1. Executive Summary
This report presented end line survey for the project entitled Livelihoods, WASH and Protection Support to Drought and Conflict-Affected IDPs & Host Communities in Somali Region, Ethiopia. The end line survey objective was to assess the impact of the two-year project. The data collection conducted from March 15-23, 2021.
The survey design used for this end line survey is community based cross-sectional study. Quantitative data collection method was used as main approach for this end line survey using structured questionnaire. In addition to quantitative approach, qualitative (KII and FGD) method also used to collect qualitative data.
End line findings on WASH related variables confirmed that the WASH response impacted the life of target community. Beneficiary satisfaction on relevance, timelines and accountability of WASH response was one of the major indicators in the project measurement framework (PMF). The majority (90.7%) of respondent were reported they satisfied with the relevance, timeliness and accountability of WASH response (89.6% female, 97.6% male). Other major WASH indicators which showed improvement from the baseline data are access to clean and covered water container (36% increase), treating water before drinking (52% increase), open defecation (reduced by 47.7% from baseline), washing hands at least during three critical hand washing times (33% and 45% increase for female and male respectively).
Adequate hygiene practice of respondent households was calculated for baseline data based on four hygiene practice i.e. disposing of solid waste appropriately (open pit and burying or dustbin), disposing of children feces safely (dispose in latrine or burying), storing drinking water in clean and covered containers and using soap or ash for hand washing, looking at findings of end line to each practices, it showed significant improvement from the baseline. But when come to combined findings the result found improved for female respondents from 0% to 3.3 while findings for male showed decrease from the baseline. This achievement is much below the target seems the target set before baseline data not revised following the findings from baseline survey. The higher cases reported during end line may be due to two main reason, the recall period used for base line was two weeks while 4 weeks recall period used during end line as indicated in the indicator statement, the other reason was the knowledge of target community on identifying the case increased as result of the project intervention.
Under livelihoods sector, increased access to different livelihoods opportunities was one of the project performance measurement indicator and end line survey finding depicted the target met where more than three-fourth, 76%(85% male, 74% female) respondents reported their access to different livelihoods opportunities increased as a result of benefit of the project. Almost three-fourth,74.4% (78%male and 73.8% female) of respondent reported their household income increased whereas 22.1% and 3.6% reported income not increased and stayed the same respectively. The percentage of respondents who reported they able generate enough income to cover their basic needs was only 33.1% though end line survey findings showed 21% increase from the baseline (12.3%).
As one of components of the project, gender based violence (GBV) related actives were implemented in all project locations. Findings from end line survey revealed how the sectoral response impacted the life of target community. The majority of respondents were aware of what GBV means where end line findings showed improvement from the baseline, from 83% baseline to 89.2% end line for female respondents and from 89% baseline to 100% for male respondent. All indicators in the project proposal achieved the target except few indicators like decrease in diarrhea incident reporting and adequate hygiene practices. The two possible reasons for increase in diarrhea incidents reported are the recall period used for baseline was two weeks while recall period for end line was four weeks as stated in the indicator and the second reason was increase in knowledge of target community to identify cases. Adequate hygiene practice of respondent households was calculated for baseline data based on four hygiene practice i.e. disposing of solid waste appropriately (open pit and burying or dustbin), disposing of children feces safely (dispose in latrine or burying), storing drinking water in clean and covered containers and using soap or ash for handwashing. The same approach used when analyzing data for end line. Looking at findings of end line to each practices, it showed significant improvement from the baseline. But when come to combined findings on the four practices listed above, the result found improved for female respondents from 0% to 3.3% while findings for male showed decrease from the baseline. We could not find strong justification for decrease in male result, the reason may be the number of male respondents were very sample compared to female which affects the possibility of getting positive response for combined analysis on hygiene practice.