Ethiopia

Ethiopia - Drought Jan 1988 UNDRO Situation Reports 1-11

Format
Situation Report
Source
Posted
Originally published


UNDRO 88/0099
ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 1/88
15 JANUARY 1988

I. GENERAL

1. FIELD REPORTS INDICATE SITUATION VERY PRECARIOUS IN NORTH PARTICULARLY IN TIGRAY BUT PHYSICAL CONDITION OF PEOPLE COLLECTING RATIONS AT DISTRIBUTION POINTS THROUGHOUT FAMINE AREA STILL RELATIVELY SATISFACTORY. THIS INDICATES THAT IN AREAS REACHED RELIEF OPERATIONS SO FAR TIMELY AND EFFECTIVE IN HELPING TO AVERT FAMINE CONDITIONS.

2. PEOPLE NOW RECEIVING ASSISTANCE IN TIGRAY ESTIMATED AT OVER 800,000, BUT NUMBER GENERALLY EXPECTED TO INCREASE TO OVER 1.5 MILLION IN COMING MONTHS. THUS CONSIDERABLE ADDITIONAL DEMAND ON RELIEF OPERATIONS LIKELY TO BE MADE SOON, THE MORE SO AS TOP PRIORITY CURRENTLY ASSIGNED TO TIGRAY HAS IMPLIED PROPORTIONALLY LESS ASSISTANCE TO OTHER BADLY AFFECTED AREAS.

3. WFP FORECASTS CONSIDERABLE GAP IN FOOD AID AVAILABILITY AS FROM SECOND QUARTER 88. FOR FURTHER DETAILS ON FOOD PLEDGES, STOCK POSITIONS AND SURFACE TRANSPORT REFER TO WFP WEEKLY EMERGENCY TELEX REPORTS.

II. AIRLIFT OPERATIONS

4. AIRLIFTING OPERATIONS PROCEEDING WELL. AIRCRAFT FLYING FROM ASMARA TO MEKELE AND AXUM AS WELL AS FROM ASSAB TO MEKELE. PREPARATION BEING MADE TO OPERATE FROM MASSAWA TO MEKELE/AXUM. SECOND UNDRO-CHARTERED HERCULES (FROM BELGIAN AIR FORCE) ARRIVED ASMARA 5/1. UN/EPPG CALCULATES TOTAL QUANTITY FOOD AIRLIFTED TO TIGRAY SINCE INCEPTION AIRLIFT AS FOLLOWS:

AGENCY
AIRCRAFT
NO./TYPE/
CARRIER
STARTING DATE
BY 10/1
TOTAL MT
BENEFICIARY
AGENCY
UNDRO
1 HERC, SAT
6/12/87
3,488
RRC/WFP/MOA/ICRC/ VARIOUS NGOS
UNDRO
1 HERC, BAF
6/01/88
447
AS ABOVE
ICRC
1 HERC, BAF
30/11/87
3,068
ICRC
JRP/ECS
1 HERC, SFAIR
3/12/87
3,062
ECS
JRP/ECS
1 HERC, SAT
14/12/87
2,530
ECS
RRC
3 AN-12 AEROFLOT
26/11/87
1,882
RRC
RRC
2 DC-3 RRC
DEC 87
282
RRC
TOTAL:
14,759
5. INITIAL TARGET FOR MEKELE THUS BEING REACHED. EFFORTS NOW CONCENTRATING ON FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY TRANSPORT THROUGH UTILIZATION LIGHT AIRCRAFT AND STRENGTHENED ROAD TRANSPORT. MAIN SUPPLY ROUTES TIGRAY AT PRESENT AS FOLLOWS: NORTHERN TIGRAY SOUTHWARDS BY ROAD ASMARA-ADIGRAT. CENTRAL TIGRAY BY AIRLIFT ASMARA/ASSAB TO MEKELE. SOUTHERN TIGRAY SOUTHWARDS BY ROAD FROM MEKELE AND NORTHWARDS BY ROAD FROM WOLLO. WESTERN TIGRAY BY AIRLIFT ASMARA/ASSAB TO AXUM.

III. TRANSPORT FUND

6. INCOME UN/EPPG TRANSPORT FUND AS AT 31/12/87 AS FOLLOWS:

US DLRS
CONTRIBUTIONS RECEIVED
AUSTRIA
39,600.00
AUSTRALIA
682,999.46
CANADA
152,488.37
DENMARK
311,284.05
FED. REP. OF GERMANY
600,000.00
NETHERLANDS
1,000,000.00
UNITED KINGDOM
889,900.00
TOTAL:
3,676,271.88
CONTRIBUTIONS PLEDGED, NOT YET RCVD (EST.)
FINLAND
250,000.00
ITALY
1,000,000.00
IRELAND
72,000.00
SWEDEN
806,000.00
SWITZERLAND
372,000.00
UNITED KINGDOM
2,655,000.00
TOTAL:
5,155,000.00
GRAND TOTAL:
8,831,271.88
7. FUND COMMITMENTS ARE FLEXIBLE TO ALLOW FOR ADAPTATION TO EVOLVING RELIEF PRIORITIES AND VARY BETWEEN ONE AND TWO MILLION US DLRS PER MONTH ACCORDING TO SERVICES UTILIZED. SECGEN'S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE HAS ADVISED LOCAL DONOR REPS THAT FUND RESOURCES LIKELY TO BE EXHAUSTED BY APR/MAY WHILE NEED FOR AIRLIFTING SERVICES EXPECTED TO CONTINUE BEYOND THAT DATE.

ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1)
DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)

UNDRO 88/0424

ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 2/88
25 FEBRUARY 1988

HEREWITH FOLLOWS SUMMARY OF COMPREHENSIVE REPORT PREPARED BY SEC-GEN'S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE, COVERING PERIOD NOVEMBER 1987 THROUGH JANUARY 1988. FULL TEXT AVAILABLE FROM UNDRO.

I. SUMMARY

1. RRC'S NOVEMBER APPEAL ASKED FOR 1.05 MILLION MT OF FOOD AID IN 1988 FOR 5.2 MILLION PEOPLE, MORE THAN 2 MILLION OF THEM LOCATED IN NORTH. THESE FIGURES GENERALLY THOUGHT TO BE ON LOW SIDE AND EXPECTED TO BE REVISED UPWARD, MOVING CLOSER TO NOV/DEC FAO ESTIMATES OF AROUND 7 MILLION IN NEED AND 1.3 MILLION MT FOOD AID REQUIREMENT. REGISTRATION OF BENEFICIARIES IN ALL AFFECTED AREAS TOOK PLACE THROUGH REPORTING PERIOD. BY JAN IT WAS ANTICIPATED THAT OVER 1.5 MILLION PEOPLE WOULD BE REGISTERED IN TIGRAY ALONE, HALF A MILLION MORE THAN EXPECTED IN RRC NOV ESTIMATES. IN HARARGHE HOWEVER, WHERE ALMOST A MILLION AT FIRST THOUGHT TO BE IN NEED, SITUATION HAS IMPROVED WITH LESS BENEFICIARIES THAN EXPECTED NEEDING FREE FOOD ASSISTANCE. FOOD HAS SO FAR MOVED SATISFACTORILY THROUGH AREAS IN NEED, EXCEPT FOR NORTH WHERE LIMITED ROAD ACCESS MAJOR CONCERN. CONDITION OF THOSE BENEFITTING FROM FOOD DISTRIBUTIONS APART FROM NORTH INDICATES THAT OVERALL, NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF AFFECTED PEOPLE REMAINED SATISFACTORY BY LOCAL STANDARDS DUE TO TIMELY RESPONSE BY RRC AND UN/NGO/ICRC DISTRIBUTION SERVICES.

