Indonesia: Annual Appeal No. 01.61/2003 Annual Report

In Brief
Appeal No. 01.61/2003; Appeal target: CHF 1,773,136; Appeal coverage: 103 %

This Annual Report reflects activities implemented over a one-year period; they form part of, and are based on, longer-term, multi-year planning. All International Federation assistance seeks to adhere to the Code of Conduct and is committed to the Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response in delivering assistance to the most vulnerable. For support to or for further information concerning Federation programmes or operations in this or other countries, please access the Federation's website at http://www.ifrc.org

For further information specifically related to this Annual Appeal please contact:

  • Ole Johan Hauge, Head of Delegation; Phone + 62 21 791 91 841, Fax + 62 21 791 80 905, e-mail: ifrcid07@ifrc.org

  • Charles Evans, Southeast Asia desk; Phone + 41 22 730 4320/4456; Fax + 41 22 733 0395, e-mail: Charles.Evans@ifrc.org

Overall analysis of the programme

Social and political unrest caused by conflicts over autonomy, and compounded by the economic crisis of the past six years, continued in a number of provinces in the Indonesian archipelago during 2003. The secessionist conflict in Aceh province escalated in 2003; martial law was declared in May. The Indonesian Red Cross (Palang Merah Indonesia or PMI) has played an important role in the man-made disaster, providing humanitarian aid to the worst affected sectors of the population. The entire organisation has for a considerable time been occupied with the Aceh conflict, and a number of programme activities have been postponed due to the conflict.

Four years on from the democratic elections of 1999, Indonesia's economic outlook remains uncertain and the current economic growth rate of 3 per cent holds no prospect of reducing the dramatically high unemployment, estimated at nearly 9 per cent in 2003 (or some 40 million people) and expected to rise to 9.2 per cent in 2004, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Country Report for 2004. The forecast GDP growth for 2004 is 4-4.5 per cent, while inflation is expected to remain around 5 per cent, down from an average of 6.6 per cent in 2003 (and 11.9 per cent in 2002). The Indonesian Rupiah appreciated for much of 2003 in response to falling inflation; at year's end the rate was Rp8,420 against the US dollar, up from 9,311 at the end of 2002.

Meanwhile, average basic wages continue to be depressed and the country's industrial capacity underutilised and shrinking as international companies face reduced production demands. According to the latest statistics, an estimated 50 million people (almost 25 per cent of the population) live below the poverty line, with many more on the margins. Poverty related vulnerability is therefore still very high throughout the country. Large numbers of people have no access to education and basic health care; malnutrition is widespread, as is exposure to diseases.

In 2003, the Federation played an increasingly active role in facilitating ties between PMI and new partners and donors working in Indonesia . Three new partners started up bilateral programmes in Indonesia: the Danish Red Cross Society (community-based disaster preparedness), the Netherlands Red Cross Society (community-based first aid and capacity building) and the Australian Red Cross Society (health and disaster preparedness). Service agreements, incorporating the role of the Federation as facilitator and coordinator, have been established between the Federation and Partner National Societies (PNS).

The development of a Cooperation Agreement Strategy (CAS) for Indonesia, involving all partners operating or providing programme support in Indonesia, was finalised by the end of the year. The document and the accompanying Memorandum of Understanding is to be signed by all partners in early 2004. The CAS featured prominently on the agenda of the Indonesian partnership meeting in Jakarta in November.

Meeting the needs of the most vulnerable in Indonesia continues to present a challenge for the Indonesian Red Cross and the Federation. Much preparation and planning has gone into the implementation of disaster management, health and organisational development projects. As the Federation's Indonesia Appeal for 2003 was 103 per cent covered, it was possible to implement all planned Federation/PMI disaster management activities. The most striking result is that PMI now has available a core group of well trained volunteers ready to be deployed to any disaster/conflict situation in the country.

While the Indonesian Red Cross has managed to increase its operational capacity and raise public awareness of its purpose and image, the society still requires financial and capacity building support to overcome difficulties in responding to the vast needs throughout the archipelago.

