India

Summary of U.S. Government humanitarian assistance to India #1 FY2001 (Oct 2000-Sep 2001)

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U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
BUREAU FOR HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE (BHR)
OFFICE OF U.S. FOREIGN DISASTER ASSISTANCE (OFDA)

SUMMARY

The U.S. Government (USG) has provided nearly $19 million in emergency assistance in response to the earthquake, drought, and two flood disasters in India during FY 2001. USAID/OFDA's assistance in response to the four disasters is approximately $11 million. The remaining USG emergency assistance was provided through USAID/Food for Peace (USAID/FFP) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). A breakout of the USG's assistance in response to the four disasters is provided below.

FLOODS - WEST BENGAL

* USAID/OFDA's response to the West Bengal floods began in FY 2000 and continued into FY 2001. The assistance outlined below is cumulative.

Background

Particularly heavy monsoon rains from September 17-21, 2001, exacerbated by the release of water from swelling dams, significantly affected eastern India, most notably West Bengal.

According to the U.N. Children's Fund (UNICEF), the floods impacted 68 municipalities in West Bengal, killed 1,262 people, affected more than 18 million residents, and resulted in the establishment of 21,484 relief centers to provide for the needs of over 4 million evacuees. In addition, UNICEF reported 1,886,976 houses, 2,375,636 hectares of cropland, 8,187 primary schools, 1,345 health facilities, 3,240 kilometers of highways and district roads, and over 450 kilometers of railway either damaged or destroyed. Flooding in West Bengal also significantly impacted the livestock industry in West Bengal, killing cattle, goats, sheep, and poultry. According to the Government of India, economic losses from the flooding in West Bengal amount to $1.2 billion.

USG Assistance

A USAID/OFDA Regional Advisor participated in an assessment conducted by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) from August 20-22.

On August 21, in response to the USAID/OFDA assessment, U.S. Chargé d'Affaires Albert Thibault issued a disaster declaration for flooding in India. In response, USAID/OFDA provided an initial $25,000 through USAID/New Delhi to the Prime Minister's National Disaster Relief Fund to help meet the immediate needs of those most affected by the floods. Subsequently, USAID/OFDA provided an additional $25,000 through USAID/New Delhi to the Prime Minister's National Disaster Relief Fund to further support relief efforts.

USAID/OFDA also provided $111,600 to the American Red Cross (ARC) for the purchase and distribution of family packets to 30,000 beneficiaries; $500,000 to Catholic Relief Services (CRS) for the purchase and distribution of food and non-food assistance to an undetermined number of recipients; and, $183,800 to World Vision (WV) to meet the short-term food needs and health security of 12,000 flood-affected families.

USAID/OFDA also dispatched 160 rolls of plastic sheeting, four water purification units, and 10 Zodiac boats for consignment to the Indian Red Cross. The cost for the purchase and transport of these commodities totaled $381,340. The Zodiac boats and water purification units remained in India following the disaster for use during future disasters.

In addition to USAID/OFDA assistance, USAID/FFP redirected 5,400 MT of Title II emergency food commodities, valued at $2.4 million, from ongoing government-to-government programs to flood victims. A portion of these commodities, which were distributed by CARE and CRS, benefited flood victims in West Bengal.

USG Funding

USG Agency
Implementing Partner
Type of Assistance
Amount
USAID/OFDA Prime Minister's Fund Immediate relief supplies
$50,000
American Red Cross Emergency household kits
$111,600
Indian Red Cross 10 Zodiac boats, 160 rolls of plastic sheeting, and 4 water purification units
$381,340
CRS Emergency food and non-food assistance
$500,000
WV Food and health assistance
$183,800
Total USAID/OFDA Assistance
$1,226,740
USAID/FFP CARE and CRS 5,400 MT of food assistance
$2,400,000
Total USAID/FFP Assistance
$2,400,000
Total USG Assistance
$3,626,740

EARTHQUAKE - GUJARAT

Background

On January 26, at approximately 8:46 a.m. local time, an earthquake measuring 7.7 on the Richter Scale occurred in western India. The United States Geological Survey placed the epicenter of the earthquake 69 kilometers northeast of Bhuj in Gujarat State.

According to the Government of India (GOI), the earthquake impacted nearly 8,000 villages in 21 districts, resulting in more than 20,000 deaths, approximately 170,000 people injured, and almost 16 million people affected. According to the GOI, total infrastructure loss exceeded $453 million. Approximately one million houses and 23,000 schoolrooms were damaged or destroyed and three hospitals, 21 primary health centers, four community health centers, and 140 health sub-centers were lost. In addition, the earthquake disrupted water supply, sanitation, electrical, communication, and transport systems and destroyed mills, food warehouses, and irrigation structures.

USG Assistance

On January 28, U.S. Ambassador Richard F. Celeste declared an earthquake disaster in India.

Total USG emergency assistance in response to the earthquake amounted to nearly $13 million.

From January 28 through February 15, an eleven-person USAID/Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) was in-country to assess humanitarian needs, determine appropriate USG assistance, oversee USG relief efforts, liaise with other organizations involved in the emergency response, and report on the general situation.

Based on the recommendations of the USAID/DART, USAID/OFDA provided nearly $8 million in assistance.

This assistance included three airlifts of relief supplies, consisting of two high-capacity water purification units, 10 water distribution kits, 429,040 sq. ft. of plastic sheeting, 830 tents, 16,000 blankets, 16,000 five-gallon collapsible water containers, nine 3,000-gallon water tanks, 10 generators, and 20 light stands, valued in excess of $1.5 million, including procurement and transport.