2. IN NORTH DUE TO SHORTAGES OF TRUCKS, LIMITED ACCESS TO SOME AREAS AND DANGEROUSLY LOW STOCKS OF FOOD, PARTICULARLY IN TIGRAY, AIRLIFT OPERATIONS TO ENSURE SUFFICIENT SUPPLIES BECAME NECESSARY END OF NOV. BY CLOSE OF JAN MORE THAN 22,000 MT OF FOOD WAS DELIVERED THROUGH COMBINED EFFORTS OF 5 HERCULES, 3 ANTONOVS, 2 DC-3S AND VARIETY OF SMALL AIRCRAFT. 2 U.N. HERCULES CHARTERED FROM SOUTHERN AIR TRANSPORT (SAT) AND BELGIUM (BAF) HAVE BEEN OPERATIONAL IN NORTH SINCE DEC. IN ADDITION, AROUND 200 TRUCKS HAVE BEEN PLEDGED BY DONORS FOR NORTHERN FLEET TO BOOST DELIVERIES AND IMPROVE OFFTAKE FROM MASSAWA. WHILE THIS FOLLOWS RECOMMENDATIONS OF LAST YEAR'S FOOD TRANSPORT CAPACITY STUDY, IT SHOULD BE NOTED THAT MAJORITY OF NEW TRUCKS WILL NOT ARRIVE UNTIL SECOND HALF 1988. MOREOVER, MORE THAN 90 TRUCKS, INCLUDING THOSE DESTROYED IN OCT ATTACK ON UN FOOD CONVOY, HAVE BEEN LOST BECAUSE OF EPLF ACTION.

3. DESPITE ADDITIONAL TRUCKS AND AIRLIFT, STOCKS OF FOOD ABLE TO BE BUILT UP THROUGH DEC/JAN AT IN-COUNTRY DISTRIBUTION POINTS IN NORTH, WAS DISAPPOINTING. THIS PARTICULARLY SO IN CENTRAL TIGRAY WHERE FREQUENT ROAD CLOSURES HAVE BADLY DELAYED TRUCK MOVEMENTS. BECAUSE OF THIS, AREAS OF ERITREA ON OCCASION LEFT SHORT OF FOOD, ALTHOUGH STOCKS HAVE MOVED SUCCESSFULLY INTO ASMARA AND MEKELE. APPEALS TO GOE TO USE MILITARY TO KEEP ROADS OPEN PRODUCED POSITIVE RESULTS IN JAN, BUT THE ISSUE CLEARLY REMAINS SERIOUS AND A MAJOR THREAT TO THE FOOD PIPELINE. EXPANSION OF AIRLIFT MAY WELL BE NECESSARY.

4. IN WOLLO, WHERE MORE THAN ONE MILLION ARE AFFECTED, MANY THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE WERE REPORTED TO BE WALKING UP TO 4-5 DAYS TO KOREM TO REGISTER AND COLLECT RATIONS. SECURITY PROBLEMS AND CURRENT INABILITY TO GET FOOD CLOSER TO THEIR HOMES IS CAUSING PROBLEMS INCLUDING THE DANGER OF TEMPORARY SETTLEMENTS SPRINGING UP AS PEOPLE RELUCTANT TO UNDERTAKE LONG TREK HOME.

5. ALLEGATIONS VIGOROUSLY DENIED BY GOVT OF FORCED RESETTLEMENT, REPORTEDLY INVOLVING SOME HUMAN DEATHS IN TWO INCIDENTS IN JAN HAVE INTENSIFIED CONCERNS FOR THIS AREA. FOR TIME BEING, U.N. AND NGOS ARE SUPPORTING. RRC DETERMINATION TO AVOID CREATION OF TEMPORARY SHELTERS AND REPEAT OF 1984-5 PROBLEMS.

6. RESPONSE BY DONOR COMMUNITY TO RRC FOOD APPEALS AND TO TRUCKING, PORT-STORAGE AND AIRLIFT NEEDS HAS BEEN EXCELLENT. BY END JAN CONFIRMED PLEDGES STOOD AT AROUND 900,000 MT, WITH CARRY-OVER STOCK FROM LAST YEAR AND UNCONFIRMED DONATIONS BRINGING TOTAL TO OVER 1.1 MILLION MT. A DONATION OF 250,000 MT OF GRAIN FROM THE SOVIET UNION ANNOUNCED IN JAN IS SAID TO BE ARRIVING OVER NEXT 6 MONTHS. ALTHOUGH CEREAL PLEDGES HAVE BEEN GENEROUS AND TIMELY, SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD SHORTAGES CONTINUE TO REMAIN SERIOUS. WFP HAS RECENTLY LAUNCHED ANOTHER APPEAL FOR DRIED SKIMMED MILK, OIL HIGH-PROTEIN BISCUITS AND BLANDED FOODS. SIMILAR APPEAL HAS ALSO BEEN MADE BY UNICEF. BEEN MADE BY UNICEF. RRC ESTIMATES MORE THAN 40,000 MT IS NEEDED.

7. FOOD MOVED STEADILY INTO BOTH ASSAB AND MASSAWA OVER REPORTING PERIOD. CONGESTION IN PORTS OVER NEXT MONTHS HOWEVER REMAINS LIKELY AND DONORS HAVE BEEN ASKED TO STAGGER OR DELAY SHIPMENTS WHERE POSSIBLE. STEPS ALSO TAKEN TO IDENTIFY ADDITIONAL STORAGE SPACE CLOSE TO PORTS AND TO PREVENT ADDITIONAL RAIN DAMAGE TO UNCOVERED GRAIN, PARTICULARLY AT MASSAWA WHERE SOME 700 MT WAS RAIN-DAMAGED IN DEC. NEW APPEAL FOR PALLETS AND TARPAULINS HAS BEEN MADE AND ALTHOUGH SOME HAVE BEEN AIRLIFTED INTO ETHIOPIA, ADDITIONAL 34,000 PALLETS ARE NEEDED URGENTLY FOR BOTH PORTS.

8. IN JANUARY GOE INFORMALLY ANNOUNCED DECISION TO APPROVE HIGHER PRICES FOR CROP PURCHASES BY ITS AGRICULTURE MARKETING CORPORATION, ISSUING OF LICENSES TO PRIVATE TRADERS, AND FREE MOVEMENT OF SURPLUSES ACROSS REGIONAL BOUNDARIES.

II. REFUGEES AND RETURNEES

9. TOTAL SUDANESE REFUGEE POPULATION IN 4 MAIN LOCATIONS BY END OF JAN (FUNGIDO/GOG AREA, ITANG/GAMBELLA, ASSOSA AND DIMMA/KEFFA) NUMBERED 243,815 REPRESENTING OVERALL INCREASE OF 55,000 OVER PAST 6 MONTHS. THIS ESCALATION HAS MEANT FOOD STOCKS AND PIPELINE SUPPLIES RAPIDLY BEING DEPLETED. ESTIMATED SHORTFALL IN CEREALS AND BEANS FOR 1988 NOW AROUND 38,000 MT.

10. DELIVERY OF SUPPLIES TO REFUGEES CONTINUES TO BE HAMPERED BY LIMITED AVAILABILITY OF HIRED TRUCKS AND VERY DIFFICULT ROAD CONDITIONS ALONG 1,500 KM ROUTE FROM ASSAB TO CAMPS. ALTHOUGH UNHCR RECEIVED CONTRIBUTION OF US DLRS 5.3 MILLION FROM FED. REP. OF GERMANY AND WILL NOW ESTABLISH ITS OWN INDEPENDENT TRUCK FLEET DURING 1988, 22 NEW LONG HAULAGE TRUCKS TO BE PURCHASED WILL ONLY BE OPERATIONAL DURING SECOND HALF OF YEAR, MAKING NEXT MONTHS CRITICAL PERIOD FOR FOOD SUPPLY. NUMBERS OF SOMALI REFUGEES RECORDED BY ETHIOPIAN GOVERNEMENT AT HARSHIN IN JIJIGA DISTRICT ROSE THROUGH PERIOD TO 21,096. MOVEMENTS OF ETHIOPIAN RETURNEES FROM SOMALIA TO SIDAMO REGION CONTINUED. BY END OF JAN TOTAL REPATRIATED UNDER THIS SCHEME WAS 4,501. TOTAL REPATRIATED FROM DJIBOUTI NOW 3,591.

11. DESPITE FAILURE OF MAIN HARVEST IN MANY PARTS OF ERITREA, NO SIGNIFICANT DECLINE BEING RECORDED IN NUMBERS OF ETHIOPIAN FAMILIES RETURNING FROM SUDAN TO ERITREA. RATE OF ARRIVALS AVERAGED BETWEEN 300 AND 400 AND IN JAN INCREASED TO 480. THIS BRINGS TOTAL RECORDED BY RRC SINCE JAN 1987 TO 9,432.

