UN System Response to the Gujarat Earthquake Immediate Needs and Action Plan

Report
from UN Disaster Management Team
Published on 08 Feb 2001


Executive Summary
The United Nations Disaster Management Team (UNDMT) in India has prepared this document under the leadership of the United Nations Resident Coordinator. It presents an outline of crucial activities that United Nations bodies in India have undertaken and can support in response to the devastating earthquake that struck the Indian State of Gujarat on 26 January 2001. It is based on initial assessments undertaken by the UN bodies and information gathered from Government sources and the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) currently operating in India. Immediate lifesaving needs are apparent and are being addressed by the Government with support from the UN system and other partners. However, the complete picture of the needs of the people in the affected districts (within Gujarat) beyond the critical phase is still to emerge.

Based on available information and a holistic approach, interventions have been identified in the following sectors: Coordination, Health, Water and Sanitation, Education and Child Protection, Food and Nutrition, Shelter and Survival, Livelihoods, Logistics. The initial interventions described in this document will serve as a platform for mid- and longer-term rehabilitation and reconstruction activities after in-depth analysis/assessments have been carried out.

1. Situation

1.1 The Impact of the Disaster

Gujarat lies on the west coast of India. In addition to its coastline on the Arabian Sea, it has common borders with Pakistan, and the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. The state consists of 25 districts and has a total population of around 41 million. Although 2/3 of this lives in rural areas, Gujarat is India’s most highly industrialized State.

The severe earthquake that struck Gujarat on 26 January 2001 flattened much of the state. Out of the 21 affected districts, those most affected are Kutch-Bhuj, Ahmedabad, Jamnagar and Rajkot. Within these districts more than 37.8 million people have been affected. According to official figures released by the central Government as of 6 February, the earthquake killed 16,459 people and injured 68,478. The death toll continues to rise and is currently estimated to be between 20,000 and 50,000.

The Natural Disaster Management Control Room located at the Ministry of Agriculture in Delhi reported on 6 February 2001 that 12,250 cattle died, 228,906 houses/huts were destroyed and 397,615 houses/huts were damaged. According to preliminary assessments, the damage to buildings and infrastructure amounts close to Rs. 6 billion (1.2 billion USD).

The overall situation is considered as a multiple disaster, since the earthquake is the third natural disaster striking Gujarat in four years. The state still suffers from the effects of a cyclone in 1998 and drought, which started in 1999 and which is expected to continue through 2001. The persistent impact on the vulnerable population increases with each fresh disaster.

Even prior to the earthquake, most of these districts are known to be highly food insecure, have a higher percentage of population who live below the poverty line and the majority of the districts are prone to disaster.

Serious nutritional implication of the earthquake on poor rural households is not sufficiently recognized. Public attention is focused on casualties and infrastructure damage, mainly in urban areas. The poor households are mainly marginal farmers and landless laborers belonging to schedule caste and schedule tribes. In districts close to the epicenter of the earthquake food insecurity and malnutrition of rural households is among the highest in the state, even in normal years. More than 50% of children are stunted and 45.5% wasted with high prevalence of Anemia among children. [National Health Family Services (NHFS) 1998-99]

The situation in rural areas is made worse by two consecutive years of drought. Many households have fled with no reserves. In essence, the earthquake has severely aggravated and disrupted household livelihood, food supplies, distribution channels, and income generation opportunities.

Numerous aftershocks between 3 and 5.2 on the Richter scale occurred in the affected area and have been felt throughout the region giving the surviving population and the relief organizations no respite.

Most of the populations in Bhuj, Bachchao, and Anjar are migrating to areas where temporary shelter relief assistance is more abundant, or where extended families can provide for their needs.

More information can be found on the following website: www.ndmindia.nic.in and www.un.org.in

2. Overall Strategic Approach

The UN System through its response to previous disasters in the past ten years has acquired invaluable experience in disaster relief, recovery and coordination. These natural disasters include the Orissa Super Cyclone, the Latur Earthquake, the West Bengal Floods and the recurring drought crisis in several Indian states.

The ongoing programmes of the UN Family have provided the organisations with an extensive presence and engagement in a broad variety of activities in India. Each UN organisation has built up networks of NGO partners with a strong field presence, trust and credibility in local communities. This experience in building bridges between humanitarian and development partners and the communities has been invaluable. In addition, strong and positive relationships have been built up with both National and State Governments.

Building on these strengths, each individual UN organisation has developed an action plan. These will be coordinated under the umbrella of the UN System as a whole and will be harmonised to maximise the impact and achieve synergy in the response.

Sectors
Focal Agency
Cooperating Agencies
Coordination UNDP DMT-members
Health WHO UNICEF, UNFPA
Water and Sanitation UNICEF WHO
Education and Child Protection UNICEF ILO
Food and Nutrition WFP UNICEF, WHO,FAO
Shelter and Survival UNDP UNICEF, UNV
Livelihoods UNDP ILO, UNFPA, UNV, FAO
Logistics WFP UNDP, OCHA, UNICEF

The database DevInfo, developed by the UN Inter-Agency Working Group on Database - India, with information on 400 indicators, divided in sectors, geography, sources, agencies, goals, subpopulations, units and themes, will be accessible for all UN organizations and provide the same information to all agencies simultaneously.

The main focus of the UN System will be on the poorest and most vulnerable segments of the population - especially women and children - many of whom have not as yet been reached by the overall relief effort. By working mainly through women’s organisations in the local communities, the two priority focus areas - promoting gender equality and strengthening decentralisation - identified in consultation with the Government for the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), will also be addressed.

In addition, the UN response will not end with the relief phase but will continue through to the longer term recovery process and will be designed to reduce future vulnerability. It will involve the local population in their own rehabilitation and will promote self help approaches, so that they are better able to respond to and recover from the natural calamities that affect them. Where possible, the programmes will be people centered and will adopt an inter-Organisation, multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary approach as has been recommended by the lessons learnt from the Latur Earthquake.