The process to develop a new five year Strategic Plan 2005-2009 has commenced and was given direction by the Annual General Meeting in December 2003. A statutes review working group, comprised of 17 members from the National Board and various chapters, convened in 2003 to ensure that a consultative process is undertaken throughout the society.

While the direct impact of organisational development (OD) activities is not immediately visible, the number of chapters participating in national meetings , etc. indicates that the organisation is becoming more cohesive and operating as a unified society. While this is always difficult to measure in a tangible way, an increasing number of chapters and branches are seeking out advice and guidance from the national office, and where a new project is suggested, chapters and branches have responded positively. More are looking to implement programmes in their area, i.e. Satgana (rapid response) teams or community-based first aid (CBFA) projects. Certainly an increased number of projects/programmes are being implemented provincially.

The year 2003 was a significant one for PMI, particularly in that the society has become more effective operationally. Facing a number of hurdles and challenges, PMI's disaster management division performed outstandingly throughout the year. All planned activities were accomplished and at the same time 32 different natural events were responded to all over Indonesia (in addition to the conflict responses in Sulawesi, Maluku and Aceh). More than 60,000 people directly benefited from this work. This rate of progress is possible due to the high level of commitment on behalf of PMI -- not an easy task in Indonesia where the national society (NS) needs to be on constant alert to natural disasters and conflict situations. It is not without sacrifice, however; in August, a PMI Satgana volunteer from the Bogor (West Java) branch paid for his commitment with his life during a rescue operation in his district.

The disaster management (DM) programme was well supported by a number of donors, such as USAID, the national societies of Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Iceland and New Zealand, as well as the Department for International Development (DFID) through the British Red Cross Society, the Norwegian government through the Norwegian Red Cross Society, the Australian government, the New Zealand government and the American owned Freeport PT mining company. Coordination and cooperation was excellent between the DM division in the national office and provincial chapters and district branches in terms of information sharing, immediate disaster response followed by rapid assessments, and development, follow-up/monitoring of the regular DM capacity building programme. A significant achievement was also made in DM coordination and cooperation between the Federation, ICRC and PNS with respect to knowledge sharing, joint training programmes, promotion of a common integrated approach in disaster and conflict management, and on the development of a community-based disaster prevention (CBDP) pilot project.

Further improvement is also noticeable with respect to external coordination and cooperation with various other organisations (government, the UN family, other international agencies and NGOs), especially in information sharing, joint assessment exercises and contributions to the facilitation of other stakeholders' emergency response operations. Unfortunately, interdepartmental communication and cooperation are still sometimes difficult in the national office.

During 2003, natural disasters -- ranging from floods, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes to droughts and landslides -- placed the Indonesian Red Cross in a very challenging situation. With support from the Federation, PMI was able to respond to all disasters. Establishing and equipping the Satgana teams was one of the year's main objectives. By the end of the year, 70 Satgana teams were operational throughout Indonesia. Fifty of the most disaster-prone areas were provided with standard equipment to help them carry out their duties.

In the long-term aftermath of the Bali bombing in October 2002, Indonesia has continued to suffer from terrorist activities. In 2003 several bombing attacks were made in various areas, most noticeably the suicide bombing of the JW Marriott Hotel in Jakarta. PMI's Satgana teams were deployed immediately after the blasts to help evacuate the dead and the wounded; the teams received accolades from many quarters for their performance. These recent experiences have led to plans to start up a psychological support unit to assist Red Cross volunteers who take part in traumatising emergency operations. A pilot project was initiated in 2003, to be further developed and refined in 2004.

Despite the numerous public health challenges that exist in Indonesia, it was not until the second half of the year that the Federation's Appeal attracted sufficient support for the health programmes. Support to PMI's health programmes was strengthened in July with the secondment of a Regional Health Trainee delegate (outposted to Jakarta from the regional delegation in Bangkok). Priorities were given to the CBFA/PHAST (participatory hygiene and sanitation training) and HIV/AIDS programmes. CBFA/PHAST was established as an integral part of PMI's health and care programme and duplicated in different locations. Altogether, more than 15,000 people in various communities benefited from PMI's CBFA programmes in 2003.