III. LOGISTICS

DISTRIBUTION:

12. IN SPITE OF EFFORTS THROUGH JAN BY U.N. FIELD OFFICERS TO COMPILE DISTRIBUTION FIGURES BY NGOS/ICRC AND RRC. FEW FIGURES AVAILABLE FOR JANUARY AND RRC DISTRIBUTION FIGURES FOR NOV/DEC YET TO BE CONFIRMED. AVAILABLE INFORMATION AS FOLLOWS:

1. QUANTITY
RRC
NGO
TOTAL
NOVEMBER
9,700 MT
15,004 MT
24,704 MT
DECEMBER
11,500 MT
17,785 MT
29,285 MT
2. BENEFICIARIES (RATIONS)
NOVEMBER
460,000
956,496
1,416,496
DECEMBER
608,000
1,263,507
1,871,507
13. DISTRIBUTIONS THROUGH JAN: ICRC DISTRIBUTED RATIONS TO 32,808 PEOPLE IN ERITREA AND 328,062 IN TIGRAY. IN ADDITION RRC PROVIDED RATIONS FOR 294,652 BENEFICIARIES IN TIGRAY AND ECS 230,000. NO FIGURES AVAILABLE FOR ERITREA. IN WOLLO, RRC SAYS AROUND 200,000 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN SUPPLIED WITH RATIONS TO DATE.

PORT PERFORMANCE

14. WHILE PORT CONGESTION IN MASSAWA AND ASSAB TEMPORARILY ALLAYED IN JAN IT IS LIKELY TO RE-OCCUR DURING COMING MONTHS. OFFTAKE AT MASSAWA IMPROVED SIGNIFICANTLY THROUGH JANUARY AS MORE TRUCKS WERE DEPLOYED TO FERRY FOOD FROM PORT TO ASMARA. LONG DELAYS IN TRANSPORTING FOOD FROM ASMARA TO THE INTERIOR BECAUSE OF CLOSED ROADS, RESULTED IN REDUCED DELIVERIES TO TIGRAY AND ERITREA, HIGHLIGHTING NEED FOR BETTER ACCESS AND EXTENSION OF AIRLIFT.

15. FOOD AID STOCKS IN PORT AT END OF JAN AS FOLLOWS: ASSAB 70,400 MT, MASSAWA 35,000 MT, DJIBOUTI 6,323 MT. ADDITIONAL SPACE FOR STORAGE IN THE PORTS HAS NOW BEEN IDENTIFIED AT SOME DISTANCE, CONSEQUENTLY ADDITONAL FUNDING REQUIRED.

16. EXPECTED FOOD AID ARRIVALS FEBRUARY. 1 - APRIL 30, 1988:

MONTH
EMERGENCY
REGULAR (MT)
TOTAL (MT)
FEBRUARY
CEREAL
122,826
17,893
174,894
NON CEREAL
29,945
4,230
MARCH
CEREAL
33,312
33,599
102,776
NON CEREAL
35,811
54
APRIL
CEREAL
39,877
15,500
89,847
NON CEREAL
34,470
TOTAL
296,241
71,276
367,517
17. REGULAR PROGRAMMES INCLUDE FOOD FOR WORK, REFUGEES AND MONETIZATION. REGULAR WEEKLY SHIPPING MEETINGS CONTINUE TO BE HELD BY WFP.

SURFACE TRANSPORT AND WFP TRANSPORT OPERATION

18. BY END JAN AROUND 200 TRUCKS, INCLUDING 32 FROM WTOE FLEET, HAD EITHER BEEN TRANSFERRED OR WERE ON THEIR WAY FROM SOUTH TO NORTH TO BOOST TRUCKING OPERATIONS. ADDITIONAL 101 NEW TRUCKS PLEDGED BY DONORS FOR NORTH AND 63 FOR SOUTH. OF THESE TRUCKS 91 HAVE BEEN PROMISED TO WTOE, OF WHICH 70 FOR USE IN NORTH. ALTHOUGH RECOMMENDATIONS OF LAST YEAR'S FOOD TRANSPORT CAPACITY STUDY THUS MET, FEW TRUCKS WILL ARRIVE BEFORE MIDDLE OF YEAR. BECAUSE OF ADDITIONAL TRUCKS WTOE, ABLE TO INCREASE AMOUNT OF FOOD DELIVERED: IN NOV 11,530 MT, IN DEC 24,266 MT AND IN JAN 26,932 MT. DELIVERIES IN TIGRAY ROSE FROM 4,904 MT IN NOV TO 5,277 MT IN DEC, THEN FELL TO 3,581 MT IN JAN BECAUSE OF ACCESS DIFFICULTIES. DELIVERIES TO ERITREA ROSE FROM 358 MT IN NOV TO 970 MT IN DEC AND ALMOST 6,000 MT IN JAN. TURN-AROUND TIME FOR TRUCKS IN SOME AREAS OF TIGRAY HAS BEEN AS LONG AS 22 DAYS BECAUSE OF ROAD CLOSURES. GOE RECOGNIZES PROBLEM AND HAS ATTEMPTED TO RESOLVE SITUATION.

19. CONFIRMED PLEDGES FOR NEW TRUCKS HAVE SO FAR BEEN RECEIVED FROM BAND AID (20), ITALIAN GOVERNMENT (50), USA (25), CRS (14) CARITAS/ITALY (8), CARITAS/SWITZERLAND (9), FED. REP. OF GERMANY (12), SCF/UK (15) AND CRDA (12).

AIRLIFT

20. DAILY AIRLIFTS BETWEEN ASMARA AND MEKELE OPERATE SINCE 26 NOV WITH FLIGHTS FROM ASSAB AND MASSAWA AND FROM ASMARA TO AXUM AS REQUIRED. FIVE HERCULES, 2 OF WHICH CHARTERED THROUGH U.N. EMERGENCY TRANSPORT FUND ESTABLISHED UNDER AUSPICES OF UNDRO OCT LAST YEAR, CARRIED DURING PERIOD OVER 22,000 MT EMERGENCY FOOD AND OTHER RELIEF CARGO. IN ADDITION, 3 ANTONOVS, 2 DC-3S AND A VARIETY OF SMALL AIRCRAFT, SOME ALSO PARTIALLY FUNDED BY U.N. EMERGENCY TRANSPORT FUND, TAKING PART IN AIRLIFT OPERATION. EXTENSION OF AIRLIFT FOR 3 FURTHER MONTHS FROM END MARCH IS BEING PREPARED AS ROAD TRANSPORT ALONE CAN NOT MEET INCREASING NEEDS OF NORTH.

21. DONATIONS FOR U.N. AIRLIFT RECEIVED FROM GOVTS OF AUSTRALIA, AUSTRIA, BELGIUM, CANADA, CYPRUS, DENMARK, FED. REP. OF GERMANY, FINLAND, FRANCE, IRELAND, ITALY, NETHERLANDS, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND, UNITED KINGDOM. EEC HAS FINANCED 2 HERCULES WITH CARITAS AND ONE THROUGH ICRC. USA MEANWHILE HAS CONTRIBUTED 2 TWIN OTTER AIRCRAFT AND SWITZERLAND 2 PILATUS PORTERS. 5 MORE HERCULES NEEDED IF OPERATION IS TO MEET ESTABLISHED GOALS.

IV. WATER/SANITATION/HEALTH

WATER/SANITATION

22. INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION NEEDS UNDERTAKEN BY UNICEF IN COLLABORATION WITH NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES COMMISSION AND RRC. APPEAL, VALUED AT US DLRS 5.15 MILLION, COVERS THREE AREAS:

- REHABILITATION OR STRENGTHENING EXISTING RURAL/SMALL TOWNS WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS IN ERITREA, AS WELL AS IN 12 FOOD DISTRIBUTION CENTRES.

- CONSTRUCTION OF 5 NEW SYSTEMS IN ERITREA.

