Grenada Hurricane Ivan Flash Appeal Oct 2004 - Mar 2005

Report
from UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Published on 01 Oct 2004


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
On 7 September 2004, Hurricane Ivan, one of the most powerful hurricanes to hit the Caribbean region in the last 10 years, ravaged Grenada with rain and winds of 220 kilometres per hour. ‘Ivan,’ a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, left behind an unimaginable scene of destruction and despair on this tri-island nation of 102,000 inhabitants.

Some 37 people died and most of the population of Grenada was affected to a greater or lesser extent. Of the six parishes, St. Andrew, St. David, St. Georges and St. John were completely devastated, and the destruction is very striking in all remaining parishes as well. Approximately 90% of the houses were damaged or destroyed; according to government estimates, some 50% of the population is now homeless.

Government buildings, the main prison, hospitals, schools and churches did not escape the fury of the hurricane. Consequently, most of the ministries and public services were paralysed for several days immediately following the hurricane. The official residences of both the Governor General (Head of State) and the Prime Minister (Head of Government) were destroyed. The homes of many senior government ministers also suffered extensive damage. Utilities services such as water, power and telecommunications were severely disrupted.

As of 24 September, some 90% of the water supply system has been restored but some access and quality problems remain. Telephone connections are limited and are primarily mobile. The local power company faces a mammoth task to restore the power sector. Although the main generator is still operational, most of the distribution lines were damaged and a great number of electric cables and poles are lying on the roads and fields, posing a direct threat to the safety of the population and the circulation of vehicles. The government has made an effort to restore power to hospitals and government buildings, but it will take 6-12 months to rehabilitate the power supply system and reestablish power to the entire country.

Medical facilities and equipment were also affected, and so were stocks of medical supplies. The lack of power poses a serious challenge for health care of patients such as diabetics, whose medication requires refrigeration at health clinics. Although medical personnel are not in short supply because of volunteers from other islands, transportation for health personnel is a challenge due to the extensive damage to many vehicles. Cases of diarrhoea have been reported and there is a concern that this might worsen if water supply and sanitation facilities do not improve.

Two and a half weeks after the disaster, food shortages and distribution continue to be a major challenge, with many people lacking food and water as well as medical care.

An important part of Grenada’s food basket consists of rice and beans, and stocks are running low. It is expected that food assistance will be necessary, at least until people are able to partially restore their livelihood.

There is an urgent need to assist approximately 40% of the population to return to their damaged homes: this will free up shelters, many of which are schools in need of immediate repairs.

The agricultural sector has been decimated. Of particular concern is the destruction of cash crops and nutmeg (nutmegs account for 80% of agricultural exports). It takes at least seven years for nutmeg trees, when replanted, to grow and bear fruit. Consequently, Grenada faces a long-term decline in its foreign exchange earning capacity.

This grim picture extends to the fishing sector, with a considerable number of boats, equipment and icemakers lost or damaged, and fisherfolk in dire need of immediate assistance. Loss of livelihoods and income are also paramount concerns given the impacts and danger to tourism and agriculture sectors, the “twin pillars” of the Grenadian economy. It is estimated that over 60% of employment in the tourism industry is now likely lost, affecting the youth and women.

There has been a major environmental disaster with many forested areas destroyed, negatively impacting watershed management. There is an emerging problem of desertification and associated risks.

This Flash Appeal covers six months (from 1 October 2004 – 31 March 2005), and its projects will be implemented within that period. It intends to respond to the urgent humanitarian needs of the population of Grenada, and quickly to establish the foundation for rehabilitation of social services and economic recovery. Urgent needs include emergency shelter, food, education, and health, as well as communications, seeds, tools, alternative crops, non-agricultural activities and personal security. Projects to facilitate recovery involve the creation of quick impact projects (QIP) at the community level, to generate employment and rebuild capacities. Food aid is not included in this Flash Appeal but is part of the Emergency Appeal launched by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) on 15 September 2004.

United Nations agencies will work in partnership with non-governmental agencies and the Red Cross movement to implement these projects, as well as with the relevant public sector institutions, particularly those responsible for housing, infrastructure, education, health and agriculture. The United Nations and its partners are appealing for US$ 27.6 million to meet urgent humanitarian needs and establish the basis for recovery in the next six months for the people of Grenada.

Note: The Flash Appeal will be revised as required following needs assessments and in accordance with the evolution of the situation. Revisions to the Appeal may include projects from other partners. Updates and revisions to the Appeal can be found on www.reliefweb.int/appeals: Grenada Hurricane Ivan Flash Appeal – September 2004. The Financial Tracking Service shows the funding status of each project in the appeal, continuously updated, on www.reliefweb.int/fts.