3. Response to the Disaster so far

The Government of India, the State Government of Gujarat, national and international NGOs, the UN System and bilateral donors have responded with a variety of initiatives.

3.1. National/Government Response

The central Government immediately launched a massive rescue and relief operation by mobilizing available resources and personnel to mitigate the suffering of the victims. The initial relief effort is centrally coordinated by the Natural Disaster Management Control Room, which works closely together with the State Government of Gujarat .

As of 5 February 2001, the central Government has announced financial assistance of IRS 500.00 Crores equaling USD 1 billion. In addition, the Central Government made available close to 95,000 MT of food. Other relief items dispatched through the Central Government include clothing and tents, medical supplies and personnel, fuel and communication equipment.

Several states including the neighbouring States of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Mahashtra have provided food, blankets, medical supplies and personnel and a wide variety of other relief items.

The Relief Commissioner of Bhuj has established a NGO coordination centre. Sub-centres will be established after the Relief Commission of Bhuj’s more thorough assessments.

Currently, there are over 300 NGOs involved with relief operations in Gujarat. The Kutch Navnirman Abhiyan network is gathering itself to undertake a monumental relief operation, probably the greatest ever trial of their physical, moral and emotional strength. Over 200 NGOs of Gujarat state have come together under the aegis of Janpath Citizen's Initiative to support the Abhiyan network and other voluntary relief efforts in Kutch and similar relief operations in other affected districts of Gujarat. Experienced Self-Employed Womens’Association (SEWA) teams have been in the field since the day of the earthquake, trying to get an accurate assessment of the damage amid the confusion and rumors, going directly to the people affected in order to ascertain their needs.

3.2. International Response

The International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies launched an appeal seeking CHF 25,596,629 million equaling USD 15.6 million to assist 300,000 beneficiaries for four months. The appeal requests funds, support in-kind and services to meet immediate basic needs of the most vulnerable including provision of shelter, medical services and supplies, water and sanitation equipment and other relief supplies. So far cash and in-kind contributions worth nearly USD 10 million have been provided towards IFRC initiatives. IFRC has a small team base in Anjar, south east of Bhuj and the emergency response unit (ERU) referral hospital in Bhuj is currently being established.

In addition, many international NGOs have been responding and are active in the area.

22 Search and Rescue (SAR) teams made up of 399 rescuers and 26 rescue dogs equipped with technical and rescue equipment assisted in the search and rescue operation. Medical and SAR teams from Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Italy/Spain, Japan, Mexico, Poland, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Turkey, USA, and the United Kingdom have been involved in the Search and Rescue operation. Since the rescue phase is now over, most SAR teams have left.

In addition, the Governments of Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Monaco, Nepal, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Oman, the Russian Federation, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States as well as ECHO have pledged or provided cash and/or in-kind contributions bilaterally or through NGOs or the UN System.

More information can be found on the following websites: http://www.reliefweb.int or on InterAction Internet Website at http://www.interaction.org

3.3. United Nations Response

The in-country UN System through the UN Disaster Management Team (UNDMT) led by the UN Resident Coordinator has been working closely with Government authorities and has convened emergency meetings on a daily basis to review the situation and coordinate the UN response. The UNDMT officer and the Rajasthan Coordinator were immediately redeployed to Gujarat. Staff from the UNDP Emergency Response Division have been redeployed to boost assessment and coordination services.

The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) immediately mobilized and deployed a five-member United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) Team on 27 January. In Ahemdabad, a Reception Centre for registering in-coming teams and relief items was established at the airport during the rescue operation. The team established an On-Site Operations Coordination Centre (OSOCC), in close collaboration with the Indian authorities and the relevant UN agencies. The centre is next to the Indian Disaster Commissioner’s Office in Bhuj. The OSOCC in Bhuj includes the WHO Disease Surveillance desk. On 2 February, the sixth UNDAC member from the Government of Denmark arrived in New Delhi and has been assisting the UNDMT there in liaising between the capital and the affected area to strengthen the coordination system.

The UNDMT is working together with Ericsson and Ham Radio on setting up communications systems in the affected area.

Despite the above mentioned coordination efforts, it is extremely difficult to quantify the full extent of aid required at this stage.

All UN organizations have assessment teams in the field.

UNDP

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has mobilized US$ 650,000 from the Government of the UK to set up a UN System coordination mechanism. The purpose of this mechanism is to ensure appropriate assessment, identification of activities, designing and implementation of project proposals, monitoring and quality control thus establishing the necessary bridge between relief and development.

In addition, the Government of Italy has announced a contribution of US$ 1.7 million to complement the above-mentioned Co-ordination mechanism as well as for shelter and integrated recovery activities.

USAID is providing USD 400,000 for relief items such as shelter and family kits and as support to the coordination mechanisms of NGOs and the UN.

UNDP is providing US$100,00 for immediate relief in partnership with two of the leading women’s organizations in Gujarat - the Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) and the NGO Kutch Mahila Vikas Sangthan. An earthquake resistant shelter expert has been stationed in Gujarat.

UNV

The United Nations Volunteers (UNV) has provided the Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS) US$10,000 to fund 33 volunteers to work in Gujarat initially for a month and further funds are sought to fund them for a longer period. All these volunteers are from the local communities. Currently 400 NYKS youth volunteers from existing NYKS clubs are in place and NYKS is planning to increase the number of volunteers. The UNV Disaster Management Coordinator has been redeployed from Orissa to Gujarat.

WHO

The World Health Organization (WHO) responded rapidly to the earthquake by mobilizing three poliomyelitis eradication surveillance medical officers already in Gujarat and placed a staff member expert in emergency and humanitarian action in Ahmedabad on 27 January, the morning after the earthquake. Two tuberculosis control medical officers and one water and sanitation expert from WHO India country programme have been providing technical assistance in Gujarat. WHO staff from country and regional offices are collaborating with state and local health authorities in the coordination of health activities. As of 4 February, WHO had already deployed seventeen public health experts to Ahmedabad and Bhuj, Kutch district, one being a public health expert from the WHO Regional Office for the Americas with broad experience in earthquakes.