- IMPROVEMENT OF ASMARA TOWN WATER SUPPLY. MAIN ACTIVITIES CENTRE ON RECONSTRUCTION BADLY DAMAGED ADI SHEIKA DAM.

HEALTH

23. SIX REGIONAL SUPERVISORY HEALTH TEAMS ESTABLISHED IN WOLLO, GONDAR, ERITREA, TIGRAY AND NORTH SHEWA. JOINT MOH/UNICEF SURVEILLANCE SCHEME IDENTIFIED 21 FOOD DISTRIBUTION SITES IN WOLLO, 32 IN TIGRAY, 7 IN GONDAR AND 41 IN ERITREA FOR INCREASED HEALTH SERVICES/FACILITIES. AGREEMENT ALSO REACHED FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF IMMUNIZATION PROGRAMMES AND VITAMIN-A DISTRIBUTION AT ALL FOOD DISTRIBUTION SITES, WITH COLD CHAINS AND MEDICINES/MEDICAL SUPPLIES PROVIDED BY UNICEF AND NGOS.

24. UNICEF-SPONSORED CASH FOR FOOD PROJECT PROVIDED 5,840 FAMILY-HEADS WITH FUNDS IN LIEU OF RELIEF FOOD IN 5 DIFFERENT LOCATIONS WHERE GRAIN AVAILABLE AT MANAGEABLE PRICES.

V. AGRICULTURE

LOCUST

25. DESERT LOCUST CONTROL OPERATIONS UNDERTAKEN LAST YEAR EFFECTIVELY PREVENTED SPREAD OF DESERT LOCUST AND NO SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE TO CROPS REPORTED. WINTER BREEDING SEASON HAS BEGUN AND DLCO ADVISES ETHIOPIA GENERALLY CLEAR OF DESERT LOCUST. AERIAL SURVEILLANCE CONTINUING.

AGRICULTURAL INPUTS

26. REQUIREMENTS REQUESTED BY RRC FOR AFFECTED AREAS TOTAL US DLRS 48,000,000, COMPRISING BARLEY, WHEAT, TEFF, MAIZE AND SORGHUM SEED REQUIREMENTS VALUED AT US DLRS 13 MILLION. INFORMATION ON CONTRIBUTIONS WILL BE INCLUDED IN NEXT REPORT (END FEB).

VI. PREVENTION/PREPAREDNESS

27. RRC NUTRITIONAL UNIT HAS INSTITUTED CENTRALLY COORDINATED AND STANDARDISED SYSTEM FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF NUTRITIONAL DATA, WITH SUPPORT FROM UNDP/FAO FOOD INFORMATION PROJECT, TO ENSURE COMPARABILITY OF NUTRITIONAL SURVEYS UNDERTAKEN BY AGENCIES WORKING AROUND COUNTRY. AGENCIES CONDUCTING NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT REQUESTED TO CONFORM TO THESE STANDARDS.

FOOD FOR WORK

28. DURING REPORTING PERIOD FOOD-FOR-WORK ACTIVITIES, UNDERTAKEN BY MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE WITH ASSISTANCE FROM WFP, EEC AND AUSTRALIAN GOVT, UTILIZED SOME 19,372 MT OF FOOD FOR COUNTRY-WIDE REFORESTATION, TREE PLANTING, NURSERIES AND SOIL BUNDS. FROM JUL 1987 TO JUN 1988 TOTAL OF 80,000 MT OF FOOD EARMARKED FOR FFW ACTIVITIES OF WHICH 65-70 PERCENT NOW EXPECTED TO BE UTILISED. FFW ACTIVITIES BY NGOS UTILIZED 15,004 TONNES OF FOOD IN NOV.

VII. RESETTLEMENT

29. SINCE PROGRAMME WAS RESUMED LAST AUG. APPROX. 8,370 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN RESETTLED, 2528 FROM WOLLO. FOLLOWING ALLEGED INCIDENTS AT KOREM, GOE HAS REITERATED POLICY VOLUNTARY WITHIN FRAMEWORK CAREFULLY PLANNED PROGRAMME.

ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1)
DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)

UNDRO 88/0510

ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 3/88
9 MARCH 1988


EMERGENCY APPEAL

AIRLIFTING OPERATIONS (EXTENSION)


1. ON 13 NOV 87 A FIRST EMERGENCY APPEAL FOR AIRLIFTING OPERATIONS IN ETHIOPIA WAS LAUNCHED BY UNDRO. SEVERAL HERCULES HAVE BEEN CHARTERED AND UP TO TEN SMALL AIRCRAFT PARTIALLY FINANCED BY THE UNITED NATIONS FOR INITIAL PERIOD OF THREE MONTHS. CONTRIBUTIONS TO UN/EPPG TRANSPORT FUND, ESTABLISHED FOR THIS PURPOSE AND ADMINISTERED BY UNDRO, HAVE MEANWHILE REACHED US DLRS 9.1 MILLION (SEE ALSO SITREPS 1/88 AND 2/88) AND PERMITTED A FIRST THREE-MONTH EXTENSION OF OPERATIONS WITHIN EXISTING RESOURCES, I.E. MARCH TO MAY 88, BY WHICH TIME PRESENT RESOURCES EXPECTED TO BE EXHAUSTED.

2. TOTAL QUANTITY OF FOOD TRANSPORTED UNTIL NOW BY HEAVY AIRCRAFT INTO WORST-AFFECTED TIGRAY HAS EXCEEDED 30,000 MT AND PRESENT NETWORK OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AIRLIFTING HAS PROVEN VITAL IN AVERTING FAMINE CONDITIONS (FOR DESCRIPTION AND DETAILS SEE SITREP 2/88 OF 25/2).

3. ALL FIELD OBSERVATIONS CONCUR SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE IN NUMBER OF PERSONS SEEKING EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE IS TO BE EXPECTED DURING MONTHS TO COME. SURFACE TRANSPORT, DESPITE ALL EFFORTS ALREADY WELL BELOW ESTABLISHED TARGETS, UNLIKELY TO MEET THIS GREATER DEMAND DUE TO LOGISTICAL AND SECURITY CONSTRAINTS.

4. TAKING INTO ACCOUNT REQUIREMENT TO PRESERVE PROPER BALANCE BETWEEN TRANSPORT BY AIR AND BY ROAD, NECESSITY OF A FURTHER EXTENSION OF LIMITED AIRLIFTING OPERATIONS HAS RECENTLY BEEN AGREED UPON.

5. ACCORDINGLY, SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE HAS REQUESTED UNDRO NOW TO APPEAL FOR FURTHER CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE UN/EPPG TRANSPORT FUND TO FINANCE CONTINUATION OF UNATIONS-SPONSORED AIRLIFTING OPERATIONS FOR THE THREE-MONTH PERIOD JUNE TO AUGUST 88.

6. BASED ON EXPERIENCE GAINED AND COSTS SO FAR INCURRED, IT IS ESTIMATED THAT FUNDS REQUIRED FOR THIS EXTENSION AMOUNT TO US DLRS 2 MILLION PER MONTH OR A TOTAL VALUE OF US DLRS 6 MILLION.

7. CASH CONTRIBUTIONS IN RESPONSE THIS APPEAL WILL CONTINUE TO BE CREDITED TO UNDRO'S SPECIAL EARMARKED ACCOUNT ENTITLED 'UN/EPPG TRANSPORT FUND - 87/88'. BANKING INSTRUCTIONS REMAIN UNCHANGED AS FOLLOWS:

LLOYDS BANK
1 PLACE BEL AIR
CH-1211 GENEVA, SWITZERLAND
A/C NO. 183598-01-10 (US DLRS)

WITH MENTION: UNDRO, FOR UN/EPPG TRANSPORT FUND

8. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION CAN BE OBTAINED FROM THE OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE, MR PRIESTLEY, ADDIS (TELEX 21596 UNDP ET) OR FROM UNDRO, GENEVA (F. VERHAGEN, 34.60.11 EXT. 3239).

ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)
FIN 323 ETH '87 (1-2)

UNDRO 88/0622

ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 4/88
24 MARCH 1988

HEREWITH FOLLOWS SUMMARY OF COMPREHENSIVE REPORT FOR MONTH OF FEBRUARY 1988 PREPARED BY SECGEN'S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE. FULL TEXT AVAILABLE FROM UNDRO.

