Ethiopia: Update of Emergency Assistance Requirements & Implementation Options - A joint Government/UN Appeal

Originally published


(August to December 2003)

August 2003

Table of contents

1 - Executive Summary

2 - Introduction

2.1 - Background
2.2 - Objective of Appeal Update 2003

3 - Overview of the current situation

4 - Assistance requirements by sector

4.1 - Food
4.1.1 - Major developments and constraints
4.1.2 - Rapid assessment methodology applied for data collection
4.1.3 - Summary of revised unmet food requirements August to December 2003
4.2 - Health and nutrition
4.2.1 - Major current developments and constraints
4.2.2 - Rapid assessment methodology applied for data collection
4.2.3 - Summary of revised unmet health and nutrition requirements - August to December 2003
4.3 - Water
4.3.1 - Major developments and constraints
4.3.2 - Rapid assessment methodology applied for data collection
4.3.3 - Summary of revised unmet water and sanitation requirements - - August to December 2003
4.4 - Agriculture
4.4.1 - Major developments and constraints
4.4.2 - Rapid assessment methodology applied for data collection
4.4.3 - Summary of revised unmet agricultural requirements August to December 2003
4.5 - Other sectors
4.5.1 - HIV/AIDS, basic education, gender & child protection - major - developments and constraints
4.5.2 - Rapid assessment methodology applied for data collection
4.5.3 - Summary of revised unmet requirements August to December 2003

5 - The way forward

5.1 - Relief system improvements and constraints
5.1.1 - Key health system constraints identified through rapid assessment
5.1.2 - Proper food aid targeting essential to prevent acute malnutrition
5.1.3 - Supplementary and therapeutic feeding need to be complementary to balanced general food ration
5.1.4 - Emergency coordination platforms established and operational
5.1.5 - Non-food sector efforts to structure approach and methodology
5.1.6 - Continued attention to pastoralists
5.1.7 - HIV/AIDS & humanitarian emergencies
5.2 - Progress in the strategic framework for addressing the chronic food problem

6 - Annex

* * *

1 - Executive Summary

This appeal updates emergency assistance requirements for Ethiopia in 2003. The humanitarian situation in Ethiopia is complex and multi-sectoral. In this update, special emphasis is given to health/nutrition, water/sanitation and agriculture.

Many stakeholders have been involved in the update process, which was based on mid-year sector assessments to identify additional requirements. A wide range of NGOs was included in the assessment teams. Crisis committees and partner coordination forums at various administrative levels enabled broad participation.

In terms of food, 1.8 million people, supposed to have graduated from relief food assistance in July, now need an extension from August to December and a further 600,000 people have been classified as new beneficiaries. This brings the total additional population needing assistance to 2.4 million, raising the total needy population from 12.6 million to 13.2 million requiring 617,647 tonnes of food between August and December. However, the unmet requirement is now only 37,458 tonnes (pulses & vegetable oil).

Total non-food assistance originally amounting to over US $ 108 million, requires an additional US $ 40 million. Particularly under-funded are water and sanitation and "other sectors" (HIV/AIDS, emergency education and child & women protection) with only 30% and 18% of requirements funded respectively.

For water and sanitation, the estimated needy population was reassessed and adjusted from 2.7 million to 4.2 million. Of these, 1.2 million received assistance through July and another 1.54 million will be assisted through December at a cost of US $ 14.6 million. This leaves 1.46 million to be assisted in 2004 together with any new needs identified by assessments in October and November.

For health and nutrition the emergency response has been very positive with 74% of needs covered until July. However, requirements remain substantial, especially in worst affected areas where malaria and a variety of infectious diseases are hitting the physically weak harder than usual. The most urgent requirements, amounting to US $13.4 million, are the provision of more supplementary and therapeutic food, malaria prevention and control, the supply of more emergency health kits (EHK) and for nutritional surveillance, assessments and monitoring of interventions.

For agriculture, seed supply has been successful in terms of quantities provided (97% of requirements met). Nevertheless, additional requirements of US $ 7.7 million remain for animal health, feed and fodder bank development as well as for the recovery of non-cereal crops, for early warning and coordination activities.

A number of issues described in Chapter 5, have already come to light during the current crisis that will need more rigorous study and reflection over time. This appeal update points to areas for improvement that were raised in the December 2002 appeal document, reports on progress and also describes new developments such as the "Coalition for Food Security".

Table 1: Summary of additional assistance requirements: August to December 2003

Food Assistance Requirements (Tonnes)
Health, Nutrition & Other Sectors Assistance Requirements (US $)
Water Assistance Requirements (US $)
Agricultural Assistance Requirements (US $)
Other Sectors (HIV/AIDS, Education, Protection) Requirements (US $)
Total Non-food Assistance
(US $)
Requirements (Revised Appeal March 2003)
(1) 1,184,542
Contributions as at July 31 2003
(2) 1,042,836
% of requirements funded
Revised unmet requirements August to December 2003
37,458 (pulses and vegetable oil)

2 - Introduction

2.1 - Background

Successive and cumulative climatic shocks (aberrations within a long-term trend), combined with the effects of economic losses in agricultural and livestock markets, as well as the collapse of many livelihood systems and long-term cumulative vulnerabilities, have eroded the asset base and coping strategies of millions of Ethiopians and resulted in unsustainable coping strategies by the most affected. The processes of disposition of assets and impoverishment associated with repeated crises in Ethiopia and coupled with one of the most severe climatic shocks in twenty-years, resulted in a 21% reduction in national crop production over the last five year average, significant loss of cash crop, labour opportunities and livestock holdings in 2002.

The resulting crisis affected a broad area across Ethiopia. There were widespread reports of extreme hunger with accompanying social distress, high morbidity amongst the most vulnerable, and elevated levels of mortality in children under five. An appeal was made in late 2002 for massive humanitarian support to meet the basic requirements of more than 13 million people.

The overall response of government, donor, UN agencies and NGOs to the crisis has been considerable. Many immediate needs were met. A humanitarian disaster has been largely averted. Nevertheless, the longer-term impact of the crisis is not yet fully understood. The immediate humanitarian response could not address the underlying causes of the crisis. Nor did the response prevent further loss of assets and growth of a population that is destitute and vulnerable to even minor shocks.

In order to promote recovery from this crisis, government and donors continue to work together to put multiple humanitarian and development initiatives in place. There must be concurrent efforts to address remaining immediate needs, assist households to rebuild their asset base, and address the long-term structural issues that underlie vulnerability in Ethiopia.

2.2 - Objective of Appeal Update 2003

This Appeal Update focuses on remaining and additional emergency requirements up until the end of 2003.

It also reflects on the way forward, discussing improvements and constraints of the relief system linking to longer-term development. It is clear to all that annual relief assistance alone will never be enough to enable Ethiopia to escape from this cycle of crisis. Government and partners must make concurrent and robust efforts to protect and build assets over the longer-term.

In addition, methodologies and instruments are being developed to better assess non-food needs and identify appropriate emergency and longer-term responses. The methodologies have been discussed within the Emergency Sectoral Task Forces for food, agriculture, water & sanitation and health & nutrition. A summary of the methodology used is briefly presented under each sectoral section (Chapter 4).


(1) These are food requirements from January to July (revised in April 2003) only. The January-December requirements now total 1,802,189 tonnes. Against these aggregate needs, the contributions are 1,669,154 tonnes, a coverage of 93%.

(2) Allocated as of July (January - July 2003)

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