The main areas of activity of WHO are (1) Rapid assessment of health needs of populations in affected areas in cooperation with UNDAC; (2) Technical advice to the Government, UN agencies, bilateral agencies and NGOs on priority public health issues in the aftermath of an earthquake; (3) Support to the Government in establishing disease surveillance in the affected areas, including an early warning system and capacity for rapid response to epidemics; (4) Collaborating in health sector coordination; (5) Providing and facilitating the provision of trauma kits, emergency health kits and other essential medical supplies; (6) Offering technical support for emergency repairs of water distribution system, water treatment and temporary distribution, sanitation and solid waste disposal, food safety, vector and zoonosis control; and (7) Supporting the re-establishment and rehabilitation of health services in affected areas with special attention to primary health care.

In collaboration with the Government:

WHO is developing a comprehensive programme for disease surveillance and an early warning system for epidemics in the worst affected areas of Gujarat. This will also have a long-term impact in controlling epidemics and reducing the spread of communicable diseases. WHO will support Public Health and health sector coordination in Gujarat through restoration of public health services as soon as possible and maintain a presence to help ensure that public health care is given adequate attention in a period of time after the immediate relief and before the complete restoration of the health services. WHO is prepared to provide technical collaboration in the analysis of structural/non-structural safety of damaged health facilities, emergency rehabilitation of key facilities, and replacement of critical equipment and supplies.

To carry out its activities, WHO has received, as of 07 February, USD 630,000 from DFID for disease surveillance and public health sector coordination activities, USD 232,000 from USAID/OFDA for water quality control and for surveillance activities, and 150,000 USD from WHO Director General and Regional Director Fund. WHO has also received trauma and emergency health kits from UK and Italy.

UNICEF

The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) has mobilized an initial $4 million in relief supplies, including medical drugs and equipment, 1 million chlorine tablets to purify water, 25,000 blankets, 10,000 family survival kits and 50,000 plastic sheets. UNICEF plans an additional $10 million to help restore basic health service for children and women, rebuild basic immunization programs, ensure a safe supply of water, help restart education, and provide training in trauma counseling to teachers and other adults in the hardest-hit areas.

Overall, UNICEF’s efforts are aimed at preventing the spread of disease and enabling children to get back on a strong, healthy developmental track as quickly as possible while protecting them from exploitation. UNICEF is currently basing its operations from the UNICEF office in the state capital of Gandhinagar, where it has maintained an active field office for the past ten years. UNICEF is strengthening its logistics operations in the field to ensure capacity to deliver and monitor programs. In this regard, UNICEF will be adding experienced field staff as part of the UN joint logistics unit in Bhuj and Ahemdabad. UNICEF has 20 staff on the ground, including experts in health, water and sanitation, education, nutrition, and psychosocial health, and is coordinating closely with national and international NGOs and bi-lateral donors.

UNICEF is focusing its assistance in the four hardest-hit areas, with particular emphasis on targetting under-served villages and blocs. UNICEF will lead UN and partner coordination in the Education & Child Protection sector, as well as in Water & Sanitation. UNICEF will also support activities in Primary Health Care, Nutrition, and Family Survival. In the area of Water & Sanitation, UNICEF is building upon the Gujarat Action Plan for drought mitigation and drought-proofing assembled just prior to the earthquake with UNICEF support.

Advanced discussions are underway with the Gujarat state authorities and NGOs toward supporting the establishment of at least 350 clustered service centers that would offer school lessons for children, trauma counseling for children and families, community health and hygiene education, and other programs. Similar discussions are underway toward the immediate establishment of 300 health care centres. In both cases, UNICEF is carrying out contacts and planning in conjunction with UN partner agencies and NGOs.

WFP

The World Food Programme response to the earthquake, in support of the State Govt. of Gujarat, is two fold:

An Emergency Operation valued at $4.15 million to provide relief food rations to 300,000 people for 4 months. Specifically, WFP will provide 178,000 children below five years of age, as well as pregnant and nursing mothers, with nutritious biscuits for the immediate term. Subsequently, daily rations of fortified blended food (Indiamix) will be distributed. In addition, 120,000 people - families in the earthquake zone with the greatest need - will receive packages of wheat flour and lentils.

A Special Logistics Operation valued at $2.3 million in which WFP - in partnership with other UN agencies - will establish a United Nations Joint Logistics Cell (UNJLC) to facilitate (1) logistics coordination of the relief efforts and (2) the airlift of relief material through UN Humanitarian Response Depot (UNHRD) in Brindisi to Bhuj.

OCHA

OCHA has provided an Emergency Grant of USD 150,000 from its own resources as well as from pre-positioned funds from the Governments of Denmark and Norway, to purchase tents and blankets. OCHA has also organized, together with WFP, three relief flights from the UNHRD in Brindisi, Italy, in cooperation with the Governments of Italy and Norway. So far OCHA has issued 7 Situation Reports in order to keep the international community informed, and raise support for the affected population.

UNFPA

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) is supporting 12 mobile health units for the outreach area, repairing, reconstructing and equipping selected subcentres, Public Health Centres and First Referral Units, and assisting womens’ groups for livelihood activities combined with social support services.

ILO

The International labour Organisation (ILO) is setting up programmes to address the employment and labour related aspects of the disaster. These will include activities aimed at mapping the employment dimensions of the earthquake in terms of temporary and permanent job losses, labour migration flows and skills profiles of victims. Activities will be launched to provide immediate employment opportunities for the affected population using labour-intensive methods. Particular attention will be given to highly vulnerable workers, particularly women, and will be focussing on the promotion of sustainable income-generating activities through small enterprises and micro-finance. Another major area for ILO’s activities will focus on the protection of particularly vulnerable groups such as children and young women. Joint activities will be undertaken with other agencies, particularly with UNICEF, to mitigate the adverse impact of the disaster on groups at particular risk in terms of growth of child labour, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other undesirable outcomes.

