75 million people live in Ethiopia, 81% of them live on less than $2 a day (Human Development Report 2006).
Annual income is $141 per person. (World Development Indicators Online, 2005). Gross National Income per capita in the UK is $37,000.
Ethiopia has a federal government structure comprising nine regional and two autonomous city administrations. The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the ruling political party led by Prime Minister Meles Zenawi has been in power since 1995. The EPRDF won elections on 15 May 2005.
74.2 % of children are enrolled in primary school. (Welfare and Monitoring Survey 2004)
Average life expectancy at birth is 48 years. (The State of the World's Children, The United Nations Children's Fund 2007). Average life expectancy in the UK is 79 years.
Of every 1000 children born alive, 123 die before the age of five years. (Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2005)
There are 673 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births. (Demographic and Health Survey report, 2005). There are 11 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births in the UK.
1.4% of those aged 15-49 years are living with HIV or AIDS. (Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2005)
8.6 million men, women and children were relying on food aid in 2005. (EC Diagnostic Survey 2006)
The average annual growth rate over the past 5 years is 4-5%. (EC Diagnostic Survey 2006)
36% of the population has access to safe and clean water. (Welfare and Monitoring Survey, 2004)
DFID: Working to reduce poverty in Ethiopia
Between 2001-2005, Ethiopia received £4.7 billion in aid, of which DFID provided over £195.7 million. We plan to increase our aid significantly, from £60m in 2004/5 to £130m in 2007/8.
Until January 2006, DFID provided poverty reduction budget support to Ethiopia, which is the provision of funds directly into a partner government's own financial system to support their own poverty reduction programmes. Between 2002/03 and 2004/05 we provided £60m in this way. After the post-election violence we stopped providing budget support and now provide aid through the Protection of Basic Services Programme. A new DFID Country Assistance Plan (CAP) for Ethiopia, which supports the Government's poverty reduction strategy, is being prepared. The draft CAP has been posted on the consultation section of DFID's website
Making aid effective
DFID's programme in Ethiopia is designed to help the Government to implement its own poverty reduction strategy, known as the Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty through programmes such as the Protection of Basic Services (PBS). The PBS programme has been designed to ensure that poor people in Ethiopia continue to have access to basic services such as education, health, agriculture, water and sanitation. PBS monies are used to supplement Government financing of these services, whilst requiring regular reporting on how the money is spent. In addition PBS aims to strengthen the accountability of local government to citizens for delivery of these services. The PBS programme is supported by DFID along with other six donors. DFID has allocated a total of £94 million to the PBS programme over the period up to June 2007.
Poor governance is a cause of poverty. People suffer when governments don't allow participation in political life, provide access to justice, deliver adequate public services or control corruption. DFID is working to develop a more capable state in Ethiopia, for example, by contributing £25 million to a major programme designed to build capacity of the public service and improve its management of resources. We are helping to strengthen institutions such as the judiciary, the Human Rights Commission and the regional and federal parliament so that citizens can hold public institutions to account. We are also giving support to citizens to help them voice their demands so that the Government responds to their needs and rights.
Health and HIV/AIDS
Core support for the health sector is provided through the PBS programme - for example, funding the salaries of over 16,000 doctors and nurses. In addition, DFID has allocated £15 million to help the Ministry of Health procure and distribute 6.5m insecticide treated bednets, 2m doses of malaria treatment, and contraceptives for 3m women - to date we have spent £5 million of this. Ethiopia receives a large amount of money for HIV/AIDS from global and disease specific funds, so DFID focuses on strengthening the systems that are essential to effectively deliver the services provided through other initiatives.
DFID's core support for the education sector will also be provided through the PBS programme -this should help to get an extra 3.7 million children into primary school over the next two years. In addition, DFID works closely with the education sector on policy issues and also funds some projects, jointly with other donors, which focus on the quality of education, such as teacher training.
Hunger and Humanitarian
Between 2004 and 2007 DFID is contributing £70 million to the Productive Safety Net Programme which ensures that some 7.2 million of the poorest families in Ethiopia get enough food and maintain a basic standard of living through the year, even during times of harvest failure. In 2006, DFID gave £1 million to the International Committee for the Red Cross emergency appeal. DFID has also allocated £5.8 million for emergency assistance through a Humanitarian Response Fund established in 2006.
Water Sanitation and Infrastructure
In line with DFID's corporate priority to double spending on water and sanitation, DFID Ethiopia is currently designing its support of preparing a five year investment programme for up to £100 million. DFID is also providing policy advice to the Ministry of Water Resources through an evidence based research programme and secondment of a policy adviser. In the transport sector, DFID is providing institutional support for road maintenance and around £1 million per year for the pilot phase of the Ethiopia Rural Travel and Transport Programme.
Making progress against the Millennium Development Goals...
Poverty indicators in Ethiopia are improving, although not fast enough to ensure that any will hit the Millennium Development Goal targets by 2015. Some improvements are:
- the gross enrolment rate in primary schools has more than doubled from 37.4% in 1996 to 85.8% in 2005;
- infant mortality declined from 97 deaths per 1000 live births in 2000 to 77 per 1000 in 2005;
- under five mortality decreased from 166 per 1000 live births in 2000 to 123 per 1000 in 2005;
- decline in the rate of new HIV infections in urban areas, from 2 new cases per 100 adults in the early 1990s to 1 per 100 in 2005;
- among Ethiopians aged 15-19 years, HIV incidence has declined from a peak of 0.64% in 1998 to 0.41% in 2005;
- the proportion of married women using modern contraceptive methods increased from 6% in 2000 to 14% in 2005;
- increase in the proportion of the population with access to safe drinking water from 19% in 1996 compared with 36% in 2004;
- investment in roads has increased the proportion of people living less than 5 km from an all-weather road from 37% in 2000 to 42% in 2004.
For more information about DFID's work in Ethiopia please visit www.dfid.gov.uk. If you are a journalist and wish to know more about DFID and its work to reduce poverty in Africa please call DFID press office on 0207023 0600