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Appeal No. 30/02; launched on: 18 October 2002 for two months for CHF 383,000 to assist 4,000 beneficiaries with a contingency to assist additional 2,000 people. Following a detailed assessment the budget was revised to CHF 203,000 and the rehabilitation operation extended until 1st half January 2003.
Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) Allocated: CHF 100,000 (reimbursed)
Period covered: 18 October 2002 to 31 January 2003; last Operations Update (no. 3) issued 20 December 2003.
Appeal coverage: 101.7%
Related Appeals: 2002 Annual Appeal for Indonesia (no. 01.33/2002)
Summary: Donors responded well to the operation and significant relief and rehabilitation was provided to those communities in need in a timely manner. The situation with the affected population has largely returned to a semblance of normalcy, though some chronic needs remain real (i.e. water shortage, lack of employment, low income, poor health facilities). The Indonesian Red Cross - Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI) - and the Federation have completed this operation with all emergency needs covered and the relevant authorities now in a position to address the longer-term consequences of the disaster. In this regard, the second (rehabilitation) phase of the operation - focusing on the distribution of basic building items, agricultural tools, fishing lines and nets - will provide sustainable support to the vulnerable families. Due in large measure to the cost effective manner in which PMI implemented this operation as well as the outstanding cooperation of the local authorities, the Federation is contacting donors to discuss use of the balance remaining.
On 10 October 2002, a massive earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale hit Manokwari district, in the Indonesian province of Papua, affecting more than 10,000 people.
According to details released by the district disaster management committee (SATLAK), eight people were killed and 632 injured, with significant devastation in nine different sub-districts: 1,000 homes were severely damaged, 690 homes partially damaged, with varying degrees of destruction to 14 mosques, 46 churches, 44 office buildings, 21 schools, seven halls, two markets, 30 km of road, five bridges and 71 other buildings. The earthquake was followed by a number of aftershocks over several days.
As requested by the local authority and following an assessment, PMI - supported by the Federation - targeted assistance to 4,000 beneficiaries (800 families) in two phases, with a contingency (subsequently not required) to assist an additional 2,000 people. This was carried out in close consultation with SATLAK, comprising the secretary governor (chairperson); head of district social welfare, health, works; and representatives from the army, police, navy, women's association as well as the business community. At the request of PMI an appeal was launched on 18 October 2002.
During implementation, PMI and the Federation worked closely with members of the coordination committee at both national and district levels, including local government representatives and community leaders. PMI and the Federation also facilitated local disaster management committee meetings, which made possible information sharing and input from stakeholders.
Red Cross and Red Crescent action
At national level, PMI activated its standard operational plan as soon as the earthquake struck and immediately established communication with the society's Sorong branch and Papua chapter focal persons, Manokwari army and police station, the district hospital and the provincial disaster management committee. Initial information was also shared with other stakeholders including the Federation, ICRC, national disaster management committee (BAKORNAS) and diplomatic community.
Sorong branch - in closest proximity to the disaster zone - continued to monitor the situation. Throughout the first two weeks, PMI deployed two members of its disaster management committee (one each from Bali and Sorong) to participate in assessments and attend coordination meetings with among others SATLAK, the district army, and police. Data was verified through physical checks on damage and needs gathered by local authorities, with PMI national headquarters updated throughout the process. Immediately after the initial assessment by PMI, emergency buffer stocks (owned by PMI and the Federation) were shipped from the ICRC regional warehouse in Surabaya to the disaster zone. An additional CHF 100,000 from the Federation disaster relief emergency fund (DREF), subsequently reimbursed in full, was allocated to the operation.
The operation was divided into two phases with twin objectives: firstly to ensure emergency shelter, essential household materials, hygiene articles, cooking facilities and mattresses for 800 families (4,000 beneficiaries); and then to provide, as essential repair items for the rehabilitation phase, nails and basic building tools for the most vulnerable 200 families (1,000 beneficiaries), to complement local initiatives in the worst affected, most remote areas of Manokwari district. The DREF allocation, generous donor support and local contributions enabled assistance in more sectors than originally planned, with a significantly reduced expenditure budget than anticipated. In summary:
Phase One: Emergency response
programme - plastic sheeting and family kits distribution.
Objective 1: Distribute emergency non-food commodities, (800 pieces of plastic sheeting and the same number of family kits), to 4,000 disaster-affected people in Ransiki, Oransbari, Angi, Warmare, Manokwari city, Windesi, Prafi and Bintuni sub-districts, by 15 November 2002.
Phase Two: Rehabilitation programme
- distribution of building materials and tools (i.e. nails and basic tools).
Objective 2: Complement local initiatives under the second phase of operation, through distribution of essential building materials and tools to 1,000 of the most vulnerable people in Ransiki sub-district, by 15 December 2002.