I. GENERAL

1. CLOSED ROADS AND SECURITY PROBLEMS THROUGH FIRST HALF OF FEB SEVERELY DISRUPTED FOOD PIPELINE INTO TIGRAY, CAUSING SERIOUS CONCERNS AS STOCKS AT SOME DISTRIBUTION CENTRES ALMOST EXHAUSTED. DELIVERY BY ROAD IN FIRST TWO WEEKS DOWN TO 675 MT, LESS THAN 15 PERCENT OF SURFACE TRANSPORT REQUIREMENT FOR SAME PERIOD. ALTHOUGH 4,000 MT FLOWN INTO MEKELLE BY MID-FEBRUARY THROUGH HERCULES AIRLIFT OPERATION, CLOSED ROADS PREVENTED MOVEMENT INTO OUTLYING DISTRIBUTION POINTS. SITUATION IMPROVED DURING LAST 10 DAYS WITH WFP AND ICRC CONVOYS REACHING WUKRO, WHERE FOOD STOCKS WERE EFFECTIVELY DEPLETED, AND ADIGRAT, INACCESSIBLE FOR THREE WEEKS BECAUSE OF SECURITY CONSTRAINTS. ADWA/AXUM ROAD, CLOSED SINCE MID-JANUARY, REMAINED INACCESSIBLE. BENEFICIARY LEVELS IN TIGRAY NOW ESTIMATED AT 1.525 MILLION AND ALTHOUGH NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF AFFECTED PEOPLE STILL RELATIVELY GOOD AND SHELTERS SO FAR AVOIDED, MONTHLY TARGET OF 24,000 MT OF FOOD MUST BE MET, OR SITUATION WILL RAPIDLY DETERIORATE. DISCUSSIONS WITH GOE ABOUT OPEN ROADS CONTINUED THROUGH MONTH. GOE, AWARE OF GRAVITY OF SITUATION, HAS PROMISED TO DO EVERYTHING POSSIBLE TO PREVENT FOOD PIPELINE FROM BREAKING DOWN.

2. CEREAL FOOD PLEDGES NOW MEETING REQUIREMENTS ANNOUNCED BY RRC IN NOV APPEAL. HOWEVER, 38,000 MT OF SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD (BEANS, OIL, MILK POWDER AND HIGH PROTEIN CEREAL MIX) FOR RRC STILL NOT COVERED. CURRENTLY RRC ONLY ABLE TO DISTRIBUTE GRAIN, RESERVING SMALL AMOUNTS OF SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD FOR MALNOURISHED CHILDREN.

3. SHORTFALLS IN UNICEF APPEAL FOR HEALTH AND WATER SUPPLIES STILL REMAIN AND FURTHER PLEDGES ALSO REQUIRED FOR AGRICULTURAL INPUTS (SEE PARA. V).

4. WITH ONLY FOUR OF THE ORIGINAL FIVE HERCULES FLYING IN NORTH THROUGH FEB AND SECURITY/FUEL PROBLEMS, AIRLIFT OPERATION UNABLE TO MEET ITS MONTHLY GOAL OF 12,000 MT OF FOOD. DAILY SHUTTLES BETWEEN ASMARA AND CENTRAL TIGRAY REDUCED AS FUEL SHORTAGE FORCED PLANES TO FLY INTO ASSAB. BOTH BELGIAN HERCULES BEGAN OVER-NIGHTING AT ADDIS INSTEAD OF ASMARA BECAUSE OF SECURITY CONCERNS. THIS FURTHER REDUCED NUMBER OF SHUTTLES. BY END OF MONTH ONLY AROUND 7,100 MT FOOD WAS DELIVERED. AXUM AIRSTRIP, CLOSED SINCE MID-JAN FOR REPAIRS, REMAINED INACCESSIBLE. AS SOME OF THESE CONSTRAINTS BEING RESOLVED, DONORS HAVE BEEN ASKED TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF UNATIONS-SPONSORED AIRLIFT FOR FURTHER THREE MONTHS TO END OF AUG (SEE UNDRO SITREP 3/88 OF 9/3). IF POOR ROAD PERFORMANCE CONTINUES SITES WILL HAVE TO BE IDENTIFIED FOR AIRDROPPING OPERATIONS.

5. MONITORING OF BELG (SHORT) RAINS, IMPORTANT IN ARSI, BALE, SHEWA AND WOLLO REGIONS, INDICATES THAT PROSPECTS FOR BELG HARVEST IN THESE AREAS PROMISING. FAO REPORTS JANUARY AND FEBRUARY RAINS WERE REASONABLY GOOD THROUGHOUT MOST OF THESE REGIONS.

II. BENEFICIARIES

6. ESTIMATED FIGURES AS KNOWN FOR FEB:

TIGRAY: 1,525,920
ERITREA: 947,470
GONDER: 82,000
WOLLO: 800,000

III. PORT PERFORMANCE

7. SERIOUS PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED AT ASSAB BECAUSE OF SHORTAGE OF TRUCKS AND HIGH FERTILIZER/COMMERCIAL CARGO ARRIVALS. PROBLEMS LIKELY TO WORSEN THROUGH MARCH WITH MORE THAN 111,000 MT EMERGENCY FOOD EXPECTED PLUS 117,000 MT OTHER CARGO. TOWARDS END FEB TOTAL STOCKS IN ASSAB WERE APPROX. 232,000 MT, INCLUDING 115,000 MT EMERGENCY FOOD. MASSAWA, MEANWHILE, FARED EXTREMELY WELL DURING SAME PERIOD WITH TOTAL OFFTAKE FOR MONTH ALMOST 40,000 MT. INCREASE DUE TO FACT THAT MORE TRUCKS WERE AVAILABLE BECAUSE OF CLOSED ROAD PROBLEMS IN TIGRAY. MASSAWA END FEB PORT BALANCE: 34,000 MT, MOSTLY FOOD AID. PORT CONGESTION AT MASSAWA POSSIBLE IN MARCH WITH ARRIVAL OF APPROX. 87,000 MT CARGO, OF WHICH APPROX. 56,000 MT EMERGENCY AID.

IV. SURFACE TRANSPORT

8. BECAUSE OF CONTINUED SERIOUS PROBLEMS WITH CLOSED ROADS, LESS THAN 1,000 MT FOOD TRANSPORTED BY ALL CARRIERS IN TIGRAY BETWEEN 1-16 FEB. LAST TEN DAYS HOWEVER SAW MUCH IMPROVEMENT. ICRC MOVED AROUND 2,000 MT FOOD INTO AREA BETWEEN 14 AND 26 FEB AND WTOE TRUCKS FERRIED AROUND 3,300 MT IN LAST TWO WEEKS OF MONTH. FINAL MONTHLY TOTAL FOR SURFACE DELIVERIES TO TIGRAY UNLIKELY TO EXCEED 7000 MT, THUS WELL BELOW MONTHLY TARGET OF 12,000 MT. PLEDGES MEANWHILE RECEIVED FOR TOTAL OF 136 NEW TRUCKS FOR NORTH AND FIRST DELIVERY, 20 VOLVOS FROM BANDAID FOR WTOE, EXPECTED TO ARRIVE SOON. SINCE LAST SITREP NEW PLEDGES RECEIVED FROM ITALY AND ICRC. IN ADDITION GOVTS OF SWEDEN, ITALY AND FED.REP. OF GERMANY UNDERTAKING REHABILITATION OF MORE THAN 300 RRC TRUCKS AND TRAILERS. EVEN SO IT HAS BEEN CALCULATED THAT DESPITE EXPANDED TRUCKING CAPACITY FOOD REQUIREMENTS FOR ESTIMATED 1.5 MILLION PEOPLE IN TIGRAY AND 1.7 MILLION IN ERITREA UNLIKELY TO BE MET. HENCE CONTINUED NEED FOR AIRLIFT OPERATIONS.

