IDP Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion Scale-Up Strategy
The most recent round of assessments carried by IOM as part of the DTM showed that there are currently 456,801 drought and conflict related IDPs settled in 252 sites. One of the most worrying statistics from this round of assessments was that 209 (84%) of the sites had no toilets. Of the remaining sites, only one site was able to achieve a coverage of 1 toilet for every 50 people. Due to the extremely concerning situation in IDP sites a rapid 30-60-90 day plan for sanitation and hygiene is required to ensure that minimal emergency standards are reached as quickly as possible.
A sanitation and hygiene scale-up strategy has been developed in consultation with Regional WASH Actors around the following guiding principles.
1. Larger IDP Sites: Discussion with Regional Government, WASH partners and OCHA has concluded that many of the larger IDP sites of over 2,000 persons (a total of 63 sites) are likely to remain as permanent settlements. Therefore the sanitation strategy will follow sector best practice for sites where the population is likely to be displaced for more than six months and move directly to shared toilets and bathing facilities (one padlocked facility shared exclusively between four households). Discussions with WASH actors has shown that this is also the clear cultural preference over public toilet blocks. The design of the shared toilet and bathing will consist of square block with three toilets and 1 shower cubicle shared between twelve households. The target coverage will be such that there is 1 cubicle for 20 persons. A total of 2,421 shared blocks with 7,265 toilets cubicles are required to meet this standard.
2. Small IDP Sites: For smaller IDP sites under 2,000 persons (at total of 189 sites) that are not expected to remain beyond the next three months a package of rapid basic emergency sanitation interventions including demarcation of defecation areas and establishment of basic trench latrines segregated by sex and separated at least 200m will be carried out. The design of the trench latrines will involve self-supporting plastic toilet slabs and a superstructure from poles and plastic sheeting. Target coverage will be 1 toilet per 50 persons. A total of 1,661 toilets are required to meet this standard.
3. Toilet Construction Tools: The scale-up strategy will follow best practice and ensure that every IDP household in the 63 larger IDP sites have the means, tools, materials and appropriate technical guidance to construct, maintain and clean their own household toilet and bathing facility. A package of toilet excavation tools (shovel, 7lb pickaxe, 16 litre metallic bucket, miners bar 1.5m, 5m measuring tape, 4lb lump hammer, 225mm bolster) will be provided on a basis of one set of tools per 16 families. The provision of toilet excavation tools will mean that IDP households that want to construct their own personal toilet and bathing facility (instead of sharing between four households) have the ability to do so.
4. Gender Segregation: In all IDP sites, toilets will be separated be gender. Facilities will be located in collaboration in full participation of users, in particular women and girls and it is likely that male and female toilet blocks will be separated by at least 100m.
5. Safety and Security: All toilet and bathing units in the 63 larger IDP sites will be equipped with padlocks and four sets of keys (one four each of the households). Inside the toilet and bathing unit there will be a child friendly locking mechanism. In the 189 smaller IDP sites, the location and design of all basic trench toilets will be carried out with full participation of users, in particular women and girls. Male and female trench toilets will be segregated and separated by at least 200m. All female toilet units should be equipped with a child friendly locking mechanism.
6. Combined Toilet / Bathing Units: The design of the shared toilets and bathing unit in the 63 larger IDP sites will facilitate privacy and a drainage channel and soakage pit for bathing. The size of the cubicle will be slightly increased above the RHB norm to allow sufficient space for bathing (and allow a mother to bathe a child or a caretaker to bathe a person with disability).
7. Disability / Universal Access: The design of the shared toilets and bathing facilities in the 63 larger IDP sites should be accessible and comfortable for use by all in particularly children, the elderly, pregnant women, the infirm, and persons with disability and mobility issues. The size of the cubicle will be slightly increased above the RHB norm to allow sufficient space for caretaker to enter with a person with disability. All toilets and bathing facilities should include grab rails to facilities use by the elderly, pregnant women, the infirm, and persons with disability and mobility issues.
8. Handwashing Facilities: All toilet facilities should be equipped with a functional handwashing station (drum filled with water and washing powder soap). In the 63 larger IDP sites, soap should be distributed according to SPHERE standards (250g per person per month) and it will be the responsibility of the 12 households sharing the toilet and bathing facility to ensure that the handwashing facilities are functional.
9. Operational Arrangements: All trench latrines in the 189 smaller IDP sites will require operational arrangements for cleaning, maintenance and ensuring that handwashing facilities have water and soap. Agencies should contract staff on the basis of 1 person per 50 latrines. In the 63 larger IDP sites, it will be up to the four households sharing the toilet and bathing structure to define their own arrangements for cleaning and maintenance.
10. Linkages with the National Sanitation Strategy: The improved sanitation coverage in the Somali Region is the lowest in Ethiopia (7.5%) and faces significant challenges in terms of going to scale. The National Sanitation Strategy (2005) is a “zero subsidy” based approach to sanitation relying instead on community mobilization and sanitation marketing to increase coverage. However, IDPs by definition are extremely vulnerable and cannot be expected to purchase their own toilet and bathing facility construction materials and should be exempt from this policy. In addition, a large proportion of the IDP population are pastoralists and have low levels of both willingness and ability to allocate household resources to latrine construction. Despite these challenges, efforts should be made to support the National Sanitation Strategy by this initiative by working through locally available sanitation construction materials and services of masons and artisans. WASH actors should work with sanitation material suppliers and masons as close as possible to IDP sites to support and stimulate the local sanitation economy. If no local sanitation material supplies and masons are available Agencies should establish, train and support these services and help them grow.
11. Hygiene Promotion: All WASH agencies should ensure that hygiene promotion activities in both the 63 larger IDP sites and the 189 smaller IDP sites are given the same level of importance as the toilet construction activities. Hygiene promoters should be recruited on the basis of 1 per every 500 persons. Hygiene promotion campaigns and activities should be in-line with the national WASH Cluster Strategy.
12. Protection of the Environment: Where possible, WASH agencies should ensure that sources of wood used for the structures of the 1,661 trench latrines and the 7,265 combined toilet and bathing units are procured from sustainable wood supplies.