Procurement was carried out through joint efforts of the Federation and ICRC logistics expertise. Standard Federation/ICRC procedures were applied to all procurements including obtaining a minimum of three quotations from suppliers. To maintain a swift and smooth operation (delays were experienced in the delivery of fishing nets, which caused a hold up in the rehabilitation distribution), orders from the original supplier were cancelled (with minimal cancellation fees) and purchases made directly from the local market in Biak.
The major challenge was transportation of purchased goods between Surabaya and Manokwari and subsequent distribution among targeted affected areas. No direct shipping line was available due to the remote location of Manokwari. Charter ships require a minimum of 11 days to reach Manokwari city, another two or three days to reach other sub-districts. Under these circumstances, an aircraft was chartered from Surabaya to Biak and a ship chartered from Biak to Manokwari, in order to transfer goods for the first phase of the operation. Though less convenient, a normal cargo shipping line was used for the second phase of the operation to save transportation costs. For local transportation, a truck, four-wheel drive open jeep, small cargo ship and country boat were used for transport of relief and rehabilitation goods from Manokwari to the distribution points.
Distribution in both phases was carried out systematically and warehousing expenditures eliminated because of the generous response of the local government. The Manokwari government warehouse was used as the central storage point and goods distributed from there to targeted affected areas.
Duration of operation
PMI intended to complete the operation within two months. Unfortunately, the first phase of the operation was interrupted because of heavy rains and ended only on 25 November 2002, ten days later than expected. Unavailability of certain rehabilitation commodities, coupled with difficulties transporting goods by sea, also delayed distribution of items. Consequently the second phase finished on 20 January 2003, about a month later than originally intended.
Selection of beneficiaries and project areas
Based on assessment findings and coordination with SATLAK, PMI carried out a distribution programme in Ransiki sub-district including Rumberpon island, Oransbari and Angi sub-districts. During a door-to-door survey, Red Cross Red Crescent principles were used as a guideline for identification of beneficiaries and common Red Cross Red Crescent criteria applied for selecting the most vulnerable. People who had lost their houses and belongings were also targeted. Further assessment and random interviews were carried out jointly at field level in designing the rehabilitation package and mapping the area of operation, to avoid overlapping and duplication of response to beneficiary needs.
In both phases of the operation, selected beneficiary families were issued with a token card. All distribution lists were either signed or receipt of relief items confirmed by thumbprint. Each distribution was followed by a monitoring visit either by staff from PMI headquarters, the Federation delegation or government officers. Distributed items per family comprised the following:
- Plastic sheeting/tarpaulin for 830 families:
one per family.
- Family kits for 830 families: one per
family - comprising water containers (two pieces of twenty litres); mattresses;
basic clothing for men, women and children (two sets); cooking utensils;
plates and cups; hygiene articles; candles and matches.
- One month food package (2,200+ calories/person/day) for most vulnerable 31 families: containing 50 kg rice; one box (40 packs) instant noodles; four kg of salt; four kg sugar; five litres cooking oil; 30 tins (250gm/tin) meat (beef); 30 tins (450gm/tin) fish; one box (100 sachets) oral rehydration salts (ORS); and four litres kerosene oil.
Some 88 persons were directly treated by the PMI mobile medical team, while more than 350 families (around 700 people) benefited from a health education campaign carried out simultaneously with a direct medical assistance programme. Medicines, including antibiotics, malaria drugs, ORS, skin disease treatments, and ointments have been handed over to local government health centres in most affected areas, which can support at least 1,000 people during any emergency.
Goods distributed to 200 of the most vulnerable families included mosquito nets (family size), two per family; fishing net (manual casting type), one per family; fishing line nylon (15 kg breaking strain), one roll per family; petro max lantern, one per family; nails (75mm and 100mm), one kg each per family; carpenter claw hammer, one piece per family; chisel (25mm), one piece per family; hand plane, one per family; handsaw for wood, one per family; shovel (round mouth, without handle), one per family; axe (without handle), one per family; pick axe (without handle), one per family; grass knife (hook type), one per family; and machete (straight blade), one per family.
Distribution based on geographic locations
NO. FAMILIES BENEFITED
NO. OF PERSONS BENEFITED
|Ransiki mainland||Plastic sheeting / tarpaulin, family kits||
|Rumberpon island (under Ransiki sub-districts)||Plastic sheeting / tarpaulin, family kits, food packages, health assistance, and rehabilitation packages||
|Oransbari||Plastic sheeting / tarpaulin, family kits||
|Angi||Plastic sheeting / tarpaulin, family kits||
Red Cross Red Crescent visibility was maintained throughout the operation by hoisting PMI flags and banners at all distribution sites. PMI vest or jacket and cap were compulsory clothing for volunteers and there was an information-sharing exercise (including Red Cross Red Crescent fundamental principles and the Code of Conduct) prior to commencing distribution to targeted communities. In addition, there was some positive coverage by the local media and the PMI head of the disaster management division was interviewed. Throughout the operation PMI performance and activity was discussed in UN coordination meetings with appreciation and included in the minutes (i.e. OCHA and WFP monthly coordination meetings).
