2019 COUNTRY PROGRAM OVERVIEW
Indonesia is the world’s fourth most populous country, and is predominately Muslim at 86%. It is Southeast Asia's largest economy and the 16th largest in the world. Despite its rapidly emerging economy and growing middle class, agricultural productivity is very low, transport logistics costs are very high, and access to energy is remain a challenge.
Being located on the Pacific Ring of Fire (an area with a high degree of tectonic activity), Indonesia has to cope with the constant risk of volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, floods and tsunamis. Over the last 30 years, there have been an average of 289 significant natural disasters per year and an average annual death toll of approximately 8,000. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami caused widespread destruction and more than 130,000 deaths. The 2010 eruption of Mount Merapi resulted in at least 386 deaths and displaced more than 300,000 people. Most recently in 2018, earthquake and tsunami had resulted in at least 2,000 deaths and displaced more than 205,000 individuals.
Climate change is recognized as a key threat to Indonesia’s development, especially for lower-income groups. Rising sea levels and changing weather patterns may lead to increased uncertainty in water availability, food production, and disruptions to transport, commerce, and urban development. While there are greater efforts at improving basic public services, the quality of health clinics and schools is uneven by middle income standards, contributing to alarming indicators, particularly in health. For example, the maternal mortality rate in Indonesia is 126 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births – higher than the previous Millennium Development Goal of 102 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Approximately 1 in 3 children under the age of 5 suffer from stunting, or shorter height, which reflects impaired brain development that will affect the children’s future opportunities.
Indonesian Red Cross (locally known as Palang Merah Indonesia or PMI for short), serves as an auxiliary to the Indonesian government, and is at the forefront and centre in contributing to the country’s preparedness and response to natural disasters. PMI’s primary aim is to become the leading humanitarian organisation that provides quality services to communities, in line with the fundamental principles of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. PMI’s 2014 – 2019 strategic plan outlines the National Society’s priority areas in disaster management, health, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH).
IFRC works with other Red Cross Red Crescent Movement partners in Indonesia, including the American, Australian, and Japanese Red Cross Societies, and ICRC, to bolster PMI’s efforts in disaster risk reduction, logistics, community resilience, communication, and overall Movement Readiness to respond in the event disasters and crises.