Federation support was concentrated in Banten province, West Java. In line with PMI's five year strategic plan on HIV/AIDS (2001-2005), which aims to expand HIV/AIDS programmes outside Java, Bali and West Nusa Tenggara, the Federation supported the completion of a feasibility study on the North Sumatra HIV/AIDS programme, combined with capacity building of the Medan chapter and three local branches. The Federation also complemented the capacity building, training and information dissemination part of PMI's HIV/AIDS programmes in the four high prevalence provinces of Jakarta, Bali, Riau and Papua. This effort was funded by the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM). Significant achievements in the health sector were made possible by additional funds from the Japanese Red Cross Society for the HIV/AIDS programme, continuous support from DFID for the CBFA/PHAST programmes, and Norwegian Red Cross Society support responding to newly emerging needs such as psychological support in emergency situations.

A new two year bilateral health programme, supported by the Netherlands Red Cross Society (NLRC) has started, with a health delegate based in Jakarta concentrating on CFBA and some capacity building within the health sector. The Singapore Red Cross Society supported the CBFA/PHAST programmes in several districts in Sumatra and has indicated interest in continuing support. The Australian Red Cross Society is supporting HIV/AIDS programmes in Java and Bali, including the establishment of a telephone hotline counselling system. The American Red Cross Society has expressed interest in supporting the HIV/AIDS programmes in the future.

In the area of emergency health, PMI's Psychological Support Programme Working Group was established and held two provincial and one national workshop to further develop the programme. Responding to the SARS outbreak, a workshop -- aimed at disseminating correct information on the virus -- was held in cooperation with the Ministry of Health; information was widely distributed by volunteers. The first Blood Donor Recruitment and Motivation workshop in Medan, North Sumatra took place in October.

As part of regional cooperation, PMI sent volunteer trainers to East Timor four times to conduct first aid, first aid training-of-trainers (ToT), CBFA and HIV/AIDS training for the East Timor Red Cross Society (CVTL). In September, PMI hosted the 15th Asian Red Cross and Red Crescent Regional Task Force on HIV/AIDS (ART) meeting and strategic planning workshop with the participation of eleven NS from East and Southeast Asia.

Objectives, Achievements and Constraints

Disaster Management

Objective 1

  • Over two years, PMI's disaster preparedness/management capacity is expanded to manage the national DM programme, with limited technical support from the Federation.
Achievements

Capacity building

  • Two PMI trainers participated in the Federation's standard ToT course in France in July, with the objective being to learn advanced knowledge/tools and techniques, improve PMI's TOT programme accordingly, and build human resource capacity in the 15 most disaster-prone provincial chapters.
ToT training
  • A seven day general ToT course was organised in June for local trainers with the objective being to strengthen local training capacity. Thirty people from fifteen of the most disaster/conflict-prone chapters participated.
Basic disaster management training
  • Four regional basic DM training courses were organised between September and December. 120 of the best Satgana volunteers from 15 of the most disaster/conflict-prone provinces participated in a seven day intensive basic DM course, with the objective being to learn and study best practices in hazard and risk mapping, risk reduction measures, safe access to the community and security, community awareness, emergency planning and response, follow up/monitoring, reporting and coordination.
PMI National Rapid Response Team (Tim Khusus) formally recognised and trained
  • 35 staff and volunteers from all over Indonesia attended a ten day intensive disaster and conflict response training course in August, organised jointly with ICRC's Indonesia delegation. Twenty of the best participants, with various fields of expertise and experience, were selected to be part of the national rapid response team (Tim Khusus). The updated training curricula covered the following main modules/topics: the Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement; security and safe access; global response tools; the Better Programming Initiative; sectoral responses during emergencies; emergency planning/assessment; camp management; relief management; coordination; teamwork; and leadership. Eight Tim Khusus members were utilised in ten different disaster and conflict response operations, i.e. early warning, assessment, information sharing, coordination, developing plans of action, response, reporting and follow up/monitoring.
Impact
  • A cost-effective training management system has been initiated in the 15 most disaster/conflict-prone chapters by providing local trainers with standardised training skills. Each disaster/conflict-prone chapter has at least two volunteers with basic disaster and conflict response knowledge. Procedures for field assessment and information gathering have been improved. Staff and volunteers in targeted provinces and districts are increasingly aware of their roles and responsibilities at different phases of disaster management.
Constraints
  • Due to frequent emergency situations, some training courses had to be delayed. Providing advance training opportunities assumed that participants had good English skills, while in reality very few of them did. Therefore the training was not well targeted. In 2004 English language training courses for selected volunteers will be initiated in cooperation with PMI's organisational development division.