FAO

The Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) has fielded a four member Technical Assessment Mission comprising of an International Disaster Management Expert with three national Consultants in the fields of Crop Production, Animal Husbandry and Agricultural Engineering (Water Management Specialist), to assess comprehensively the agriculture and allied sectors of the quake affected areas, and suggest various short-term and long-term strategies for rehabilitation in the form of concrete project proposals.

For further information on activities of the in-country UN System see the UN System in India on: www.un.org.in

4. UN-agencies plans of action by sectors

4.1 Coordination

Focal Agency UNDP
Cooperating Agencies DMT members
Government Partner Government of India, State Government of Gujarat
Implementing Partner(s) Disaster Mitigation Institute (DMI) Ahmedabad, NGO networks
Activities Establishment of an antenna office in Ahmedabad, a coordination office in Bhuj and a small liaison office in Delhi, with the necessary mobility and communication equipment, to prepare a mid-term recovery programme, identifying special interventions for the most vulnerable population; establish a monitoring and evaluation system, reporting and documenting best practices
Objectives Sharing of the UN and the UNDP Coordinating capacities through the creation of a expanded coordinating mechanism to ensure a smooth transition from relief to sustainable recovery
Intervention period 6 months initially
Funds requested USD 2,500,000

UNDP

Objectives

The overall objective of the project is to strengthen the UNDMT/UNDP capacity to create and/or enhance a system for early needs assessment, coordination and formulation of appropriate strategies and programmes to effectively address the early stages of evolution from relief to recovery.

Strategy

The UNDMT/UNDP will strengthen its coordinating services by bolstering the nucleus of coordinating mechanisms at various levels to ensure a smooth transition from relief to sustainable recovery.

The recovery phase will involve a coordination mechanism in UNDMT/UNDP at the state level, decentralized to the worst affected areas. These will have the necessary capacity to prepare a mid-term, from relief to development programme, plan, monitor and evaluate necessary activities, and ensure the necessary reporting. The mechanism will ultimately create synergies and will improve the oversight of available UN resources. In addition, it will also ensure the necessary accountability and transparency and disseminate widely best practices and lessons learned. The UN Family’s DevInfo/MitInfo databases will facilitate gap analyses and will be widely shared.

Budget

Agency
Budget item
US$
UNDP Team Facilitator
40,000
Emergency Liaison Officer Delhi (1)
60,000
NGO Liaison Officers (10)
100,000
Mitigation Information Officers (10)
100,000
Communication officers (20)
200,000
Mobile teams (10 teams of 10 community workers)
300,000
Team accommodation
60,000
Coordination/liaison office Delhi
20,000
Bhuj premises and equipment
45,000
Ahmedabad premises and basic equipment
60,000
Coordination antennae space
50,000
Equipment (20 Jeeps and 10 motorcycles)
285,000
Monitoring and evaluation
50,000
Advocacy - best practices, publications
55,000
Sundries
25,000
Operational support
250,000
Subtotal
1,700,000
UNICEF Coordination/Monitoring/Evaluation of program delivery in five sectors, with principal attention to Education & Protection and Water & Sanitation
800,000
Subtotal
800,000
Grand total
2,500,000

4.2 Health

Focal Agency WHO
Cooperating Agency UNICEF, UNFPA
Government Partner Health Services, Government of India and Government of Gujarat
Implementing Partner(s)
Activities Emergency Health Programme
Objectives To reduce communicable diseases and control epidemics, restore public health services, provide technical collaboration ensure a focus on child and maternal health
Target Beneficiaries Entire population in Kutch
Intervention period 12 months
Funds requested USD 8,678,121

4.2.1 WHO

Objectives

  • Disease Surveillance and Early Warning System for epidemics
  • To control epidemics in affected areas
  • To reduce communicable diseases through rapid response teams for outbreak investigation
  • Public Health and Health Sector Coordination
  • To restore public health services as soon as possible
  • To provide psychological support in the aftermath of the disaster
  • To provide technical advice to state and district health authorities, international and local NGOs
  • Hospital and Health Center Safety Assessment and Rehabilitation
  • To provide technical collaboration in analysis of structural and/non-structural safety of health facilities
  • To rehabilitate key health facilities
  • To replace critical equipment at the health facilities

Strategy

A disease surveillance HQ will be set up in Bhuj and a team of 1 epidemiologist coordinator and 5 UNV medical doctors.

Ten vehicles will be rented for three months and two will be purchased for 12 months for the medical teams to travel in the area.

Laboratory support will be provided for the analysis.

Two WHO liaison officers (public health experts) will work in partnership with NGOs as advisors for the restoration of the public health services.

Analysis of structural/non-structural safety of the safety of the damaged health facilities.

4.2.2 UNICEF

Objectives

To help restore basic child and maternal health care through community centres in the hardest-hit areas, especially where basic services lack other support

To ensure timely and relevant immunisation campaigns, diarrhoea control, growth monitoring and antenatal care for pregnant women

Strategy

UNICEF is working closely with the state government and sister UN agencies such as WHO to develop a plan for opening at least 300 temporary health care centres where mother and child health services will be offered. Emphasis will be on the most needy populations, identified in conjunction with partner agencies and local and state government. At least three UNICEF Health Officers in the field will support design, implementation and monitoring and evaluation.

UNICEF will provide drugs, medical supplies and tenting as needed. Following a field assessment of cold chain needs, UNICEF will provide repair or replacement of cold chain equipment and fuel, essential for restoring basic immunisation against childhood diseases. Oral Rehydration Sachets and drugs for ARI will also be supplied to help prevent or control outbreaks of disease.

In conjunction with WHO and state authorities, a UNICEF measles vaccination campaign is already in the advanced planning stage and vaccine and auto-disable syringes are en route to Gujarat. The campaign will begin in mid-February, and will include Vitamin A supplementation.

