Indonesia

Indonesia: Earthquakes and Tsunamis - Sunda Straits Tsunami, Emergency appeal n° MDRID013

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Situation Report
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A. SITUATION ANALYSIS

Appeal History

  • 29 July 2018: A 6.4 magnitude earthquake strikes off Lombok, province of West Nusa Tenggara.

  • 5 August: A second and stronger earthquake, of 7.0 magnitude and depth of 15km hits Lombok.

  • 9 and 18 August: New 5.9 and 6.4 magnitude earthquakes strike Lombok. According to BNPB, the four quakes killed more than 510 people, injured at least 7,100 others, and displaced more than 431,000 people.

  • 28 September: A major earthquake, of 7.4 magnitude, rocks Central Sulawesi at a depth of 10km, followed by a tsunami which hit coastal areas of Donggala and Palu districts.

  • 22 December: Coastal areas around the Sunda Strait, specifically in Pandeglang, South Lampung and Serang districts are hit by waves reaching 30-90cm caused by a massive landslide on Mount Kakatoa, an active volcano in the centre of the strait.

  • 23 December: With the assistance of the IFRC CCST, PMI launches a DREF operation for CHF 328,621

  • 26 December: The MDRID013 Indonesia Tsunami and Earthquake emergency appeal is revised for a third time, incorporating the Sunda Straits tsunami to seek CHF 38.9 million to enable PMI to deliver assistance to 41,400 households – 20,000 in Lombok, 20,000 in Central Sulawesi for 30 months and 1,400 in areas affected by the Sunda Straits Tsunami for 6 months.

  • 2 December 2019: The MDRID013 emergency plan of action is revised. For Sunda, the revision extends the timeframe from 12 to 16 months (to end 30 April 2020) and increases the target for livelihood intervention to 1,160 households, and overall target to 3,000 households.

Description of the disaster

Indonesia was hit with several major earthquakes and tsunamis in 2018 with the first major ones striking off Lombok on 29 July 2018 and followed by earthquakes, tsunami and liquefaction in Central Sulawesi on 28 September 2018, damaging hundreds of thousands of houses in both areas and displacing hundreds of thousands of people.

On 22 December 2018, another tsunami hit Carita Beach in Banten Province and the coast around the Sunda Strait, specifically in Pandenglang, South Lampung and Serang districts. The tsunami was generated when a part of the Krakatau volcano collapsed into the sea and displacing large quantities of water.

Based on government reports, more than 1,600 houses were severely damaged or destroyed and more than 600 were medium- or lightly damaged, displacing more than 16,000 people. The disaster also killed more than 400 people and injured more than 14,000. More than half of the casualties was recorded in Pandegnlang district.

According to Government reports, the event was recorded four times in four different locations with tidal waves reaching a height of 30-90 cm. The highest wave hit Serang sub-district with a height of 90 cm. BMKG issued high-tide warning before the tsunami struck for the mentioned area. A tsunami early warning was not issued as the cause of the tsunami was not an earthquake, which the current system monitors and responds to.

BPBD, together with the military, police, the national search and rescue agency (Basarnas), local government office, Ministry of Social Welfare Volunteers (Tagana), Indonesian Red Cross (PMI), volunteers and the community provided emergency response support to the affected people. The response was locally coordinated in a command post, along with the establishment field kitchens and displacement sites. Heavy equipment was dispatched to clear debris to ease evacuation and response efforts.