Evaluation of UNHCR's Livelihoods Strategies and Approaches (2014-2018) Ghana Case Study, Final Report, December 2018
1. Introduction of country context
- This Ghana case study report is part of the global evaluation of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) livelihood strategy. The centralized evaluation was commissioned by the UNHCR Evaluation Service and independently conducted by Technical Assistance to NonGovernmental Organizations (TANGO) International. The overarching purpose of this evaluation is to gather strategic and timely evidence on the effectiveness of refugee livelihoods programming from 2014-2018. The evaluation will inform organizational strategy and practice within UNHCR and external to UNHCR with partners, aiming to improve the economic inclusion of refugees and other people of concern (PoC). See the full evaluation report for the overall findings and recommendations.
- Country context: Ghana represents a ‘rapid evaluation’ case study that includes both campbased and urban refugees and represents the multi-year/multi-partner (MYMP) approach in the West Africa region, piloted since 2017 The programme has achieved one of the highest average Minimum Criteria Compliance Assessment (MCCA) scores (94 per cent for FY15-17) across the global portfolio. The 2018 livelihoods budget is US$ 800,000 to reach targeted PoC in camps and in urban areas.
- As of July/August 2018, Ghana was hosting about 13,178 refugees from the region from two main influxes. During the 1990s, displacement from Liberia and Sierra Leone due to civil war and from Togo due to political unrest resulted in tens of thousands of refugees. Following the 2010 Côte d’Ivoire political unrest, Ghana experienced a second influx of 11,000 asylum seekers; as of July/August 2018, 6,992 Ivorians remained in Ghana. The number of PoC is expected to drop only slightly from about 12,000 in 2017 to around 11,979 by the end of 2018 due to continued efforts to voluntarily repatriate or locally integrate remaining refugees.
- The UNHCR Ghana operation has promoted two durable solutions: voluntary repatriation of Ivorian PoC and local integration of Togolese refugees who arrived in Ghana either in 1993 or 2005. A majority of refugees from the 1990s have accepted repatriation following increased political stability in their home country. Remaining Liberian, Sierra Leonean, and Rwandan refugees are trying to locally integrate through indefinite residence status and/or naturalization; a small number of refugees have resettled. Stakeholders have adopted a comprehensive approach for more recent refugees (e.g., Ivorian), including voluntary repatriation, livelihoods assistance, and potentially local integration.
- As of the end of 2016, about half the PoC live in four camps in Central (Egyeikrom camp),
Western (Ampain and Krisan camps), and Brong Ahafo regions (Fetentaa camp).2 Ampain and Egyeikrom are the largest of the four active camps with over 4,900 refugees (combined), most of whom are Ivorian. The remaining refugee population has settled around host communities and in urban areas (e.g., Accra, Tema, Takoradi), and about 2,700 Togolese refugees have settled mainly in border towns in the Volta region.
- Ghana has a favourable legal and policy framework for the protection of refugees and asylum seekers in the country (described further in the Inception Report). PoC have the right to work and freedom to move within the country. Furthermore, the 1992 Refugee law directs the Ghana Refugee Board (GRB) “to assist in seeking employment or education for refugees and members of their families.”
- Programme overview: UNHCR’s current livelihood strategy places UNHCR in a funding and facilitator role, in which UNHCR Ghana funds and coordinates with partner organizations that implement activities. Livelihood programming has been implemented in two phases; the current (second) phase builds on previous lessons learned and has shifted from supply driven to demand-driven activities, which contributes to effectiveness.
- Starting in 2012, Assemblies of God Relief and Development Services (AGREDS) was the main partner. AGREDS provided start up kits and trained primarily Ivorian PoC in language, vocational/ technical skills, business development, and agriculture.4 Other support in the camps included World Food Programme (WFP) food distribution, which ended 30 September 2015, heightening concern about the risk of food insecurity and the need for increased self-reliance and livelihoods.
- As of 2015, the second phase focuses more on longer trainings for small business skills, support, and credit, with ADRA as the main partner. Livelihoods supported by ADRA in camps include agriculture, agro-processing (fortified gari and acheke), coconut oil production, fish farming, mushroom farming, poultry production, soap making, and vocational training (e.g., hairdressers, sewing, welding, construction, driving, language). ADRA also facilitates access to funds through a 50-50 credit-grant scheme, started by AGREDS, in which refugees attend training and then present a business plan to receive funding, half of which is given as credit and the other half as a grant.5 The Christian Council of Ghana (CCG) focuses on human rights of the vulnerable and works mostly with urban refugees on health, education, and livelihoods. The Ministry of Agriculture provides extension support in all camps for crop, poultry, and livestock production.
- The Country Office (CO) manages a growing but small livelihoods budget. The livelihoods budget is US$ 800,000 in 2018. Additional description of programme activities, budget and beneficiary figures may be found in Section 3.1.1.