UN Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for
Grenada Flash Appeal 2004

Summary of Requirements
By Appealing Organisation
as of 27 September 2004

Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by the respective appealing organisation.

Appealing Organisation
Original Requirements
CDERA
100'000
FAO
3'965'000
French RC
594'000
OXFAM
1'115'160
PAHO/WHO
450'000
UNDP
19'904'000
UNESCO
335'000
UNFPA
310'000
UNICEF
777'600
WFP
90'000
Grand Total
27'640'760

UN Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for
Grenada Flash Appeal 2004

Summary of Requirements - by Sector
as of 27 September 2004

Compiled by OCHA on the basis of information provided by the respective appealing organisation.

Sector Name
Original requirements
AGRICULTURE
3,965,000
COORDINATION AND SUPPORT SERVICES
690,000
ECONOMIC RECOVERY AND INFRASTRUCTURE
1,926,400
EDUCATION
9,580,600
FAMILY SHELTER AND NON-FOOD ITEMS
8,826,000
HEALTH
760,000
PROTECTION/HUMAN RIGHTS/RULE OF LAW
777,600
WATER AND SANITATION
1,115,160
Grand Total
27,640,760

HUMANITARIAN CONTEXT

Grenada, one of the smallest countries in the western hemisphere, bases its economy on tourism and agriculture, and imports most of the food that it consumes. The majority of the 102,000 inhabitants make their living out of these two vital sectors, which were severely hit by Hurricane Ivan. The negative impact of the disaster was enormous at all levels and in all sectors, disrupting the livelihood of every single Grenadian and causing serious damage to the backbone of the country’s economy.

The poverty rate for Grenada was estimated at 32% in 2002; approximately 12.9% of the population was living in extreme poverty before the disaster. It is feared that this portion of the population might increase significantly in the aftermath of this disaster, including the number of vulnerable communities, in particular women, children and elderly. Farmers, constituting a major part of the Grenada economy and a substantial part of the labour force, lost inputs, tools and agricultural equipment, as well as access to their land. Cash crops were completely destroyed and so were vegetable gardens, which traditionally constitute an additional source of food for the population. The food security position of the population has thereby been decidedly compromised.

The massive number of houses damaged or destroyed is the main problem (see table below), compounded by a deficient food distribution system and lack of resources to assist in urgent rehabilitation activities. These activities, if pursued and supported, might create alternatives to the population, thereby significantly reducing the negative impact of this disaster on low-income families and communities, strengthening their coping mechanisms, offering employment opportunities, and establishing income generation projects. In a country with such an economic and social profile, one of the main challenges will be to strike the right balance between the unmet immediate needs of the majority of the population — like emergency shelter, food security, water and sanitation — and building up of viable alternatives to help restore livelihoods.


Housing Damage Assessment
World Bank Preliminary Assessment, 17 September 2004


Number of Households
Parish
Total HH*
ND
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Carriacou & Petite Martinique
1926
1156
482
193
96
0
0
St. Patrick
3210
963
963
642
482
161
0
St. Mark
1210
363
363
303
121
61
0
St. John
2739
548
685
959
411
137
0
St. Andrew
7140
357
1071
1428
2142
1428
714
St. David
3530
0
177
353
706
1765
530
St. George
11367
0
568
1137
2273
5684
1705
Total Households
31122
3386
4308
5013
6231
9234
2949
ND No Damage
Level 1 Windows, doors, furnishing destroyed
Level 2 Partial roof covering damaged
Level 3 Roof structure damaged
Level 4 Complete roof destroyed
Level 5 Significant damage to structural frame

*Population and Housing Census 2001, from Ministry of Finance, Government of Grenada

The violence and impact of the disaster has also increased the vulnerability of children and youth, requiring urgent psychosocial support as well quick rehabilitation of schools, seriously affected by the disaster. Women will be another target group prioritised in the Flash Appeal. Traditionally, women have had a special and determinant role in the Grenada society: such a role should be maximised during this transition phase, both as beneficiary and as implementing partner.

At the same time, the consequences of this disaster have created some windows of opportunity with regard to strengthening national capacities, involving inter alia disaster response preparedness and disaster mitigation activities, promoting new hurricane-proof construction techniques and codes, and establishing viable alternative crops. The latter will reduce dependency on main cash crops while reinforcing food security in the country.

This will require a considerable effort by the national authorities, the civil society and the international community, in particular during the transition between the emergency and the rehabilitation phases. Gaps in emergency needs should be avoided and rehabilitation projects should be put in place rapidly, which is the spirit of the present Flash Appeal.

ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

The Minister of Tourism, Civil Aviation and Culture has been given overall responsibility for coordination of the relief efforts and the Ministry of Finance will take responsibility for the transition and reconstruction phase. The national emergency response agencies and government ministries must be strengthened in order to fulfil their roles of coordination, disaster response and rehabilitation. It is absolutely necessary to ensure coordination of the various activities of UN agencies and civil society organisations participating in the emergency relief effort.

In emergency shelter, the French Red Cross (FRC) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) will be working in close collaboration with government ministries and with technical expertise provided by UN Habitat. UNDP will assist the government in providing building tools and materials and in providing training to the population to carry out repairs.

In the health/water/sanitation sectors, Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) will work in close coordination with the Ministry of Health (MoH). For food, agriculture and sustainable recovery, FAO will work in close collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture. In the area of water supply and sanitation, PAHO/WHO will focus on water quality and vector control, while Oxfam will provide support in the area of waste management. The Ministries of Health and the Environment and of Utilities will support these agencies. Sustainable Livelihood issues will be led by the Ministry of Social Development with support from UNDP. Additionally, UNDP will provide support to the National Emergency Relief Organization (NERO) and the Ministry of Social Development in the execution of the National Response and Capacity Development initiative, with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) providing support to the Ministry of Education (MoE) in the area of Child Protection.

RESPONSE PLANS

Family Shelter and Non-Food Items

In this area, the response plan consists in repairing the houses that were damaged by the hurricane by providing tools and materials to the population, as well as training. The main purpose of this plan is to get people back into their homes as soon as possible, so that they can revert to their normal activities and thus start contributing to the general recovery of the country.

The response plan for emergency housing will ensure that after the disaster the people in Grenada start assisting in repairing their houses while the overall reconstruction process begins.

Health/Water and Sanitation

The response plan for the rehabilitation of the health sector will focus on the rehabilitation of health services and infrastructure — hospitals and clinics — to ensure that the population has access to health services as soon as possible. Assistance provided will include public health surveillance, medicines, equipment and materials, as well as temporary relief staff.

At the same time, the response plan will focus on environmental health by ensuring that the efforts from all sectors of society (government, private sector and the population in general) are brought together for the rehabilitation of water supply and sewerage systems. By cleaning up the island through adequate collection and disposal of solid wastes, the project will ensure basic sanitation in homes and shelters to prevent infections through the supply of potable water and reduce the risks transmitted by vectors.

Agriculture

The strategy in the agriculture, small animal husbandry and fisheries sectors is to focus on those interventions that will provide quick food supply, as well as establish the basis for future production. It is therefore extremely important to conduct operations that will encourage regeneration of productive assets in as short a time as possible. This will contribute to restoring the local economy as well as improving food security, generating income and reducing dependency on external sources of food.

Education

Support in this sector focuses on the rehabilitation of essential education infrastructure and provision of supplies for students preparing for the high school exit exams.

Economic Recovery and Reconstruction

The response plan will ensure that particularly vulnerable sectors of society have access to resources and employment to begin their own recovery efforts at the household and community level. It will also address the rehabilitation of affected areas and habitats including agricultural lands, rivers and beaches, as well as the removal of debris. Through this effort, income-generating activities will be restarted which could bear fruit in six months.

Coordination and Support Services

The inputs provided by these projects will enable a strengthened national response framework and system to improve distribution of food and supplies and improve the information flow for the release of public information. In particular, the response network at the local and community level will be enhanced to facilitate appropriate feedback and improved operations. A critical element will include training of national and community stakeholders.

Protection/ Human Rights/ Rule of Law

The response plan will provide protection to children by providing them with food, health care and welfare. The plan will also address the needs of the population in terms of counselling and psychological help. With regard to reproductive health and protection against gender-based violence (GBV), the response plan will ensure the supply of medical and non-medical items and reproductive health supplies. The plan pays particular attention to ensuring access to information and services for adolescents to prevent Human Immuno-deficiency Virus / Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The plan also responds to the likelihood of increased incidence of gender-based violence given the heightened vulnerability of girls and women following the disaster.

PROJECT SHEETS

Project sheets are presented for each of the seven priority areas listed in the previous section:

  • Family Shelter and Non-Food Items
  • Health, Water and Sanitation
  • Agriculture
  • Education
  • Economic Recovery and Reconstruction
  • Coordination and Support Services
  • Protection/Human Rights/Rule of Law

TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Humanitarian Context
Roles and Responsibilities
Response Plans

FINANCIAL TABLES

ANNEX I: PROJECT SHEETS

Family Shelter and Non-Food Items
Health
Water and Sanitation
Agriculture
Education
Economic Recovery and Infrastructure
Coordination and Support Services
Health
Protection / Human Rights / Rule Of Law

ANNEX II. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

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