circular letters addressed to the wider community. NTB government has urged community across NTB to halt and not to participate in any social, cultural, and religious masses activities in all public places. All transportation line via air, land, and sea entering NTB and between Lombok and Sumbawa Islands has been terminated from 24 April to 1 June 2020. A curfew from 10:00 to 17:00 has been enacted.