V. AGRICULTURE

9. GOE REQUEST FOR 32,000 MT OF IMPROVED SEEDS PARTIALLY BEING MET BY CRDA, WHICH HAS CONFIRMED FUNDS FOR 13,000 MT, AND IS SEEKING ADDITIONAL FUNDING FOR ANOTHER 7,000 MT. 10,000 MT IS EARMARKED FOR TIGRAY, ERITREA, HARARGHE AND WOLLO. FAO ESTIMATES ANOTHER 5,000 MT OF SEEDS TO BE AVAILABLE LOCALLY AND NOW SEEKING DONORS TO PURCHASE THIS AMOUNT. FERTILIZER SHORTFALL, MEANWHILE, CONTINUES TO BE OF CONCERN. BECAUSE OF LARGE INCREASES IN PROCUREMENT PRICES, ONLY 75,000 MT DAP CONTRACTED BY GOE FOR DELIVERY JAN TO MAY THIS YEAR, AGAINST ORIGINAL REQUEST FROM MOA FOR 140,000 MT. FAO REPORTS LITTLE SUCCESS SO FAR IN SECURING DONATIONS FOR DAP FROM BILATERAL DONORS.

ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1)
DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)

UNDRO 88/0721

ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 5/88
8 APRIL 1988

HEREWITH FOLLOWS SUMMARY OF COMPREHENSIVE REPORT FOR MONTH OF MARCH 1988 PREPARED BY SECGEN'S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE. FULL TEXT AVAILABLE FROM UNDRO.

1. ESCALATING SECURITY PROBLEMS IN NORTH LED TO DISRUPTION OF FOOD DISTRIBUTIONS IN MANY PARTS OF TIGRAY AND ERITREA. THESE BY END OF MONTH ALMOST AT STANDSTILL. ALL RELIEF AGENCIES, INCLUDING UN AND ICRC, TOLD BY RRC ON 6 APRIL TO RECALL EXPATRIATE STAFF IN BOTH REGIONS TO ADDIS ABABA. UNDRO AND EEC/CARITAS AIRCRAFT TODAY EVACUATING PERSONS CONCERNED. DONOR AGENCIES HAVE BEEN ADVISED TO HAND-OVER OPERATIONS TO RRC WITH ETHIOPIAN RED CROSS TO ASSUME DUTIES OF ICRC. OTHER INDIGENOUS ORGANIZATIONS SUCH AS ETHIOPIAN CATHOLIC SECRETARIAT, ETHIOPIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH AND MEKANE YESUS ALLOWED TO CONTINUE RELIEF OPERATIONS IN THESE AREAS, BUT WITHOUT EXPATRIATE STAFF. EVACUATION BY GOVERNMENT OF SEVERAL PROVINCIAL TOWNS MEANWHILE RESULTED IN DISPLACED PEOPLE ARRIVING IN ASMARA AND MEKELE. RRC CURRENTLY PROVIDING FOOD FOR THESE DISPLACED PEOPLE, BUT SERIOUS CONCERN NOW PREVAILS REGARDING FUTURE OF OVER TWO MILLION DROUGHT-AFFECTED PERSONS STILL LIVING IN AREAS FROM WHERE GOVERNMENT HAS WITHDRAWN, AND OF WHOM MANY HAVE NOT RECEIVED FOOD AID FOR SIX WEEKS. AIRLIFT CONTINUED BY BEING BASED IN ADDIS ABABA AND RESTRICTED TO MEKELE AND ASMARA AS AXUM EVACUATED BY GOVT. MOVEMENT BY ROAD RESTRICTED TO MASSAWA/ASMARA AND LIMITED AREA SOUTH OF ASMARA. FOOD STOCKS IN MEKELE 9,000 MT WITH 53,000 MT IN ASMARA AND MASSAWA. ELSEWHERE IN COUNTRY RELIEF DISTRIBUTION CONTINUED NORMALLY APART FROM SECURITY DIFFICULTIES IN NORTH-WESTERN WOLLO.

2. LACK OF RAIN IN MARCH THROUGHOUT HIGHLAND AREAS SERIOUSLY DAMAGED BELG (SHORT RAIN) CROPS WITH REPORTS INDICATING EXTENSIVE CROP FAILURE. PRELIMINARY FAO ESTIMATES ARE THAT 50 PERCENT AND MORE CROP REDUCTION CAN BE EXPECTED, WITH WORST SCENARIO OF UP TO 200,000 MT CEREALS LOST. IN ADDITION UNLESS RAINFALL RESUMES IN APRIL MAIN SEASON CULTIVATION OF MAIZE AND SORGHUM WILL ALSO BE AFFECTED.

3. UNHCR IS ARRANGING UPGRADED EMERGENCY SERVICES FOR RECENT INFLUX OF EXTREMELY MALNOURISHED SUDANESE REFUGEES, MANY OF WHOM IN CRITICAL CONDITION, IN FUGNIDO AND ITANG REFUGEE CAMPS NEAR GAMBELLA.

4. PORT CONGESTION AT ASSAB NOW VERY SEVERE WITH 20 DAYS WAITING TIME FOR SHIPS TO ANCHOR. WFP NEGOTIATING WITH PORT AUTHORITIES FOR EMERGENCY STORAGE AREA OUTSIDE PORT WITH WTOE OPERATING SHUTTLE SERVICE SIMILAR TO ARRANGEMENT AT MASSAWA. WFP ALSO RECOMMENDING TO DONORS POSTPONEMENT OF SUPPLIES TO LATER IN YEAR AND/OR DIVERSION TO MASSAWA. NEW APPEAL LAUNCHED FOR ADDITIONAL 67,000 PALLETS AND 555 TARPAULINS FOR NEW STORAGE SITE AND TO PREVENT DAMAGE DURING APPROACHING RAINY SEASON. EEC DONATION OF 14,000 PALLETS AND 150 TARPAULINS IN RESPONSE THIS APPEAL NOW CONFIRMED.

ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1)
DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)

UNDRO 88/0893

ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 6/88
9 MAY 1988

HEREWITH FOLLOWS SUMMARY OF COMPREHENSIVE REPORT FOR MONTH OF APRIL 1988 PREPARED BY SECGEN'S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE.

I - GENERAL

1. DESPITE SERIOUS CONCERNS AMONG DONORS AND NGOS THAT RELIEF PROGRAMMES IN ERITREA AND TIGRAY WOULD HALT FOLLOWING GOVERNMENT DECLARATION OF 1/4 OF WAR FONT IN NORTH, EVACUATION OF EXPATRIATE RELIEF WORKERS AND CESSATION OF ICRC PROGRAMMES, FOOD DISTRIBUTION - ALBEIT ON REDUCED SCALE - CONTINUED THROUGHOUT MONTH. IN ERITREA 27 OUT OF 36 DISTRIBUTION CENTRES REMAINED ACCESSIBLE AND ACCORDING TO BEST ESTIMATES RRC/JRP ABLE TO REACH AROUND 900,000 PEOPLE SPREAD OVER AREAS FROM KEREN IN NORTH THROUGH ASMARA AND ADIKWALA IN SOUTH WEST, ADIKEYIH/SENAFE IN SOUTH EAST AND MASSAWA IN EAST. OF THESE, RRC COVERING 350,000, JRP 450,000 AND BALANCE MET BY SMALLER INDIGENOUS AGENCIES. ROAD ACCESS IN ERITREA CURRENTLY SATISFACTORY WITH TRUCKS ABLE TO CARRY FOOD DIRECTLY FROM MASSAWA TO DISTRIBUTION SITES.

2. IN TIGRAY, HOWEVER, SITUATION MUCH MORE SERIOUS SINCE ROAD ACCESS OUTSIDE CITIES OF MEKELE AND MAYCHEW EXTREMELY LIMITED. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF PEOPLE REACHED ESTIMATED AT 300,000 FROM MEKELE AND 100,000 FROM MAYCHEW. RRC ATTEMPTING TO ESTABLISH TWO MORE CENTRES AT ENDA GIORGIS AND SENAFE IN SOUTH ERITREA, EACH DESIGNED TO SERVE 100,000 TIGREAN PEOPLE.

