• Due to the ongoing and active conflict in North Shewa, South Wollo, North Wollo, Waghmera, North Gondar, and Oromia Special Zone in Amhara region, over 1.4 million people have been displaced, of which an estimated 285,000 are children under five and 75,000 are pregnant and lactating women (PLW). UNICEF participated in the inter-agency multi-sectoral assessment, dispatched supplies and commenced services in internally displaced persons (IDP) sites.
• Parts of Somali and Oromia regions are facing severe drought. In Somali, over 2.4 million people in over 1,000 sites and 73 woredas are facing acute water shortages and urgently require humanitarian assistance. UNICEF actively engaged with the regional Disaster Risk management Committee (DRMC) to prepare an interagency drought response plan, participated in the Deyr assessment, conducted three SMART surveys in Dolobay, Hargele and Dolo-ado woredas and is actively coordinating partners in the region to respond.
• In November 2021, UNICEF reached a total of 16,325 girls, boys, women and men with Child Protection and gender-based violence (GBV) prevention across the three conflict-affected regions of Tigray, Amhara and Afar.
• In Tigray, while there continues to be a critical lack of teaching and learning materials, school furniture, and scholastic supplies, the security situation continues to prevent access to education, an estimated 161,748 children (59,048 girls) returned to learning in formal schools.
• As of the end of November, US $109,451,642.59 had been received towards UNICEF’s Humanitarian Action for Children (HAC) appeal for the entire Ethiopia, leaving a funding gap of 38 per cent. Specifically, towards the Northern Ethiopia Response, which was budgeted at US $108,100,517 and fully incorporated in the HAC, there remained a funding gap of 39 per cent.
Situation in Numbers
14 million children in need of humanitarian assistance (HNO 2021, Northern Ethiopia Response Plan)
26.3 million people in need (IOM DTM 2021)
4.23 million Internally displaced people (IOM DTM 2021)
817,060 pending and registered refugees (UNHCR, 30 November 2021)
Situation Overview and Humanitarian Needs
In November, the overall humanitarian situation in Tigray continued to deteriorate with the resumption of airstrikes in the capital, Mekelle and surrounding areas, and expansion of the conflict affecting several areas in Amhara and Afar regions. Malnutrition among children and women worsened. Findings from the ‘Find and Treat’ campaign in three woredas (Keyi Tekli, Grealta and Neksege) indicated an average severe acute malnutrition (SAM) rate of 2.5 per cent, moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) rate of 13.2 per cent, and an average of 66 per cent of screened pregnant and lactating women (PLW) are malnourished (Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) <23cm). Further to this, an estimated 3.8 million people, including 1.9 million children, require basic health services, and over 855,000 children aged 6 to 59 months are missing out on routine immunization services. An assessment of schools indicated that out of 2,492 schools, classrooms in 575 schools were completely destroyed, and over 2,100 classrooms are in need of significant rehabilitation. It was also found that an estimated 71 primary schools were used as temporary shelters for internally displaced persons (IDPs), while 20 schools had been vacated by IDPs (most of whom were relocated to other IDP sites) over the course of the month. Additionally, preliminary findings from a WASH assessment revealed that the non-functionality of durable water sources increased from 7.1 per cent pre-crisis to 54.35 per cent as of November. As a result, over 2.3 million people who previously accessed these water schemes as their sole sources of water had no access to safe water during the reporting month. Finally, due to the significant lack of fuel in the region, water trucking was severely curtailed putting the lives of 1.2 million IDPs in jeopardy.
The Afar Regional Disaster Prevention and Food Security Programme Coordination Office (DPFSPCO) reported that over 377,000 people were displaced as of the end of November, of whom over 200,000 people were newly displaced and had settled in 12 IDP sites. Of the total population displaced, more than 70,000 were children under the age of 5 and over 190,000 were women, including over 22,000 PLWs. The Regional Education Bureau (REB) also estimated that over 80,000 school-age children were among those displaced. In the 23 conflict affected districts,1.3 million people continued to be affected and are in dire need of humanitarian assistance primarily for water supply, food and non-food support. The rate of Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in the region increased by 33 per cent since June 2021 mainly due to the increased food needs as a result of a road blockade, limited humanitarian food aid, absence of market goods, and inaccessibility to the region. According to the results of the ‘Find and Treat’ campaign, 28 per cent of children under the age of 5 were acutely malnourished. Overall, 4,968 children under the age of 5 were severely malnourished (2.21% SAM), and 58,070 children (25.84%) and 30,459 (45%) PLW were moderately malnourished in the region. Since 29 October 2021, a power blackout has disrupted the provision of water supply across 20 woredas of the region including Semera, Logiya, and Dubti.
