0. MAJOR CHANGES SINCE PREVIOUS VERSION OF THE HIP
EUR 200.000 from the food budget-line have been added to the amount allocated for humanitarian assistance for the victims of the Chhattisgarh conflict.
The Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) crisis – the conflict stems back to independence and partition, with various militant groups fighting either for independence, or for joining Pakistan. International involvement and special laws compound the severity of the impact on civilians. Although the fighting intensity is not as high as during the bloodiest years of the 1990s, killings still occur on a daily basis and the economy and basic social services are disrupted. Future prospects are directly linked to India-Pakistan relations, and therefore the prognostic remains reserved.
The Naxalite crisis – the conflict affects 182 of India's 602 districts, but its intensity is heaviest in the South of Chhattisgarh, where ECHO is concentrating its activities.
Official estimates speak of 600-700 deaths yearly but the unofficial count is well over 1,000, with over 100 000 civilians displaced. Since 2009 there has been an increase in hostilities and a number of high-profile attacks, including the bombing of railways and tele-communications infrastructure. The population most affected are rural tribals, living in remote villages without access to basic services. The same special laws apply to the security forces in Chhattisgarh and "vigilante" groups take part in the hostilities. IHL is ignored and frequent human rights abuses are reported. Future prospects are worrying, as the conflict stems directly from a situation of chronic under-development, compounded by serious land rights issues.
Country status in GNA: Vulnerability Index = 2 ; Crisis Index = 3.
Ranking in HDI (Human Development Index) = 134
Country population :1,198 billion; affected people: cf. following section.