Indonesia: Earthquakes and Tsunamis - Sunda Straits Tsunami Emergency Plan of Action Operation Update n° 3 Emergency appeal n° MDRID013
A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
29 July 2018: A 6.4 magnitude earthquake strikes off Lombok, province of West Nusa Tenggara, at 05:47h local time.
5 August: A second and stronger earthquake, of 7.0 magnitude and depth of 15km hits Lombok at 19:46h local time.
9 and 18 August: New 5.9 and 6.4 magnitude earthquakes strike Lombok. According to BNPB, the four quakes killed more than 510 people, injured at least 7,100 others, and displaced more than 431,000 people.
28 September: A major earthquake, of 7.4 magnitude, rocks Central Sulawesi at 17:02h, at a depth of 10km, followed by a Tsunami wave which mostly hit coastal areas of Donggala and Palu regencies.
22 December: Coastal areas around the Sunda Strait, specifically in Pandeglang, South Lampung and Serang districts are hit by waves reaching 30-90 caused by a massive landslide on Mount Kakatoa, and active volcano in the center of the strait.
23 December: With the assistance of the IFRC CC, PMI launches a request for DREF funding for CHF 328,621 with an emergency plan of action an integrated emergency response.
26 December: The Indonesia Tsunami and Earthquake emergency appeal is revised for a third time, incorporating the Sunda Straits tsunami, and now seeks up to CHF 38.9 million to enable PMI to deliver assistance to 41,400 households – 20,000 in Lombok, 20,000 in Central Sulawesi for 30 months and 1,400 in areas affected by the Sunda Straits Tsunami for 6 months.
Description of the disaster
Indonesia was hit with several major earthquakes and tsunamis in 2018 with the first major ones striking off Lombok on 29 July 2018 and followed by earthquakes and tsunami in Central Sulawesi on 28 September 2018. Both disasters damaged thousands of buildings and displaced tens of thousands of people.
On 22 December 2018, Indonesia was again hit by a tsunami at Carita Beach in Banten Province and the coast around the Sunda Strait, specifically in Pandeglang, South Lampung and Serang districts. A tsunami early warning was not issued as the cause of the tsunami was not an earthquake, which the current system monitors and responds to. The causes of this event according to the BMKG (Agency for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics), BNPB (Indonesian Disaster Management Authority) and PVMBG (Centre of Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation) was a volcanic tremor from Anak Krakatau mountain which caused underwater landslide and generated the tsunami.
Based on the official statistics from BNPB on 31 January 2018, the tsunami caused 437 death, 14,059 injured and 16 people are still missing. A total of 1,614 houses are severely damaged, 527 houses partially damaged and 97 houses lightly damaged.
BPBD together with the military, police, the national search and rescue agency (Basarnas), local government office, Ministry of Social Welfare Volunteers (Tagana), Indonesian Red Cross (PMI), volunteers and the community provided the initial emergency response to the affected people. The response was coordinated locally from a command post. Heavy equipment is being dispatched to clear debris to ease evacuation and response.
Summary of current response
Overview of Host National Society
Both the Lampung and Banten PMI provincial branches have been actively supporting the affected branches since the onset and have deployed over 649 volunteers from across their provinces. These volunteers had provided support to evacuations, search and rescue, first aid and continue to run medical clinics (mobile and fixed) and referrals, setting up emergency shelter sites, distributing clean water and essential relief items, among other things. To keep their work coordinated and ensure good communications, PMI has established operation command posts (Postco) from which team leaders plan the local response, direct the volunteers, gather information including feedback from the community and offer hot meals to anyone affected or involved in the response. In addition, PMI has recruited and trained 11 Community Based Action Teams (CBAT) as part of the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) activities. Each team consists of 20 people from affected communities in both of provinces. In total there are 220 CBAT members actively supporting implementation of activities organized by PMI and external stakeholder in their area, and prepared to respond to any community disaster
With numerous Government agencies and corporate social groups active in the area, PMI only distributed a limited number of NFIs to avoid duplication. PMI provided the NFI based on the gaps in the locations based on assessments from the network of volunteers present in the communities.
The following infographic indicates the sectoral highlights on initial emergency relief phase and services provided by PMI through the support of the IFRC and the partner national societies from the beginning of the operation to date (31 August 2019).