Indonesia

Action Plan on COVID-19 and Natural Disaster Responses (January – June 2021)

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Key Figures:

30,6 million people targeted in all provinces for assistance.

Technical supports to 18 GoI National Institutions, with their offices and networks at sub-national levels.

$ 145,319,570 funding required

$ 7,571,800 funding already secured

25 Participating Agencies: ADRA, CARE, FAO, Human Initiative, Humanitarian Forum Indonesia, IFRC and Palang Merah Indonesia, IOM,Islamic Relief, Mercy Corps Indonesia, Masyarakat Penanggulangan Bencana Indonesia, Muhammadiyah, Nahdlatul Ulama, National Platform for DRR, Oxfam, PMI, Save the Children Indonesia, UNDP, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNODC, UN Women, WFP, WHO, Wahana Visi Indonesia

Situation Overview:

Indonesia is experiencing the highest burden from COVID-19 in South East Asia. The first confirmed cases were detected in the country in early March 2020, and within a month, cases were identified in all 34 provinces, continuing to spread out since then, with the number of confirmed cases equally affecting women and men, but with men constituting a slightly larger proportion of deaths (56.5%).

As a result of the increasing trend of positive COVID-19 cases, several regions have repeatedly implemented the Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB) which began in April 2020. To restrain the surge in COVID-19 cases that overwhelmed the existing hospitals capacity (especially on bed occupancy rates in isolation rooms and ICU, which were above 80 percent), the Government has implemented Restrictions on Community Activities (PPKM) in some regions in Java and Bali since January 2021.

The government of Indonesia continues to emphasize the importance of 3M (wearing a mask, washing hands with soap, and maintaining social / physical distance). The request to stay at home has been variably implemented, given concerns regarding the adverse economic consequences of such measures. Major efforts have been undertaken to enhance the health system’s safety and capacity; however, 3T measures (tracing, testing and treatment) have been overwhelmed for months. The results of a survey by the Central Statistics Agency in September 2020 showed that as many as 92 percent of people implemented the use of masks, while only 75 percent were washing hands and maintaining physical distance. The results of the survey, which was completed by 55 percent of women and 45 percent of men, showed an increase in people's behavior in wearing masks as much as eight percent compared to the survey results in April 2020, but there was a decrease in the percentage of community compliance with hand washing, keeping distance and avoiding crowds2 . In 2020, the Government of Indonesia allocated IDR 695.2 trillion for the COVID-19 response to manage the health, social protection, MSMEs and business sectors, as well as the local government. Budget allocations continued seamlessly in 2021. One of the priority areas of work in 2021 is the COVID-19 vaccination, with the aim to reach herd immunity. The Ministry of Health has estimated a total of 181.5 million people to be vaccinated, within a time span ranging from January 2021 until March 2022, with priority given to 1.3 million health workers.

Herd Immunity Scenario Based on the Efficacy of Vaccines

  • The expanded vaccination target is people of more than 59 years of age with comorbidities (controlled, with criteria to be recommended by experts);

  • The determination of Herd Immunity takes into account the Efficacy Rate of the Vaccine.

The approval of the COVID-19 vaccines by regulatory authorities has given hope that an end to the acute phase of the pandemic is within reach. To realize the full potential of these vaccines, they must be distributed in an equitable manner while prioritizing health care workers, front line responders and other high-risk groups.

Meanwhile, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to diminish social services, economic activities and income, and exacerbates people’s existing vulnerabilities and marginalization. People most affected are those with low income, limited or no access to critical healthcare services and lack of safe, nutritious and affordable food, children, the elderly, women and girls, people with disabilities, detainees and prisoners, refugees without access to cash assistance and with limited livelihoods opportunities, and migrant and informal sector workers. These people may not necessarily be directly affected by the health impact of COVID-19, but they are at higher risk of being left furthest behind, as social inequalities worsen, and the risk of gender-based violence and sexual exploitation and abuse escalates. The risk is further exacerbated by perpetrators who exploit the situation by conducting illegal activities such as online and offline fraud, corruption, and the illegal trade of medical and protective supplies, hence jeopardizing the government’s efforts to respond to the crisis and mitigate its impacts. Through the HCT Action Plan, participating organizations will maximize their expertise and comparative advantages in addressing key issues that directly affect targeted people; they will also provide technical support to the most relevant Government and non-government partners.