4.2.3 UNFPA

Objective

1. To revitalize health and family welfare services in the affected areas.

Strategy

UNFPA will support 12 mobile health service units in the affected Talukas of Kutch like Anjar, Bhachau, Rapar, Bhuj town and, also Surendranagar and Banaskata districts. Out of 12 mobile units, 8 will be for Kutch district, 2 for Surendranagar and 2 for Banaskata. Providing mobile health services to the indigent sections, particularly women and children, with provision for counseling will be the priority. The support will be provided to the state government to initiate the services on a priority basis.

The team in each mobile unit, consisting of one Medical officer, one counselor, one para medic will visit 2 villages in a day, thus covering all affected villages on a weekly basis. Medical officer and paramedics of the existing health system will be staffing the unit. UNFPA will sub contract the services of 12 counselors. The services will include general health and medical services and services to pregnant women and the unit will be equipped accordingly. Besides providing outreach services, the mobile units would facilitate the organization of medical camps and also act as a sentinel surveillance unit for disease surveillance.

There are about 500 worst effected villages in Kutch, Surendranagar and Banaskata districts. Most of the health facilities in these villages have been devastated. On selective basis, UNFPA will contribute to repairing and equipping facilities such as SCs, PHCs and FRUs.

Significant numbers of health facilities have been totally destroyed. Some of the strategically located facilities like SCs, PHCs and FRUs in these areas need to be reconstructed and equipped on a priority basis to provide comprehensive health services. UNFPA would seek additional support for undertaking this activity.

Budget

Agency
Budget item
USD
WHO

Epidemiological Surveillance
400,000
Hospital Safety Assessment and Rehabilitation
5,077,930
Public Health Coordination
500,000
Mental Health and Health Communications
100,000
Subtotal
6,077,930
UNICEF

Provision of equipment/drugs
1,255,000
Prevention & control of outbreaks
400,000
Logistical Support
50,000
Freight
258,750
Project Support
17,250
Subtotal
1,981,000
UNFPA

Mobile health Units, equipment and instruments
310,211
Counselors
60,319
Operating costs/maintenance
12,408
Contingencies
7,273
Reconstruction/Repairs of SCs/PHCs
142,810
Support for women’s groups
86,170
Subtotal
619,191
Grandtotal
8,678,121

4.3 Water and Sanitation

Focal Agency UNICEF
Cooperating Agency WHO
Government Partner Government of Gujarat
Implementing Partner(s)
Activities Water supply and purification, repair and maintenance, sanitation coverage, vector and zoonosis control.
Objectives Ensure provision of safe water supply and sanitation through restoration of drinking water systems and provision of sanitation facilities.
Target Beneficiaries Affected population
Intervention period 12 months
Funds requested USD 2,671,280

4.3.1 UNICEF

Objectives

To supply potable water to affected communities, including tanker supplies and support for disinfection and purification of household drinking water

To accelerate the minor repair of damaged water supply systems

To increase sanitation coverage for the affected communities to ensure the safe disposal of excreta and minimize the risk of disease.

Strategy

The Government has requested UNICEF to provide emergency support in the provision of both safe water and adequate sanitation. Beyond immediate tankering of potable water, which UNICEF is presently supplying (35 UNICEF-managed water tankers are already in the affected area) and the provision of water purification tablets and chlorine, UNICEF will support restoration of pre-existing water schemes.

Adapting a drought mitigation and drought-proofing plan prepared by the state government with UNICEF support just prior to the earthquake, UNICEF will accelerate work on water scheme improvements and enhancements to help meet emergency needs while addressing the long-term drought situation in Gujarat.

In the immediate term the state has requested that UNICEF support its efforts by supplying diesel generator sets to power water pumps, community water storage tanks, diesel-driven centrifugal pump sets, and related equipment. UNICEF will also support the needed technical consultants to assess and oversee minor repair of pre-existing water schemes. UNICEF will support the provision of spare parts to quickly reactivate pre-existing water schemes that need only minor repair to begin functioning again.

Dissemination of an appropriate communication package to encourage safe water, sanitation and hygiene practices will be an essential part of the strategy. Working closely with state and local authorities, UNICEF will also provide funds and technical support for the digging of pit latrines and other sanitation arrangements.

4.3.2 WHO

Objectives

To ensure the safety of drinking water by rebuilding capacity to monitor water quality and promoting disinfection of drinking water.

To reduce the risk of food borne outbreaks/food poisoning in post-earthquake period.

Strategy

Water and sanitation remain one of the key issues in prevention of outbreak of diseases and epidemics. It is of utmost importance that the water is adequately chlorinated, and that regular water quality testing is restored as soon as possible. The vast damages provide major challenges in restoration of water and sanitation.

WHO will collaborate with UNICEF's efforts to develop emergency water supplies and to support the reconstruction of water systems. WHO will support Government of Gujarat efforts to monitor the safety of drinking water quality surveillance programmes that ensure the safety of drinking water in reconstructed systems. Test kits and floroscopes will be provided to monitor emergency water supply operations. As the situation stabilizes, training and planning support will be given for the development of regular drinking water surveillance programmes that will include the development of basic laboratory capacity and field operations.

WHO will also collaborate in the development of health education packages for ensuring safe drinking water, food safety, and for improving sanitation and hygienic practices. Food sanitation is another important area as food poisoning is a common occurrence after earthquakes.

WHO will provide a sanitary engineer for supervision, training and management of all Water Quality Control activities and extra advisory capacity on environmental health for the initial six months after the earthquake.