  • Two other significant constraints have affected the implementation of planned capacity building activities: lack of adequate human resources in PMI's DM division; and the frequency of emergency situations in Indonesia. The staffing level within the DM division is an issue still to be resolved. Two posts were opened in 2003; one was filled in September while the other post was still vacant at the end of the year.

  • Long-term involvement in disaster response activities by key staff in the DM division has contributed to delays in planned DM capacity building activities. In addition to the ongoing Aceh conflict, PMI responded to 32 different emergency situations throughout the year. To address this situation, utilising the Tim Khusus members in more and longer emergency operations is already proving effective.

Objectives 2 and 3

The material resources required for building PMI's capacity to provide a standard response is enhanced by 2004. PMI's capacity for timely and effective disaster response is strengthened by 2004.

Achievements

Standard response equipment sets for most high-risk (disaster/conflict-prone) district branches

  • Fifty standard response equipment sets were provided to the fifty branches most at risk to enhance the standard response capacity of targeted Satgana teams to provide immediate emergency services (rescue, first aid, evacuation, field kitchen services) in the time of disasters and conflict.
Access to safe drinking water for flood victims
  • Two portable water equipment sets with 10,000 L capacity are available at PMI's national office.

  • A group of staff and volunteers participated in an orientation session on emergency deployment and the provision of safe drinking water to the flood victims
Establishment of an emergency storage network
  • The Surabaya warehouse was formally recognised as part of the joint logistics centre of ICRC, the Federation and PMI, and formal agreements made. To further enhance the Jakarta logistics base, four modified mobile containers (able to provide emergency relief to 1,000 families or 5,000 beneficiaries) and one specially modified medicine storage system (with the capacity to store emergency medicine for 30,000 beneficiaries) were installed and made fully operational in the national office premises.

  • Progress was made towards the objective of establishing emergency regional storage facilities in six strategic locations to serve the whole country. The regional storage centre in Bali (with 300 families' capacity) was established with the support of the Australian Red Cross Society. After lengthy discussions and advocacy on behalf of the Indonesia delegation, the Danish Red Cross Society has formally agreed to establish another three regional emergency storage facilities in 2004 (with 1,500 families' capacity altogether) in Padang, West Sumatra, Makassar, South Sulawesi, and Lampung, South Sumatra.
Enhancement of emergency response facilities
  • Emergency provisions of tarpaulins, mosquito nets and family kits (comprising water containers, hygiene items and essential household materials) for an additional 6,500 people were pre-positioned in Jakarta and Surabaya for emergency situations.
Standard logistics system
  • Twenty-one staff and volunteers from eight provincial chapters attended a five day intensive logistics course aimed at implementing a standardised logistics system in the regional emergency storage centres to make them fully operational.
Impact
  • Fifty high risk (disaster/conflict-prone) district branches are well equipped and each of them has the capacity to provide emergency services (rescue, first aid, evacuation and field kitchen services) to at least 1,000

  • families or 5,000 individuals. In total, 250,000 beneficiaries can be supported by these facilities during emergencies.

  • 60,000 people directly benefited from PMI's emergency response activities in 32 different DM operations. More than 1,000 Satgana volunteers from some 30 district branches took part in these operations, coordinated by about half of PMI's 30 provincial chapters.

  • Distribution of relief items appears to be well organised. A standard logistics system is in place in the eight selected chapters; and the national office receives periodic reports from these chapters, as agreed.
Constraints
  • Further capacity building of the national society, in terms of operational and emergency management, is still required. This is a slow process, requiring the strategic approach selected by the Federation, as well as secure and consistent long-term support.
Objective 4
  • By 2004, PMI has developed a well functioning early warning/disaster management information system and is playing an active role within the local, regional and global disaster management networks.

