This updated appeal replaces the previous revised appeal of 14 Feb 2003
Over 10,000 people have been killed and approximately 1.4 million remain displaced by inter-communal violence in Indonesia. Many internally displaced persons (IDPs) have been crowded into temporary accommodation for over two years. Most have become dependent on Government and community support. Their productive assets have been left behind, destroyed or sold for food consumption. Education and healthcare facilities have been over-stretched or damaged and many skilled workers are excluded from their place of employment due to inter-communal segregation. Housing, transport and other infrastructure are yet to be fully restored and health risks are exacerbated by breakdowns in preventative programmes and environmental sanitation services. Most IDPs wish to return to their place of origin, or to be resettled where they can resume their lives with dignity and independence. The single largest constraint to return is security.
Also affected by the crises are some 2-3 million others who continue to reside in the conflict-ravaged areas or struggle to support the additional influx of IDPs seeking refuge in their community. The most vulnerable are women and children. In IDP sites up to 40% of 6-15 year-olds are out of school. Malnutrition rates are high even compared to the poorest countries in the world. The very poor are equally at risk as IDPs and other conflict-affected families. Some conflict-affected children have been separated from their parents to places unknown. Some have been targeted in the violence. Healthcare and mental health treatments are inadequate and many are at risk of abuse and exploitation.
Nevertheless, the outlook for Indonesia in 2003 is generally positive. There are now substantial opportunities to change the focus from humanitarian relief efforts to support greater Government and community capacity to respond to crises and to achieve durable solutions to the current emergencies.
Through carefully designed activities, humanitarian programmes will contribute to longer-term solutions for recovery and peace by applying the following principles:
- Bridge, rather than work along the lines of inter-communal divisions;
- Complement initiatives for peace;
- Develop and reinforce local government and community capacities to seek and carry out locally-owned solutions;
- Boost livelihood assets and food security in impoverished communities; and,
- Promote and develop positive engagement between IDPs, returnees and host communities.
Priorities for humanitarian action include the four provinces of Central Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara, Maluku and North Maluku. However, work will also be directed to areas particularly hard hit by violence and severe disasters. Of special concern are the sectors of health (including nutrition and food assistance), education and protection for the most vulnerable.
Donor involvement in the Consolidated Appeal Process (CAP) for 2003 highlighted its potential as a strategic document for identifying priorities for action based on sound analyses and integrated national and regional planning. The CAP received strong support from all major stakeholders. Appealing organisations require necessary funds of approximately US$ 82.9 million, including revised requirements for Aceh, to fully implement the 2003 strategic plans outlined. Well-planned and targeted assistance for those most vulnerable will not totally result in full recovery but it will lay the foundations, address the most urgent ongoing problems and provide "Hope for the Future" for millions of Indonesians presently in dire circumstances.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table I. Summary Requirements - By Appealing Organisation and By Sector
THE YEAR IN REVIEW
Changes in the Humanitarian Situation
The Humanitarian Context
Humanitarian Principles and Human Rights
Capacities and Vulnerabilities Analysis
COMPLEMENTARITY WITH OTHER ACTORS
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
- CENTRAL SULAWESI
- EAST NUSA TENGGARA
- NORTH MALUKU
- NATIONAL LEVEL PROGRAMMES
- CENTRAL KALIMANTAN AND EAST JAVA
- NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM
- WEST KALIMANTAN
CRITERIA FOR PRIORITISATION OF PROJECTS
EAST NUSA TENGGARA
MULTI-SITE / NATIONAL
CENTRAL KALIMANTAN AND EAST JAVA
NANGGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM
ANNEX I. Unofficial IDP Figures for Selected Provinces
ANNEX II. Capacities and Vulnerability Summary by Region
ANNEX III. Scenarios by Region
ANNEX IV. Roles and Responsibilities
ANNEX V. Donor Response to the 2002 Appeal
ANNEX VI. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
ANNEX VII. Acronyms and Abbreviations
THE YEAR IN REVIEW
There is a strong feeling within the Government of the Republic of Indonesia (GoRI) that a quick solution to the IDP crisis would help restore the dignity of the nation, and help solve the conflicts that have generated displacement in various parts of the country. This prompted the GoRI to issue the national policy on management of IDPs in Indonesia, allowing it to officially announce the end of relief assistance in the form of food and living allowance (side-dish money). The modus operandi applied by both GoRI and the relief community in general varies from region to region. In North Maluku the emphasis has been on return of IDPs to their villages of origin, while for IDPs from Central Kalimantan, for whom return is less feasible, emphasis has been placed on resettlement and local empowerment. Few attempts have been made to pursue the implementation of any of the three options in Maluku Province, particularly on the island of Ambon, where sectarian conflict continues to erupt on a fairly regular basis. Positive developments towards peace and reconciliation in Central Sulawesi over the first half of the year allowed progress towards return and local integration, which has unfortunately been undermined by the resumption of attacks on villages and frequent security incidents causing widespread anxiety among communities.