Budget

Agency
Budget item
USD
UNICEF

Water testing kits
50,000
Bleaching powder and purification tablets
115,000
Tents/lanterns
13,000
Pumps and generators
449,500
Storage tanks and Jerry cans
1,336,000
Hygiene education
98,175
Logistics and Project Support
157,080
Freight
294,525
Subtotal
2,513,280
WHO

Re-establishing of water quality testing (laboratory supplies, training and support personnel)
75,000
Sanitary engineer for supervision, training and management of all water quality control activities (6 months intiially)
60,000
Monitoring and evaluation
14,000
Project support cost
9,000
Subtotal
158,000
Grandtotal
2,671,280

4.4. Education and Child Protection

Focal Agency UNICEF
Cooperating Agency ILO
Government Partner Government of Gujarat
Implementing Partner(s)
Activities Assessment, provision of temporary school shelter and teaching materials, interventions to protect needs of children
Objectives Restore/restart educational process, reduce child labour, increase child access to basic and essential services, provide psychosocial support
Target Beneficiaries Affected children
Intervention period 12 months
Funds requested USD 3,180,100

4.4.1 UNICEF

Objectives

  • To support the swift opening of at least 300 temporary schools in affected areas
  • To provide children with learning materials, teachers with teaching materials, and communities with tents and other equipment needed to start temporary schools.
  • To support NGOs in identifying children who have been left unaccompanied to ensure their proper care and protection
  • To provide training in trauma counseling to teachers and other social service providers as a means for reaching children
  • To support the revitalization of anganwadi social service centres

Strategy

UNICEF knows from experience in Turkey and other earthquake zones that education is the key to recovery for both children and communities. A swift opening of schools and classrooms gives children a place to recover a sense of normalcy and a location for trained counselors to help children overcome stress. Schools also galvanize community action and serve as a focal point for further recovery activities.

Ongoing field assessments and consultation with state and local authorities will be used to open schools first in the areas where they are needed most. Working with state government, at least 300 school sites will be supported. Provision of tents and other local structures for temporary shelters will be made accordingly.

Provision of student kits including textbooks, notebooks, chalk and pencils. Provision of floor mats in cotton, jute or plastic. Portable blackboards, teachers guides and teaching material wherever necessary. Repair and restoration of damaged school buildings. Provision of storage facilities such as locking trunks or steel cabinets.

Working with government at all levels, and especially with NGOs, UNICEF will develop trauma-counseling training for teachers and other key social service providers who have contact with children and mothers. These services will be made available in the same centres where schools are set up to provide a service "bundling" approach that will reach more people. The strategy will also support the establishment of local self-help groups to pursue projects in counseling, prevention of exploitation of children, income generation and micro-enterprise initiatives.

The ILO is planning to co-operate with UNICEF in the component dealing with the protection of children and young women exposed to exploitative-work risks. A mechanism will be put in place to integrate children into the primary education system, provide educational support once they are in the system and prevent school drop out. Income generation activities for parents of working children will be integrated into the programme and linked to existing or newly created credit schemes.

Budget

Agency
Budget item
USD
UNICEF

Education Educational Situation Assessment
25,000
Temporary School Shelter
500,000
Text Books
100,000
Teachers and Students kits
1,999,400
Advocacy including Teachers training materials
26,250
Project Support
55,250
Child Protection Child Protection Activities
50,000
Trauma Counseling
20,000
Advocacy
3,500
Project Support
700
Subtotal
2,780,100
ILO Young women and child protection activities
400,000
Subtotal
400,000
Grand total
3,180,100

4.5 Food and Nutrition

Focal Agency WFP
Cooperating Agency UNICEF, WHO, FAO
Government Partner Gujarat Government
Implementing Partner(s) ICDS and NGOs
Activities Emergency Food Aid Programme
Objectives To improve the nutritional status of the most affected population through the provision of adequate and appropriate food.
Target Beneficiaries 298,000 people with focus on women and children in Kutch, Patan, Rajkot, Surendaragar and Jamnagar (2 blocks) districts.
Intervention period 4 months
Funds requested USD 4,241,329

4.5.1 WFP

Objectives

The objective of the WFP Emergency Operation is to arrest deterioration in the nutritional status of the vulnerable population, especially young children and women.

Strategy

Provide support to Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); a Government of India project.

Provide a particularly nutritious fortified food to 178,000 children below five years of age, as well as pregnant and nursing mothers. This food has proven to be successful in the prevention of the deterioration of the nutritional status in times of sudden food shortfall period. WFP has vast experience in producing this type of food (Indiamix, biscuits) in India.

Provide 120,000 people - families in the earthquake zone with the greatest need - with packages of wheat flour and lentils for four months.

Partnership with NGOs (that are already operational) in the geographical areas not covered under ICDS.

Focus on the remote areas that are difficult to access and those areas that are most food insecure (based on WFP VAM analysis) and have been affected by 2 consecutive years of severe drought.

To restore livelihood which has been disrupted by the sudden loss of employment opportunities and has consequently decreased individual purchasing power.

Decentralization of WFP management to Bhuj and Ahmedabad.

4.5.2 UNICEF

Objectives

To accelerate the provision of micronutrient supplementation, especially iron/foliate, to women and children and vitamin A for its protective role against infections.

Strategy

Working with WFP and other partners and seeking to reach children under five years, feeding programs will be established in community kitchens, schools, and early childhood care centres. UNICEF will provide Vitamin A supplementation and provision of iron/foliate capsules.

4.5.3 WHO

Objectives

Focus on PEM and Micronutrient Deficiencies.

Strategy

To work closely with other partner agencies and lend technical support as and when needed.

4.5.4 FAO

Objectives

To focus on agricultural sector rehabilitation and to restore the basic livelihood of the rural people.

Strategy

Assist in re-establishing the basic agriculture and animal husbandry production processes through the provision of key inputs, appropriate management practices and rebuilding the infrastructure support system. Emphasis will be on including the poorer peasants and efficient water management orientation.

Budget

Agency
Budget item
USD
WFP


Commodity Cost
2,788,380
Transportation
242,370
Direct Support Costs
826,002
Indirect Support Costs
300,827
Subtotal
4,157,579
UNICEF


Micronutrients
20,000
Health and Nutrition education
63,750
Subtotal
83,750
FAO

To be determined
Grandtotal
4,241,329

4.6 Shelter and Survival

Focal Agency UNDP
Cooperating Agency Habitat, UNV, UNICEF
Government Partner State Government of Gujarat
Implementing Partner(s) NGO networks, academic and research institutions
Activities Assistance to the provision of shelter
Objectives Immediate assistance to provide shelter material to cover the needs of the homeless population in the most heavily affected areas.