The Amhara Regional Disaster Risk Management Commission (DRMC) reported that as a result of the ongoing and active conflict in North Shewa, South Wollo, North Wollo, Waghmera, North Gondar, and Oromia Special Zone, over 1.4 million people had been displaced, of which an estimated 285,000 were children under five and 75,000 PLW. The highest number of IDPs were registered in North Shewa zone (Debre Birhan town), East Gojjam zone (Motta town) and in South Wollo zone (Mekaneselam town). According to the North Shewa zone authorities, an estimated 440,000 IDPs were living in 12 woredas in the zone, the majority of whom were in Debre Birhan town (estimated at 145,000). The majority of IDPs were displaced from South Wello, North Wello and Wag Hamra zones where active fighting was reported in November, many of whom had been displaced several times including to Dessie, Kombolcha, Debre Birhan, as well as other areas. Most IDPs were living in host communities, while an estimated 24,000 were in 12 collective sites (10 of which were schools) in Debre Birhan. The findings of multi-agency assessments conducted in Debre Birhan indicated severe lack WASH services most prominently an inadequate number of latrines and poor environmental sanitation.
Security in Metekel and Kamashi zones of Benishangul-Gumuz remained tense in November with sporadic fighting reported in six woredas (Metekel zone: Guba and Mandura woreda; Kamashi zone: Sedal, Yaso, Agalometi, Belojiganfoy woredas). The insecurity has severely restricted humanitarian access and movement especially in Guba, Bullen and Wombera woredas, and Gallessa and Berber kebeles in Dibate woreda of Metekel zone. According to the Regional DRMC, a new influx of IDPs was reported in Bambasi woreda and Assosa town, with those displaced coming from West Wellega, Babo Gambel woreda. Altogether 400,000 IDPs were reported, of which 56 per cent (over 230,000) were children.
Severe drought worsened in the month of November across parts of Somali and Oromia regions. In Somali, over 2.4 million people in over 1,000 sites and 73 woredas faced acute water shortages. Since October 2021, the education of over 100,000 students has been disrupted in the drought-affected areas with the partial of full closure of 1,100 schools. Malnutrition increased by 3.7 per cent from the previous month with an altogether 18.7 per cent increase in SAM compared to the same period last year. According to the Regional DRMC in Oromia, over 1.9 million people were experiencing critical water shortages in most lowland parts of the region (Borena, Guji, East Hararghe, West Hararghe, Bale, East Bale and the West Guji zones). In addition, 127 schools in 11 woredas of three drought affected zones (Borena, East Bale and Guji) closed and another 793 schools were at high risk of closure, leading to over 500,000 students being denied an education due to the drought. This was compounded by depleting livelihoods of communities and increasing acute malnutrition; a 20 per cent increase in SAM admissions was recorded since the onset of the drought. The ‘Meher’ assessment report highlighted that essential medication and nutrition supplies should be a key element in the emergency nutrition response and that uninterrupted nutrition supplies should be assured in hotspot priority one woredas.
In Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region (SNNPR), the regional DRMC reported that over 2,900 people were affected by a landslide in the Derashe special woreda and damage to crops was reported. In addition, over 27,000 people were displaced, including 6,000 children, as the result of new conflict in Segen Zuria woreda of Konso zone. The most pressing needs were reported as WASH, non-food items (NFIs), access to sanitation facilities and hygiene promotion.
As of 30 November, a total of 371,536 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 6,755 deaths (Case Fatality Rate (CFR) = 1.8%) were reported since the onset of the outbreak in mid-March 2020. A total of 349,037 cases (93.9%) recovered, 15,742 cases were active, and 233 severe COVID-19 cases were admitted in designated treatment centers in Addis Ababa and across the regions. Addis Ababa reported the highest number of cases (67%), while Gambella maintained the fewest. The trend of COVID-19 case reports showed a significant reduction in the number of cases and daily positivity with the decline of the third wave. A total of 7,864,977 people had received COVID-19 vaccinations with 9,310,295 vaccines doses administered altogether. A total of 12,494,180 doses of COVAX vaccines were received in country and 21,891,340 doses are in the pipeline and expected to be received in December 2021.