Although the Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal (CA) for IDPs in Indonesia 2002 remained under-funded, the humanitarian agencies together with their government counterparts have made marked progress in pursuing the short-term goals with limited resources, most of which came from outside the framework of the CAP. A snapshot of the achievements include the following:
The World Food Programme (WFP) working with 20 national non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and five international NGOs in the food sector have been able to increase household food access among IDPs and those affected by the conflict and other crises. In the period 2001-2002 over US$ 50 million in relief food assistance has reached around 2.1 million people, meeting their basic cereal requirement and specific nutritional needs among children in various parts of the country, especially in the provinces of Central Sulawesi, North Maluku, East Java and the greater metropolitan area around Jakarta.
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) fielded an Emergency Coordinator to monitor the food security situation of the country and assess emergency and early rehabilitation needs of the agriculture sectors. Through its Technical Cooperation Programme, FAO has provided agricultural inputs to assist the resettlement of returning IDPs in North Maluku.
In Central Sulawesi, the Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE) has been providing emergency agricultural recovery and shelter assistance to some 5,000 families. Agricultural activities carried out by the Consortium for Assistance to Refugees and the Displaced in Indonesia (CARDI) in North Maluku and Mercy Corps in Maluku resulted in sustaining a degree of food security among the affected population in some parts of these provinces.
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), in collaboration with a number of NGOs and government counterparts, have been assisting the Ministry of Health (MoH) and local health services to improve basic health care in areas affected by the conflict and population displacement. WHO, UNICEF, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and various NGOs such as International Catholic Migration Commission (ICMC), International Medical Corps (IMC), Church World Service (CWS), Medecins sans Frontieres Belgium (MSF-B), and World Vision International (WVI) have been providing community-based mental health and psychosocial services in conflict-affected areas. UNFPA together with WHO, IMC, ICMC, and MSF-B are making efforts to improve reproductive health services among displaced populations and host communities.
UNICEF and NGOs, as well as local education departments have been implementing education programmes in Aceh, East Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, North Maluku, Southeast Sulawesi, and West Kalimantan.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has thus far mobilised over US$ 22 million for conflict prevention and post-conflict recovery programmes in Indonesia from multiple donors, of which some 9% was channelled through the CAP 2002. In Maluku Province alone, from 1999 to the present, UNDP has channelled approximately US$ 3 million in assistance to more than 182,000 people for humanitarian aid, income generation, food security, social services, shelter, community infrastructure, capacity-building support, and community reconciliation, in partnership with organisations such as the Community Recovery Programme (CRP), Mercy Corps and Action Contre la Faim (ACF). In 2002, the North Maluku and Maluku Recovery Programme is supporting over 20 sub-projects totalling over US$ 2 million in various sectors including infrastructure, public works, health and community reconciliation. The Kei Islands Peace-building Programme, executed by CRP, is implementing 76 multi-sectoral sub-projects totalling US$ 1.3 million. Through its humanitarian programme, CRP has channelled another US$ 1.3 million in support of IDPs in and from the Malukus.