Achievements
  • Significant improvement in the monitoring of hazards and potential risks, as well as information sharing between high risk disaster/conflict-prone chapters and PMI's DM division. Simultaneously, the number of users of the global disaster management information system continued to rise in the high risk chapters. PMI remains one of the most active contributors to the system.

  • Continued participation in the ongoing development of the Southeast Asia Disaster Management Network.

  • Two weeks on-the-job training provided to the Myanmar Red Cross Society's disaster preparedness (DP) programme officer at PMI's national office.

  • Three PMI staff, supported by the Federation, participated in a five day relief workshop in the Republic of Korea.

  • The DM delegate was involved in developing a training curriculum on emergency response for the Malaysian Red Crescent Society volunteers and conducted a seven day training course in cooperation with the regional DM coordinator.

  • The disaster preparedness/disaster response programme in Bali (supported by the Australian Red Cross Society) and the CBDP pilot project in Lampung, South Sulawesi and West Sumatra (supported by the Danish Red Cross Society) continued developing in close coordination with the Federation, ICRC and other PNS.
Impact
  • PMI's overall readiness and ability to respond to disasters has time and again been highly appreciated by local authorities and other stakeholders.

Constraints

  • The lack of effective coordination and information sharing within the PMI structure (especially in emergency situations) is still identified as a major constraint. Improved mechanisms for networking and information sharing between the national office and chapters/branches (as well as within the national office) will be the key to further enhancement of the national society's DM capacity.

PMI response to natural disasters 2003

Affected province/ type of disaster
Period
Number of beneficiaries
Type of assistance
Jambi: flood
January
250 families
Rice and medicine
Riau: flood
January
1,000 families
Instant food, water and hygiene kits
South Sulawesi: flood and landslides
January
155 families
Rice and medicine
West Nusa Tenggara: earthquake
January
300 families
Cooked food, family kits and tarpaulins
West Java: landslides
January
500 families
Instant food, water and hygiene kits
West Java: landslides
February
200 families
Hygiene kits
Jakarta: flood
February
200 families
Cooked food and water
West Java: flood
February
550 families
Instant food, water and hygiene kits
Banten: flood
February
250 families
Cooked food and water
West Kalimantan: flood
February
1,000 families
Instant food, sleeping mats and hygiene kits
Central Java: flood
February
250 families
Instant food, water and hygiene kits
West Java: landslides
March
150 families
Instant food, water and hygiene kits
East Nusa Tenggara: flash floods
March
600 families
Food parcels, water purification tablets, hygiene kits, family kits and tarpaulins
West Java: landslides
April
250 families
Rice, instant food and hygiene kits
Riau: floods
April
7,00 families
Evacuation, emergency medical care, rice, instant food, and hygiene kits
West Java: floods
May
50 families
Evacuation, rice and instant food
Jambi: floods
May
300 families
Rice and instant food
Central Sulawesi: floods
May
200 families
Instant food and medicines
North Maluku: volcanic eruption
July
1,000 families
Evacuation
North Maluku: earthquake
August
200 families
Evacuation and first aid
West Java: landslides
September
14 families
Rescue and evacuation
West Jakarta: wildfire
October
186 families
Hygiene kits and milk powder
West Java: landslides
November
30 families
Evacuation, rice and instant food
East Java: floods and landslides
November
95 families
Evacuation, public kitchen and family kits
North Sumatra: flash flood
November
402 families
Evacuation, emergency medical care, non-food relief and psychological support
West Java: floods
November
566 families
Evacuation and first aid
Central Java: landslides
December
44 families
Rice and instant food
East Java: flash floods and landslides
December
159 families
Evacuation and field kitchen
Central Java: floods and landslides
December
1,204 families
Evacuation, rice and instant food
Banten: floods
December
283 families
Evacuation, rice and instant food
Riau: floods
December
350 families
Emergency medical care, medicine and baby milk powder


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