This profile provides an overview of climate risks to key sectors that impact food security in Haiti, with a focus on North-East, Centre, South, and Grand’Anse departments: crop production, livestock, pesticide use, food processing and storage, food purchases and imports, human health (including nutrition; water, sanitation and hygiene or WASH; and health services), and ecological sensitivity and endangered species. Haiti is one of the most food-insecure countries in the world: around 70 percent of the population is food insecure. Of the BHA target geographies, the Centre department experiences severe chronic food insecurity, while the North-East, South, and Grand’Anse departments experience moderate chronic food insecurity. Haiti experiences structural food insecurity, driven by chronic socio-political instability and deteriorating economy, widespread poverty and environmental degradation, and exacerbated by frequent natural disasters.
The document describes historical trends and projected near-term changes in climate, livelihood zones in BHA geographies, and climate risks to the key food security-related sectors within the BHA geographies. Climate change is beginning to drive more extreme drought and flood conditions, more intense hurricanes, and is contributing to increased salinization of coastal aquifers and estuaries, which are expected to continue to compromise food security. Climate change is also expected to exacerbate current climate impacts to Health and Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene infrastructure and services, which are already in poor condition.