The Humanitarian Coordinator (HC), supported by OCHA, has been leading the international community in responding to the needs of displaced populations and in raising the awareness of the international community of the serious humanitarian situation in parts of Indonesia. This includes measures such as hosting regular donor briefings in Jakarta, workshops and seminars on IDPs, dispatching inter-agency missions to hot spot areas, using the media, and issuing regular reports on emergency relief operations and developments related to the humanitarian situation. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) has organised two workshops on the "Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement", protection monitoring and conflict resolution for government officials dealing with IDPs on the island of Madura in East Java.
Outside the CA context, the UN agencies, IOM and the GoRI launched in November 2001 a Joint Appeal specifically for the refugee crisis in West Timor. From this appeal, US$ 18 million (in addition to the US$ 2 million GoRI contribution to the Special Fund) was raised for socialisation, repatriation and local settlement activities. The amount also includes US$ 3.5 million for the Special Fund intended to offset the loss of pension benefits and employment for former employees of the GoRI, members of the Indonesian Armed Force (TNI) and the Indonesian National Police (POLRI) who worked in East Timor. Up to the end of August, most of the efforts were concentrated on repatriation activities (223,0001 refugees had repatriated to East Timor). In September, the GoRI and its partners commenced the implementation of the local settlement programme. Security restrictions continued to hinder the operations in West Timor throughout 2002. International NGOs, namely CARE, Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Christian Children's Fund (CCF), CWS, Medecins Sans Frontieres - Holland (MSF- H), OXFAM GB, and Save the Children UK (SC UK) remained active, providing humanitarian assistance for refugees and host communities in West Timor.
Operational organisations continued to assess the implementation of their programmes funded through the CAP mechanism and outside the framework of the CA throughout the year. OCHA in collaboration with its humanitarian partners and through the United Nations Resource Centres (UNRCs) located in various conflict affected/prone areas of the country continued to monitor the developments in the humanitarian environment, challenges facing the GoRI and the international community, implementation of national policy on management of IDPs, and the implementation of the Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP) outlined in the CAP 2002.
The 2002 CA for IDPs in Indonesia asked for a total of US$ 40.82 million2 in support of humanitarian programmes in the sectors of food, agriculture, health, water and sanitation, family shelter and non-food items, education, protection, economic recovery and coordination. To date, donor response to the CAP 2002 amounts to US$ 11.26 million, representing 27.6% of total requirements. Although aid agencies have utilised resources received both through the CAP and outside the framework of the CAP to assist IDPs throughout Indonesia, lack of funding for some important sectors severely has limited the aid organisations' ability to respond to all needs.
UNICEF and SC UK received funding both through and outside of the CAP to contribute towards programmes helping IDP children in various locations to have improved access to education. OCHA received full required funding that proved crucial for effective implementation of its planned activities, including maintaining the UNRCs in Ambon, Ternate, and Banda Aceh, as well as limited presence in Kupang and Papua. Funding received through the CAP 2002 for the North Maluku and Maluku Recovery Programme executed by UNDP has supplemented resources mobilised through other mechanisms, resulting in ample funds for implementation of the first year of this three year programme (09/2001-09/2004), and strengthening delivery in particular to the Galela and Tobelo area in North Maluku.
The food sector under the leadership and coordination of WFP has not been seriously affected owing to funds received of over US$ 50 million including for projects outlined in the CAP to cover needs during the year. In the health sector, activities are severely constrained by the lack of available resources (8% against a total amount of US$ 11.2 million requested has been funded so far). Other important sectors such as agriculture, water and sanitation and protection remained severely under-funded. The consequences of this under-funding are translated into inadequate food production and further deprivation of IDPs, and in some instances poor or limited host communities' access to basic health services, quality water and sanitation.
Despite efforts by aid agencies and the GoRI to address the urgent needs of IDPs, the conditions of displaced persons and host communities remain generally poor. IDPs, particularly those living in camp environments, are in need of shelter, food, medicine, and proper sanitation. Those willing and/or able to return to places of origin or resettle elsewhere are not inclined to do so unless they have assurances of security and long-term livelihood assistance. The capacities of local communities to absorb a larger-scale return in the wake of the large-scale devastation of basic infrastructure that has taken place are stretched to their limits.
