India

Humanitarian Implementation Plan (HIP): India (ECHO/IND/BUD/2011/91000) - Last update: 18/10/2011, Version 1

Attachments

The activities proposed hereafter are still subject to the adoption of the financing decision ECHO/WWD/ BUD/2012/01000

1 . CONTEXT

DG ECHO's foreseen activities in India in 2012 will focus on alleviating the emergency needs arising from two protracted crises: Jammu and Kashmir (J+K), and the Naxalite conflict.

Jammu and Kashmir – the roots of the conflict stem back to independence and partition; the 1990s saw an intensification of the crisis, with various militant groups fighting either for independence, or for joining Pakistan. The increased presence of militant groups, several of whom received support from outside India, together with the imposition of special emergency laws, compounds the humanitarian impact on civilians. Although the conflict is not as intense as during the bloodiest years of the 1990s, militant incursions continue to take place, killings and other abuses of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) still occur on a daily basis, and the economy and basic social services continue to be disrupted. 2010 saw an upsurge of civilian protest, and a heavy-handed response by the State security services, leading to over 110 civilian deaths. The underlying cause of the conflict remains unchanged, and directly linked to India-Pakistan relations – as such, the outlook is not optimistic, and there remains no end-in-sight to the conflict.

The Naxalite crisis – the conflict now affects over 180 of India's 602 districts, but its intensity remains heaviest in the South of Chhattisgarh state, where the European Commission's Directorate General for Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (DG ECHO) is concentrating its activities. Official estimates speak of 600-700 deaths yearly but the unofficial count is well over 1,000, with over 100,000 civilians displaced, often in neighbouring states. 2009 marked an increase in hostilities and high-profile attacks, including the bombing of railways and tele-communications infrastructure; while the first half of 2011 has seen a relative decrease in the number of violent incidents, the civilian population continues to face direct attacks as well as other effect of the conflict. The population most affected are rural tribals, living in remote villages without access to basic government services. Special emergency laws apply to the security forces in Chhattisgarh and "vigilante" groups take part in the hostilities. IHL is ignored and frequent human rights abuses are reported. Future prospects are pessimistic, as the conflict stems directly from a situation of chronic under-development, compounded by serious land rights issues.

Natural disasters – India is highly vulnerable to natural disasters, in particular floods, cyclones, earthquakes and drought.

Country status in GNA: Vulnerability Index = 2 ; Crisis Index = 3.
Ranking in HDI (Human Development Index) = 121
Country population: 1.21 billion; affected people: cf. following section.