3. BASED ON RRC NOVEMBER APPEAL, DROUGHT AFFECTED POPULATION IN NORTH NOT REACHED UNDER PRESENT CONDITIONS CALCULATED AT 785,000, OF WHICH 636,000 IN TIGRAY AND 149,000 IN ERITREA. 6,000-8,000 PEOPLE EVACUATED FROM PROVINCIAL TOWNS IN ERITREA, NOW IN SHELTERS IN ASMARA. ADDITIONAL 4,000 PEOPLE DISPLACED AT GINDA ON MASSAWA-ASMARA ROAD. 61,000 DISPLACED PEOPLE SAID TO BE IN MEKELE, MOSTLY ABSORBED WITHIN TOWN ITSELF.

4. NO MASS MOVEMENT OF PEASANT SECTOR IN EITHER REGION YET REPORTED, AS PEOPLE BELIEVED TO HAVE SOME STOCKS OF FOOD STILL LEFT, EITHER FROM MEHER HARVEST OR FROM PREVIOUS FOOD DISTRIBUTIONS, TO STAY HOME FOR TIME BEING. NEED TO ACCOMMODATE TIGREAN MIGRANTS NEVERTHELESS LIKELY IN COMING WEEKS AND RRC CURRENTLY PREPARING CONTINGENCY PLANS WITH UN/EPPG AND CRDA.

II - FOOD TRANSPORT AND DISTRIBUTION

5. WTOE TRUCKS RESUMED SHUTTLE BETWEEN MASSAWA AND ASMARA AND SINCE LAST WEEK OF MONTH FERRIED FOOD DIRECTLY FROM MASSAWA TO DISTRIBUTION CENTRES IN ERITREA TO SAVE ASMARA STOCKS. AIRLIFT UN/UNDRO AND EEC/CARITAS CONTINUED UNINTERRUPTED THROUGH MONTH WITH THREE HERCULES SUPPLYING 5,000 MT OF FOOD AND OTHER RELIEF CARGO TO MEKELE, MOSTLY FROM ASSAB.

6. ELSEWHERE IN COUNTRY FOOD DISTRIBUTION CONTINUED NORMALLY ALTHOUGH SOME TRANSPORT AND DISTRIBUTION PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED IN WOLLO AND GONDAR DUE TO SHORTAGE OF TRUCKS. NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN THESE REGIONS REPORTED GENERALLY NORMAL BUT IBNAT, WEGERA AND CERTAIN LOWLAND AREAS SHOWING SOME DETERIORATION. MARKED DECREASE IN NUTRITIONAL LEVELS NOTED IN SOME AREAS OF HARARGHE, PARTICULARLY IN HIGHLANDS, BUT ADEQUATE RELIEF MEASURES TAKEN BY RRC AND NOGS.

7. FOLLOWING VISIT BY UN SECRETARY-GENERAL SPECIAL ENVOY MARTTI AHTISAARI MID APRIL, RRC ANNOUNCED U.N. EXPATRIATE STAFF EXEMPT FROM EVACUATION ORDER FROM NORTH. THREE U.N. EXPATRIATES ACCORDINGLY RETURNED AND HOPEFULLY FOURTH IN PLACE SOON, BRINGING THEIR TOTAL BACK TO PREVIOUS LEVEL. DISCUSSIONS CONTINUED BETWEEN ICRC AND ETHIOPIAN RED CROSS REGARDING GOVERNMENT PROPOSAL THAT RED CROSS ASSUME ICRC DUTIES, BUT NO DECISION YET REACHED. ICRC OPERATIONS MEANWHILE SUSPENDED AND ITS TRUCKING FLEET GROUNDED.

8. APART FROM FIVE POLISH ANTONOV-2, TWO AIRSERV TWIN-OTTERS AND RRC-AIR, ALL OTHER LIGHT AIRCRAFT INVOLVED IN RELIEF ACTIVITIES GROUNDED IN ADDIS AT START OF MONTH AND THEN REQUESTED TO LEAVE ETHIOPIA BY LAST WEEK APRIL. ORDER INCLUDED UNDRO'S TWO PILATUS PORTERS DONATED BY SWISS DISASTER RELIEF UNIT, THEY LEFT COUNTRY 26/4.

III - PORT SITUATION

9. CONGESTION AT ASSAB REMAINED SERIOUS WITH LATE APRIL PORT STOCKS AT 258,500 MT. OFFTAKE REACHED ONLY 870 MT PER DAY (HALF OF MARCH DAILY AVERAGE) DUE TO SHORTAGE OF TRUCKS AND ARRIVAL LARGE QUANTITIES OF FERTILIZER. WFP OBTAINED AGREEMENT IN PRINCIPLE FOR ADDITIONAL EMERGENCY STORAGE SPACE OUTSIDE PORT. CONGESTION ALSO EXPERIENCED AT MASSAWA, WITH STOCKS OF 70,000 MT FOOD, INCLUDING 21,400 MT COMMERCIAL WHEAT, IN PORT BY 30/4. SECOND EMERGENCY STORAGE AREA FOR UP TO 10,000 MT NOW IDENTIFIED. STOCKS IN ASMARA AND MEKELE 8,000 MT EACH BY 30/4.

IV - REFUGEES

10. UPGRADED MEDICAL AND THERAPEUTIC FEEDING SERVICES NOW ESTABLISHED BY UNHCR AND ERC FOR SUDANESE REFUGEES IN THREE OF FOUR CAMPS IN WESTERN ETHIOPIA. NUMBER OF REFUGEES NOW ESTIMATED AT 266,000. WFP PROVIDING US DLRS 8.6 MILLIONS OF FOOD AID FOR 300,000 PEOPLE FROM 1/5 UNTIL END OF YEAR.

V - CROP FORECAST

11. ALTHOUGH BELG HARVEST CONSIDERABLY REDUCED IN SOME AREAS BECAUSE OF LACK OF RAIN IN MARCH, RECENT FAO ASSESSMENT INDICATES CROP DAMAGE NOT AS SERIOUS AS FIRST BELIEVED. APRIL RAINFALL MEANWHILE GOOD OVER MOST OF COUNTRY ALLOWING FARMERS TO BEGIN PLANTING MAJOR SORGHUM AND MAIZE CROPS.

VI - WATER/HEALTH/SANITATION

12. US DLRS 2.5 MILLION WORTH ESSENTIAL DRUGS RECEIVED FROM USAID FOR APRIL/MAY DISTRIBUTION IN ERITREA, TIGRAY, WOLLO, SHEWA, GONDER AND HARARGHE. INITIAL SHIPMENT OF MEDICAL KITS AND DRUGS FROM NETHERLANDS, SPORTAID AND DENMARK DONATIONS, INCLUDING ORAL REHYDRATION SALTS AND ESSENTIAL DRUGS FROM UNICEF STOCKS, ALSO DISTRIBUTED IN ERITREA, TIGRAY AND SHEWA. SOVIET RED CROSS DONATION OF 13 MT FOOD/DRUGS GIVEN TO RRC/ETHIOPIAN RED CROSS.

13. FOUR HERCULES LOADS OF UNICEF/EWWCA WATER PUMPS, PIPES,DIESEL ENGINES, ETC. FOR REHABILITATION OF MEKELE TOWN WATER SUPPLY AND OTHER AREAS IN TIGRAY SHIPPED MID-APRIL THROUGH U.N. AIRLIFT. RECONSTRUCTION OF ADI-SCIACA DAM NEAR ASMARA PROGRESSING WELL AND RESERVOIR NOW CAPABLE OF STORING WATER IF RAIN FALLS. OVER US DLRS 600,000 WORTH OF DRILLING EQUIPMENT, TOOLS, PIPES AND DIESEL ENGINES ORDERED BY UNICEF FOR OGADEN DROUGHT AREAS TO COMPLEMENT CONSTRUCTION OF SEVEN HEALTH FACILITIES. SHIPMENT EXPECTED JUNE/JULY.

14. WHO, UNICEF AND ITALIAN GOVT. COOPERATING IN ONE MILLION US DLRS PROGRAMME FOR TRAINING OF HEALTH WORKERS IN DROUGHT AFFECTED AREAS.

