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Climate Change Profile: Indonesia

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This climate change profile is designed to help integrate climate actions into development activities. It complements the publication ‘Climate-smart = Future-Proof! – Guidelines for Integrating climate-smart actions into development policies and activities’ and provides answers to some of the questions that are raised in the step-by-step approach in these guidelines.
The current and expected effects of climate change differ locally, nationally and regionally. The impacts of climate change effects on livelihoods, food and water security, ecosystems, infrastructure etc. differ per country and region as well as community and individual, with gender a particularly important vulnerability factor. This profile aims to give insight in the climate change effects and impacts in Indonesia with particular attention for food security and water. It also sheds light on the policies, priorities and commitments of the government in responding to climate change and important climate-relevant activities that are being implemented, including activities being internationally financed.


The shocks of climate change are already being felt in Indonesia, with more frequent droughts, heat waves and floods, and will pose an increasing threat to the country’s development. A World Bank analysis ranked Indonesia 12th among 35 countries that face high mortality risks due to multiple hazards, including tsunamis, floods, landslides, droughts, and earthquakes. About 40% of Indonesia’s population is at risk of such hazards, and their number will increase under climate change which is likely to exacerbate droughts on southern islands, floods and cyclone intensity across the country, and sea level rise effects in coastal areas.
Food security and water availability will be heavily affected by temperature increase, shorter growing seasons, unpredictable rainfall, and salt-water intrusion. By 2100, climate change impacts will cost an estimated 2.5-7% of GDP1.