A more in-depth assessment of the actual damage to housing, roaming teams to assist the self-help building processes

Develop a strategy for shelter/housing for the State of Gujarat

Target Beneficiaries UNDP:

Phase I - 40,000 families in the most affected districts

Phase II - State of Gujarat

Intervention period UNDP/UNV/Habitat

Phase I - 1-6 months

Phase II - 4-11 monthsTotal intervention period: 11 months

Funds requested USD 11,596,000

4.6.1 UNDP

Objectives

The support is a joint effort of UNDP/UNV and Habitat. The first phase aims at providing assistance to assess the actual damage on housing and provide shelter material based on those needs. The second phase will develop a shelter/housing reconstruction strategy for Gujarat. The strategy will be piloted in Kutch and Rajkot districts. Specific objectives are to provide 40,000 families with basic shelter and to contribute to reducing the vulnerability of communities most at risk by ensuring safer reconstruction of houses.

Strategy

Phase One: Immediate Shelter Provision

  • Establishment of roaming teams to assist communities in the planning and setting-up of shelters
  • Identification of suitable shelter materials/ designs, both seismic and monsoon resistant
  • Provision of shelter to approximately 40,000 families in the Kutch and Rajkot districts (rural areas), through established NGO networks
  • Distribution of construction materials for immediate housing repairs in identified areas through established NGO networks
  • Monitoring shelter installation and house repairs

Phase Two: Developing of a Shelter/Housing Reconstruction Strategy
  • In-depth assessment of shelter/housing needs and capacities:
  • Accurate statistical information and locations
  • Locally and nationally available materials
  • Locally and nationally available skills
  • Establishment of university student network to assess damages/repairs needed in rural housing units
  • Review of land tenure schemes
  • Design of seismic and monsoon resistant housing
  • Piloting design in three districts (Patan, Rajkot and Surendranagar)

4.6.2 UNICEF

Objectives

To assist homeless families to cope better with the rigors of displacement through provision of basic survival items such as cooking utensils, blankets and towels, soaps, lanterns, etc.

Strategy

Working with partner agencies and government, identify displaced populations most in need. Using local procurement, deliver appropriate family survival kits to those in need.

Budget

Agency
Budget item
US$
UNDP Shelter provision for 40,000 families
2,000,000
On-site technical support (2 years)
86,400
NGO subcontracts reception/distribution
20,000
NGO subcontracts monitoring/evaluation
100,000
Research and development subcontracts
500,000
Design subcontract
150,000
Pilot design testing, 5,500 housing units @ 800 US$
4,400,000
Equipment (vehicle and communications)
93,600
HABITAT Programme Coordinator
50,000
Specialised Consultants
100,000
UNVs - 30 for 1 month
100,000
Sub Total
7,600,000
UNICEF 50,000 Family survival kits
3,996,000
Subtotal
3,996,000
Grand Total
11,596,000

4.7 Livelihoods

Focal Agency UNDP
Cooperating Agency ILO, UNV, UNFPA
Government Partner District Administration
Implementing Partner(s) Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS), SEWA, BDMSA, Kutch Mahila Vikas Sangathan, Kutch Navnirman Abhiyan Janvikas, Disaster Mitigation Institute
Activities Assistance to immediate livelihood needs through support to existing women’s groups and other community groups, including basic shelter as required Immediate support on food security Provision for child care to relieve women for work Counselling for targeting women and female adolescents Coordination and information dissemination Coordinate the relief assistance by NYKS volunteers, supervise the distribution of relief material
Objectives Integrated livelihood restoration in Kutch, Surendrangar and Patan Coordination of NYKS activities in Rajkot
Target Beneficiaries UNDP: 12000 women and their families including artisans and 14000 children. Migrant workers affected by the earthquake will also be covered.

ILO: 15,000

UNV: Approximately 78,000 most vulnerable, marginalised populations, notably women and children in Rajkot,

Intervention period 6-12 months
Funds requested USD 6,856,957

4.7.1 UNDP

Objectives

To provide community-based integrated livelihood restoration in Kutch, Surendranagar and Patan districts . Focus is on women and children, working with existing partnerships towards fast track recovery by supporting immediate needs. At the same time moving rapidly to focus on income generating and care and educational needs, as well as more permanent shelter.

Strategy

In short, the UNDP support to NGOs will provide:

  • Earthquake-resistant traditional shelter for immediate and medium-term needs to pursue livelihoods
  • Provision of child care in approximately 300 villages to relieve women for work and support affected children through shelter and schooling
  • Alternative livelihoods through support to existing women’s groups and micro-capital assistance of about US$100,000 for each region
  • Immediate support on food security through food packets including cereal, pulses, oils, sugar, tea and other required spices
  • Water supply through tankers and the revival of water resource systems in the longer run.

4.7.2 ILO

Objectives

  • Address employment and labour-related aspects of the disaster
  • Assessment of damage and related employment needs
  • To provide immediate employment to affected population in cleaning-up and related work.
  • Measures to save existing jobs threatened by loss of complementary assets, raw material, infrastructure, markets and credit.
  • Mitigate adverse impact of the disaster on children and adolescents in terms of child labour, trafficking and prostitution and other undesirable outcomes.
  • Job opportunity through reconstruction and rehabilitation of shelters and water harvesting infrastructures.
  • Protect and promote traditional textile production of women’s Banascraft and Kutchcraft Federations under SEWA.
  • Advocacy to mobilize resources, national and international employers’ and workers’ organizations and NGOs to address the employment and labour-related aspects of the disaster, including the promotion of decent work during the reconstruction phase, and sustainable employment creation accompanied by poverty reduction over a longer period
  • Ensure that the process of rebuilding the infrastructure and housing is employment friendly, i.e. that it uses materials and methods that generate employment without compromising other overriding concerns like building safety.
  • Reorienting the training and employment services systems to assist young persons to secure training and employment.
  • Contributing to the development of special policies and programmes to address the employment and training needs of persons who have become disabled as a result of the disaster.
  • Assisting in re-establishing social safety nets that may have been destroyed during the disaster and setting up alternative mechanisms for social protection, including viable saving and group insurance schemes.