In addition, USAID/OFDA provided nearly $900,000 in technical equipment to assist with debris removal efforts; $100,000 to the Prime Minister's National Disaster Relief Fund; $25,840 for USAID/DART support costs; and, more than $4.8 million to CRS, CARE, WV, the U.N. Development Program (UNDP), and the World Health Organization (WHO) for interventions in the shelter, water, sanitation, health/nutrition, emergency food distribution, community infrastructure, and coordination sectors. These programs benefitted some 500,000 people.

USAID/FFP redirected 1,813 metric tons (MT) of P.L. 480 Title II emergency food assistance from ongoing programs to earthquake-affected areas. The food aid, valued at approximately $800,000, benefited approximately 300,000 people.

DOD dispatched a six-person Pacific Situational Assessment Team to determine appropriate DOD assistance; provided 92 large tents, 10,000 blankets, 1,500 sleeping bags, two rough terrain forklifts, two water trailers, and a 2.5-ton truck; and, incurred transport costs for the commodities.

USG Funding

USG Agency
Implementing Partner
Type of Assistance
Amount
USAID/OFDA Prime Minister's Fund Immediate relief supplies
$100,000
USAID/New Delhi In-kind commodities
$843,806
USAID/New Delhi Technical equipment
$878,657
Commercial aviation companies Airlifts
$704,000
CRS Shelter, water, and sanitation
$1,590,625
CARE Emergency food and community infrastructure
$1,800,000
UNDP Shelter, water, sanitation, food, coordination
$400,000
WV Nutrition and water
$852,403
WHO Water, sanitation, and health
$232,000
DOD Storage and transport of DOD commodities
$2,300
USAID/DART Travel and administrative costs
$25,840
Total USAID/OFDA Assistance
$7,429,631
USAID/FFP CARE/CRS Title II food assistance
$800,000
Total USAID/FFP Assistance
$800,000
DOD Consigned to multiple entities Relief supplies, equipment, and transport
$4,600,000
Total DOD Assistance
$4,600,000
Total USG Assistance
$12,829,631

DROUGHT - 8 STATES

Background

Approximately 70 percent of India is drought-prone due to weak or irregular monsoons. This year was the third consecutive year for drought in India, where over 90 percent of the population is dependent on groundwater for household supply.

According to the GOI, a severe drinking water shortage and loss of agricultural-related livelihoods placed more than 125 million people at-risk in 152 districts of eight states (Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Orissa).

USG Assistance

In late April and early May 2001, USAID/OFDA's Regional Advisor for South Asia conducted an assessment of drought conditions in affected regions. Based on the recommendations of the USAID/OFDA Regional Advisor, U.S. Chargé d'Affaires Albert Thibault declared a drought disaster on May 15.

In response, USAID/OFDA provided a total of $1,255,520 in drought assistance.

This assistance included $25,000 provided through USAID/New Delhi to the Prime Minister's National Disaster Relief Fund to help meet the immediate needs of drought-affected families. It also included $1,230,520 provided to CARE and CRS in support of cash-for-work projects to rehabilitate and construct new water harvesting structures, where appropriate, and distribute drought-resistant seeds. A total of 25,600 families in Rajasthan and Gujarat states benefited from the cash-for-work projects and seed distributions.

USG Funding

USG Agency
Implementing Partner
Type of Assistance
Amount
USAID/OFDA Prime Minister's Fund Immediate relief supplies
$25,000
CARE Cash-for-work/drought-resistant seeds
$388,720
CRS Cash-for-work/drought-resistant seeds
$841,800
Total USAID/OFDA Assistance
$1,255,520

FLOODS - ORISSA

Background

Heavy and incessant rains have caused intense flooding in 24 of Orissa State's 30 districts, most severely affecting the districts of Puri, Cuttack, Kendrapara, Jajpur, Khorda, and Angul. Many of the affected districts were just beginning to recover from the 1999 super cyclone when the recent flooding began.

According to the GOI, as of August 6, the floods have killed 98 people, affected 9,341,000 residents, damaged 240,152 houses, destroyed 885,000 hectares of cropland, and killed 14,183 cattle.

USG Assistance

A USAID/OFDA program officer, based in New Delhi on a six-month assignment, and USAID/OFDA's Regional Advisor for South Asia conducted flood assessments in Orissa State in July. Based on the recommendations of the USAID/OFDA disaster specialists, U.S. Chargé d'Affaires Albert Thibault declared a flood disaster on July 20.

In response, USAID/OFDA provided a total of $1,005,555 in flood assistance.

This assistance included $25,000 provided through USAID/New Delhi to the Prime Minister's National Disaster Relief Fund to assist in meeting the immediate needs of flood-affected families.

Subsequently, USAID/OFDA provided $980,555 to CARE and CRS for the provision of emergency food, temporary shelter, and seeds to approximately 70,000 flood-affected families.

USG Funding

USG Agency
Implementing Partner
Type of Assistance
Amount
USAID/OFDA Prime Minister's Fund Immediate relief supplies
$25,000
CARE Emergency food, shelter, and seeds
$500,075
CRS Emergency food, shelter, and seeds
$480,480
Total
$1,005,555

TOTAL USG FUNDING

[<br>]
USAID/OFDA
USAID/FFP
DOD
Total
Floods - West Bengal
$1,226,740
$2,400,000
$0
$3,626,740
Earthquake
$7,429,631
$800,000
$4,600,000
$12,829,631
Drought
$1,255,520
$0
$0
$1,255,520
Floods - Orissa
$1,005,555
$0
$0
$1,005,555
Total
$10,917,446
$3,200,000
$4,600,000
$18,717,446

Note: Separate USAID/OFDA fact sheets for the earthquake, drought, and floods can be obtained from the USAID web site at http://www.usaid.gov/hum_response/ofda/situation.html for additional detail.