Note: Although the CA request for 2003 has significantly increased from the CA for 2002, there has been a considerable expansion in scope. Funds for assistance in West Timor in 2002 were included in the special Joint Appeal for Solutions for East Timorese Refugees. In 2003, refugee assistance is included in this Appeal. Half the requested US$ 72.8 million is for continuing food relief, much of which will be directed to the most vulnerable women and children throughout the country. The scope has also been expanded to provide assistance to others affected by conflict (apart from IDPs) and transitions towards recovery efforts.
Changes in the Humanitarian Situation
The political situation has been more stable compared to 2001. In line with this, some progress has been made towards economic recovery. In general, job opportunities have slightly improved, as has income among the urban poor. However, drought throughout this year in many parts of the country and continued desperation of the very poor will leave much of the country vulnerable to inadequate nutrition. The IDP crises have now reached a point where more durable solutions are possible due to either the longer-term displacement, allowing IDPs to search for a more sustainable livelihood, or increased possibilities for return to areas of origin. The immediate requirement to respond to acute humanitarian needs has to a large extent given way to the need to address sources and roots behind the violence, develop ongoing mitigation strategies, and rehabilitate affected areas. Humanitarian needs are still substantial and must be addressed but opportunities are emerging to complement and strengthen Government and community efforts, and their capacity to deal with the protracted nature of displacement and future conflicts. More innovative responses are called for in carrying out humanitarian assistance in a way that builds stronger and more resilient communities and lays the path for durable solutions to the crises and other potential threats.
In May 2002, OCHA in close collaboration with GoRI, organised a national workshop to evaluate the implementation of the Government's policy on IDPs, which was attended by representatives from all IDP affected areas, including five Vice-Governors. An important outcome of the workshop was a recommendation by the participants to de-link humanitarian assistance from the de-registration of IDPs and the need to shift from focusing assistance only on IDPs to providing assistance to affected communities. WFP led a comprehensive nation-wide survey of IDPs in 51 districts collecting data on 15,000 IDPs to better assess their livelihood situation. The results were shared at a seminar attended by provincial representatives, donors and implementing agencies, contributing to a better understanding of the problems IDPs face and ways towards finding more durable solutions for them.
A two-day CAP facilitation workshop in June 2002 held with representatives from the Government (Bakornas PBP), donor countries, UN agencies and NGOs started a process of better consultation between all stakeholders inclusive of Government, IDPs themselves, and host communities. Better collaboration opens up the way forward for locally owned and developed solutions and, it is hoped, stronger local capacities for overcoming the multiple crises faced. It was also agreed that a more detailed analysis of the problems would contribute to a better targeting of resources and focus on the most important local priorities for assistance. Another lesson learned has been that the sooner a commonly agreed national strategy with clear linkages between the national plan and local strategies is implemented the more effectively limited resources can be applied. As a result, the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Country Team (IASCCT), replicating the Headquarter-based IASC, was established. As a subsidiary body, the Steering Committee for the CHAP/CAP 2003 consisting of the GoRI, donor and UN agency representatives and NGO participants was established to oversee completion of all steps of the Consolidated Appeal Process.
1 UNHCR, 30 September 2002 (rounded to nearest thousand)
2 Not including the joint appeal for West Timor
Note: The full text of this appeal is available on-line in Adobe Acrobat (pdf) format and may also be downloaded in zipped MS Word format.
View the Inter-Agency Revised Appeal (pdf * format - 1.13 MB)
Download the Inter-Agency Appeal in zipped MS Word format (5.63MB)
* Get the Adobe Acrobat Viewer (free)
For additional copies, please contact:
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Palais des Nations
8-14 Avenue de la Paix
CH - 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
Tel.: (41 22) 917.1972
Fax: (41 22) 917.0368
- UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
- To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit https://www.unocha.org/.