Monitoring and evaluation
The operation was regularly monitored by PMI and the Federation delegation in the field, with activities reported and posted on the web through three Federation operational updates.
National society capacity building
PMI has considerable experience in response operation and has demonstrated on a number of occasions the ability to respond in a timely and effective manner during natural and conflict situations. It is the only voluntary organisation in Indonesia with nation-wide coverage - through its network of 30 chapters and 323 branches, with a large number of volunteers from schools and universities, including doctors other professionals, providing a strong human resource base for disaster management. Trained SATGANA (rapid response team at field level) teams are important assets of the national society. During 2002, a total of 13 SATGANA training sessions - funded by the Federation and ICRC - were organised throughout Indonesia at PMI branch level, including the Sorong and Jayapura branches in Papua province. The earthquake operation provided excellent field and hands-on experience for Sorong and Jayapura SATGANA team members: on overall emergency and rehabilitation activities (i.e. rapid assessment, basic logistics, beneficiary selection, relief management and standard distribution), together with the new/freshly recruited volunteers for Manokwari branch; under the leadership of headquarters management team. As a result of the operation, there has certainly been an increase in the profile and image of PMI within Manokwari. While there are still clear weaknesses in logistics and procurement implementation, experience gained from the response to this earthquake has been of significant benefit to the society.
Present capacity of the Federation
The Federation delegation in Indonesia currently comprises a head of delegation (HoD), organisational development (OD) delegate, disaster management (DM) delegate, national finance/administration (FA) officer, and office manager. For this operation, the FA officer and DM delegate were responsible for procurement and logistics, with assistance of the ICRC country delegation and the PMI heads of disaster management division and logistics. Where necessary, support was also provided by the HoD and OD delegate.
The operation was implemented well under budget, with an under-spend of some CHF 52,000 - almost 30 per cent of the appeal target. Savings correlated primarily to relief supplies, transport and storage, as well as administrative costs. An assessment during the rehabilitation phase of the operation led to revision of the number of beneficiaries needing assistance - from 1,000 to 500 of the most vulnerable. This coupled with zero spending on medicines (made possible by a local pharmaceutical company donating essential medicines) saw lower than budgeted expenditure on relief supplies. There was also minimal outlay for storage and loading/off-loading facilities, due to the generous support of local government, the business community and beneficiaries themselves. Transportation costs were also kept well under budget by reducing the number of planned chartered flights (a large aircraft was used to transfer relief supplies from Surabaya to Manokwari, and overland travel replaced flights from Manokwari to the operation site in Angi). Use of land-based telephone lines rather than satellite telephones resulted in considerable savings for administration of the programme. To a certain extent local travel (by truck, banana boat, and dingy) provided free of charge by local government and communities, also helped keep overall costs down. Donors whose contributions are significantly underspent are being contacted for consultation on the further use of the funds.
Conclusions and lessons learned
Natural disasters do not always show their full scale immediately. Due to various obstacles hampering access to areas most affected, only subsequent visits to the field and reassessment of the situation made it possible to recognise the full extent of the Papua disaster. This lead to the conclusion that sustainable relief and rehabilitation activities and/or long term assistance is necessary to enable the population in affected areas to re-start and re-establish their lives. In this perspective, the overall operation fulfilled its objectives - targeted families gained access to essential items to cope in the post-disaster situation.
A detailed evaluation of the cost-effectiveness and impact of the operation would require a specific study. Nevertheless, it would appear that apart from logistics delays, the overall input (time, money, expertise) was converted into output (goods and service delivery) reasonably economically. Indeed, savings achieved even on the revised budget point to a tightly managed programme and it will be necessary to discuss with donors the use of unspent funds. To recognise the commendable performance, certain areas of work within the PMI structure, particularly information/PR, should be more proactive to afford the society's activities the visibility and credit they deserve.
For further details please contact:
- Indonesia Delegation: Ole Johan Hauge, Head of Delegation; Tel: +62 21 791 91 841; Fax: +62 21 791 80 905; mobile: +62 811 824 859; email: email@example.com
- In Bangkok: Jurgen Weyand, Regional Head of Delegation; Tel. + 662 661 69 33 and Fax: + 662 661 6937; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- In Geneva: Charles Eldred-Evans/Sandra Rosner, Phone: 41 22 730 4320/4456; Fax: 41 22 733 03 95; email: <email@example.com> or <firstname.lastname@example.org>
For support to or for further information concerning Federation operations in this or other countries, please access the Federation website at http://www.ifrc.org.
This operation sought to administer to the immediate requirements of the victims of this disaster. Subsequent operations to promote sustainable development or long-term capacity building will require additional support, and these programmes are outlined on the Federation's website.
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