Strategy

To provide integrated measures to prevent the loss of existing jobs, to create short term work opportunities in clean up and rebuilding of the infrastructure and housing, and to develop strategies and measures to create sufficient employment opportunities over time to alleviate the poverty induced by the earthquake and the drought.

4.7.3 UNFPA

Objectives

To provide and support technical assistance on counseling targeting women and female adolescents

Strategy

Existing women’s groups or cooperatives will receive assistance for livelihood activities, combined with social support services.

4.7.4 UNV

Objectives

UNVs contribution will help ensure the planning and coordination of the relief work of the entire Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS) volunteer corps in Maliya and Morbi blocks in Rajkot.

Strategy

  • Ensure effective co-ordination, monitoring, reporting and evaluation of the relief assistance provided to the victims of the earthquake
  • Supervise the distribution of relief material from the district to the block and to the community level
  • Document the extent of the damage, identifying and prioritising gaps with the villagers.
  • Co-ordinate the activities of the scores of possible NGOs working in selected districts
  • Assist the affected communities in mobilizing their own self-help response, planning with the communities their own disaster-preparedness and recovery.

4.7.5 FAO

Objectives

To focus on agricultural sector rehabilitation and to restore the basic livelihood of the rural people.

Strategy

Assist in reestablishing the basic agriculture and animal husbandry production processes through the provision of key inputs, appropriate management practices and rebuilding the infrastructure support systems. Emphasis will be on including the poorer peasants and efficient water management orientation.

Budget

Agency
Budget item
USD
UNDP


Personnel: National volunteers, para-teachers, creche caretakers, part-time doctors
205,817
Sub-contracts: rebuilding schools, construction of shelters, provision of water tankers, construction of wells and water harvesting structures
1,188,065
Equipment: vehicles, communication equipment, teaching/learning materials, medicines, kitchen equipment and provisions,10 computers, 14 generators
484,382
Grants for looking after children, running the crèches, food packets, miscellaneous
1,291,736
Micro-capital assistance
200,000
Subtotal
3,370,000
ILO Employment creation - building materials for reconstruction of housing and infrastructure
1,500,000
Vocational training for employable skills
500,000
Micro-credit schemes for self-employment and income generating activities
500,000
Promotion of ethnic textile products through Women organizations ILO/SEWA initiative
400,000
Subtotal
2,900,000
UNV


90 UNVs community Workers
372,240
10 UNVs Community Specialists
56,760
Transport and equipment
71,000
Subtotal
500,000
UNFPA


Support for women’s groups
86,957
Subtotal
86,957
FAO Agril livelihood To be determined
Grand total
6,856,957

4.8 Logistics

Focal Agency WFP
Cooperating Agency UNDP, OCHA , UNICEF
Government Partner Government of Gujarat
Implementing Partner(s)

Activities Co-ordinate relief logistics
Objectives To reinforce the State Government of Gujarat by facilitating by facilitating logistics coordination.
Target Beneficiaries

Intervention period 4 months
Funds requested USD 2,301,045

4.8.1 WFP

Objective

To support the State Government of Gujarat through:

(1) A Special Logistics Operation in which WFP - in partnership with other UN agencies - will establish a United Nations Joint Logistics Cell (UNJLC) to facilitate the logistics coordination for the relief efforts and the airlift of relief material through the UN Humanitarian response depot (UNHRD) in Brindisi to Bhuj

Strategy

Work in partnership with the UN system, Government of India and NGOs.

Establish a joint logistics cell to facilitate:

  • logistical coordination
  • communications
  • database and reporting mechanisms

Set-up 3 sub-offices at Bhuj, Ahmedabad, and Gandhinagar.
Agency
Budget item
USD
WFP


Project Costs
2,134,550
Indirect Support Costs
166,495
Grandtotal
USD 2,301,045

5. Total Assistance required

Donors can make their contributions directly to the UN Agency concerned. OCHA is willing to serve as a channel for unearmarked contributions, which will be allocated in consultation with the UN Resident Coordinator and with relevant UN Agencies to meet priority needs. For funds channeled through the United Nations system, appropriate UN Agencies will be responsible for monitoring, coordinating and reporting on the efforts to their donors. A summary report on the progress of work will also be prepared as a coordinated effort by the UNDMT. The entire inter-agency emergency relief and initial rehabilitation will be formally reviewed at the end of the period.

The total budget, broken down by sector, of the combined UN System initial assessment, is as follows:

UN Agencies
Sectors
Total per UN Agency (in USD)
UNDP Coordination, Shelter and Survival, Livelihoods 12,670,000
WFP Food, Logistics 6,458,624
WHO Health, Food and Nutrition, Water and Sanitation 6,235,930
UNICEF Health, Education & Child Protection, Shelter & Survival, Food & Nutrition, and Coordination (the UNICEF budget total also reflects indirect programme support of 5%, or $645,870) 12,800,000
UNFPA Education and Child Protection, Reproductive Health 706,148
ILO Livelihoods 3,300,000
UNV Shelter and Survival, Livelihoods 500,000
FAO Livelihoods

Total 42,670,702

For coordination purposes, donors are also requested to inform OCHA Geneva on relief missions/pledges/contributions and their corresponding values by item.

Funds channeled through OCHA should be transferred to OCHA account no. CO-590.160.0, swift code: UBSWCHZ12A at the UBS AG, P.O. BOX 2770, CH-1211 Geneva 2, with reference: OCHA - India - Earthquake. OCHA provides donors with written confirmation and pertinent details concerning the utilization of the funds contributed.

6. Monitoring and Reporting

Regular UNDMT meetings and donor meetings as well as field visits will be organized, as required, to monitor the progress and keep donors updated on the implementation of the UN relief assistance.