The impact of COVID-19 has made other health services to further deteriorate. To mention a few, 25 million children under five do not receive immunization, vitamin A supplementation, growth monitoring and other routine services that are urgently needed, 65 percent of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients encounter serious challenges, mental health services experience disruption amid increasing stress from the community and health workers, and the decline in reproductive health services threatens millions of women4 . The decrease in contraceptive use resulted in an increase in the number of unplanned pregnancies. The National Population and Family Planning Agency (BKKBN) estimates that there will be an additional 370,000-500,000 births in mid-early 2021.

The implementation of distance learning is still constrained by internet access, adaptation processes, learning curricula and disparities in teacher competencies. Only 1.2 percent of primary school students from the poorest 20 percent percentile have used computers to access the internet, 5.9 percent use the internet to study, and 13.9 percent use the internet at home5 . Teachers' knowledge regarding the emergency curriculum is still low or below 70 percent, and even 60 percent in disadvantaged areas. Furthermore, learning at Islamic boarding schools has been more severely affected by COVID-19.

The rate of violence against women has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, with domestic violence dominating over other types of violence. The APIK Jakarta Legal Aid Institute (LBH) recorded 508 cases of violence against women between March and September 2020. Child marriage cases have also increased. The Directorate General of the Religious Courts has received 34,000 applications for dispensation of marriage submitted between January and June 2020, of which 60 percent were children under 18 years.

In 2020, Indonesia experienced 2,921 natural disaster events as recorded by the National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB), with the most frequent occurrences being floods, landslides, and whirlwinds. Overall, these natural disasters resulted in over 6.4 million people temporarily displaced, 370 deaths, and 39 missing, while over 44,000 houses and other buildings were damaged. Unfortunately, the severity and frequency of these events will be exacerbated by La Nina phenomenon, which will impact the country in the first half of 2021. The Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency (BMKG) estimates that the La Nina phenomenon will last until May 2021. In January-April, many areas in Indonesia are thus expected to experience high levels of rainfall (300-500 millimeters per month). In many areas, the 2020/2021 season's precipitation will increase by 40-80 percent compared to the 2019/2020 rainy season.

As the country prepares to respond to any of these potential disaster events, the HRP will include any activities that HCT organizations conduct to respond to these disasters in support of the Government of Indonesia. The Plan will enable participating agencies to increase their services when humanitarian needs arise.

Following the 6.2 magnitude earthquake that hit West Sulawesi on 15 January 2021, the Government of Indonesia immediately provided assistance and led the response, while the national NGOs, PMI and CSOs quickly mobilized their resources to assist directly affected people. Specific technical support was provided by some UN agencies and international organizations by maximizing existing resources. OCHA and other National Cluster partners have initiated coordination and information sharing on the evolving situation, as well as resource mobilization. One-page of key messages was issued by the Ministry of Social Affairs with the assistance of the National Cluster partners; promoting humanitarian localization and cash assistance as well as urging compliance with health protocols (wearing masks, physical distancing and washing hands with soap frequently) in providing humanitarian assistance. Within the first week, a who-does-what and where (3W) information and resource mapping of Education, Psychosocial Support, Shelter, GBV, Reproductive Health, WASH and Logistics was compiled, while a Joint Needs Assessment and a Feasibility Risk Assessment of cash-based assistance were carried out. The information complements the BNPB-managed InaRISK and Desk Relawan (http://deskrelawanpb.bnpb.go.id/gempa-sulbar/). All these activities are reported and updated weekly to the Coordinating Ministry for Human Development and Culture, which takes on the role of inter-cluster coordinator of the National Cluster system.

The multi-stakeholder collaboration in West Sulawesi response that applies the National Cluster mechanism is the latest example of emergency response management that will continue to evolve and improve; and the 2021 HCT Action Plan is designed to continue enhancing this existing mechanism.

During 2020, the HCT and UNCT supported the Government’s response to the pandemic through a number of priority activities, reflected in the Multi-sectoral Response Plan (MSRP) to COVID-19.8 A total of 30 organizations managed $ 94 million funding (65 percent from the total requirements of $145 million) through seven work streams on Health, Risk Communication and Community engagement, Logistics, Food Security and Agriculture, Mitigate Socio-Economic Impacts of the Crisis, Critical Multi-sectoral Services, and Protection of Vulnerable Groups. The 2021 Humanitarian Response Plan is a continuation of the MSRP prioritized activities that have a focus on the immediate health response and associated lifesaving activities.

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit https://www.unocha.org/.