VII - PLEDGES AND UNMET NEEDS

REQUIREMENTS
UNMET NEEDS
1. RRC NOV. APPEAL:
RELIEF FOOD
1,046,000 MT SUPPL. FOOD
22,300 MT
2. WFP APPEAL:
PALLETS
67,206 PCS
52,191 PCS.
TARPAULINS
555
305
3. UNICEF APPEAL:
HEALTH/WATER/CASH FOR SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD
22,000,000 DLRS
11,000,000 DLRS
4. AG INPUTS (FAO ESTIMATES):
SEEDS (IMPROVED)
32,000 MT
-
DAP FERTILIZER
125,000 MT
30,000 MT
UREA
15,000 MT
-
5. AIRLIFT
6,000,000 DLRS
2,650,000 DLRS
ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1)
DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)

UNDRO 88/1177

ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 7/88
10 JUNE 1988

HEREWITH FOLLOWS SUMMARY OF COMPREHENSIVE REPORT FOR MONTH OF MAY 1988 PREPARED BY SECGEN'S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE.

I - GENERAL

1. ON MAY 15 ETHIOPIAN GOVERNMENT DECLARED STATE OF EMERGENCY IN ALL PROVINCES IN ERITREA AND MOST OF TIGRAY. SPARSELY POPULATED TEN KILOMETER ZONES ALONG RED SEA COAST AND ETHIOPIAN/SUDAN BORDER IN ERITREA DESIGNATED FORBIDDEN AREAS AND FAMILIES WITHOUT SPECIAL PERMITS TOLD TO EVACUATE BY END OF MAY. GOVT APPOINTED A 'SUPREME ADMINISTRATOR' WITH POWERS TO MOVE PEOPLE FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER, LIFT STATE OF EMERGENCY ORDER, OR DECLARE OTHER AREAS FORBIDDEN, IN BOTH REGIONS.

2. RELIEF ACTIVITIES CONTINUED IN NORTH THROUGHOUT MONTH. SECURITY PROBLEMS IN TIGRAY AND NEIGHBOURING NORTHERN WOLLO, HOWEVER, CAUSING CONCERN. ESTIMATED NUMBER OF PEOPLE FED IN APRIL IN TIGRAY AROUND 300,000 LEAVING MORE THAN 700,000 (USING RRC NOVEMBER APPEAL FIGURES FOR REGION) NOT ASSISTED DESPITE ESTABLISHMENT OF FOOD DISTRIBUTION CENTRES BY RRC/JRP AT ADI GUDOM (TIGRAY) AND TWO IN ERITREA NEAR TIGRAY BORDER. OXFAM FOOD DISTRIBUTION AT ALAMATA (WOLLO) TO 61,000 TIGRAY PEOPLE TEMPORARILY DISRUPTED BY SECURITY PROBLEMS. CURRENTLY NO ROAD ACCESS INTO TIGRAY FROM NORTH OR SOUTHERN ROUTE.

3. SITUATION IN ERITREA BETTER: 27 OUT OF 36 DISTRIBUTION CENTRES REMAIN OPERATIONAL AND RELIEF TRUCKS ABLE TO MOVE RELATIVELY FREELY. PRELIMINARY FIGURES FOR APRIL INDICATE ABOUT 818,000 PEOPLE RECEIVED RATIONS, 370,000 FROM RRC, 380,000 JRP AND REST FROM INDIGENOUS NGOS OR ICRC BEFORE END OF ITS OPERATION.

4. SINCE 25 MAY UNDRO ORGANIZED AIR TRANSPORT TO ASMARA OF TENTS BLANKETS, HOUSEHOLD UTENSILS IN RESPONSE TO RRC APPEAL EARLY MAY FOR ASSISTANCE IN CONTINGENCY PLANNING IN NORTH FOR 150,000 PEOPLE. ALTOGETHER 150 MT RELIEF MATERIALS PLANNED TO BE FLOWN WITHIN ONE MONTH TIME.

5. 58,000 DISPLACED TOWNSPEOPLE AND RURAL FAMILIES NOW IN FIVE SITES IN ERITREA WITH 1,000 NEW ARRIVALS DAILY. AT MEKELLE NOW OVER 55,000 DISPLACED TOWNSPEOPLE WITH ADDITIONAL 24,000 WALKING REGULARLY INTO TOWN TO COLLECT RATIONS AND RETURN HOME. HOWEVER NO MASS MOVEMENTS YET REPORTED FROM PEASANT SECTOR. WATER SHORTAGE IN ASMARA AND MEKELLE REMAINS SERIOUS. RRC APPEALING FOR ASSISTANCE IN WELLS, PUMPS AND OTHER EQUIPMENT.

6. CESSATION OF ICRC OPERATIONS IN GONDAR CAUSED CONCERN OVER 210,000 BENEFICIARIES SERVICED BEFORE. RRC AND NGOS IN REGION ALREADY STRETCHED BECAUSE OF LIMITED TRUCK CAPACITY. IT IS FEARED THAT LARGE NUMBERS OF ADDITIONAL BENEFICIARIES CANNOT BE HANDLED.

7. FOLLOWING VISIT OF UN SECRETARY-GENERAL, SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE CONTINUING TALKS WITH HIGH LEVEL GOVT OFFICIALS FOR EXPANDED UN PRESENCE IN NORTH.

II - FOOD TRANSPORT AND DISTRIBUTION

8. FOOD SUPPLY PROBLEMS PERSISTED DURING MAY FOR WOLLO FROM ASSAB DUE TO TRUCK SHORTAGE FOR FOOD DELIVERY. AT KOREM, WHERE RRC ASSISTING 300,000 PEOPLE, SECURITY PROBLEMS BROUGHT FOOD DISTRIBUTION TO HALT CAUSING SERIOUS CONCERN AS MANY BENEFICIARIES HAD NOT RECEIVED RATIONS FOR 2 TO 3 MONTHS. GRAIN PRICES RISING IN ALL PARTS OF REGION INDICATING SHORT SUPPLY AND GROWING NEEDS. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES BENEFICIARIES IN WOLLO DURING APR: 488,080 AND MAY: 441,049. STOCKS IN WOLLO END MAY: 18,228 MT IN RRC AND JRP WAREHOUSES AND IN TIGRAY: 8,000 MT.

9. WTOE REACHED RECORD PERFORMANCE BY MOVING 15,545 MT FOOD IN ERITREA IN MAY. TONNAGE ALONE SUFFICIENT TO FEED ALL BENEFICIARIES CURRENTLY BEING ASSISTED IN ERITREA. LITTLE FOOD MOVEMENT BY TRUCK OUTSIDE MEKELE EXCEPT TO ADI GUDOM, 30 KM SOUTH OF TOWN. ONLY SOURCE OF FOOD SUPPLY INTO REGION REMAINS AIRLIFT OPERATION. COUNTRYWIDE PERFORMANCE WTOE, INCLUDING NORTH, ALSO RECORD OF 29,050 MT WHICH MADE POSSIBLE BY CARRYING OUT MAINTENANCE AND SERVICING TRUCKS AT NIGHT. NO TRUCK MOVEMENT DATA YET AVAILABLE FROM RRC OR JRP.

10. AIRLIFT OPERATION UN/UNDRO AND EEC/CARITAS CONTINUED WELL THROUGH MONTH WITH THREE HERCULES WITH EACH AVERAGING 500 MT PER WEEK. TOTAL SUPPLIED THROUGH AIRLIFT TO DATE SINCE BEGINNING OPERATIONS: ALMOST 50,000 MT. WITH ARRIVAL TWO CIDA/UNDRO HERCULES, OPERATIONAL SINCE 6 JUNE, AIRLIFT CAPACITY EXPECTED TO REACH 10,000 MT PER MONTH.

III - PORT SITUATION

11. SERIOUS PORT CONGESTION CONTINUED THROUGH MONTH AT ASSAB. TOTAL STOCKS END MAY: 254,000 MT. PORT OFFTAKE IMPROVED FROM LOW IN APRIL OF 869 TO ABOUT 1,170 DAILY. MASSAWA STOCKS: 102,000 MT FOOD AID. OFFTAKE AVERAGING 766 MT DAILY. STORAGE OF STOCKS BOTH PORTS HOWEVER WELL MANAGED AND PROTECTED WITH TARPAULINS. NOT ALL FOOD, HOWEVER, STORED ON PALLETS BECAUSE OF SHORTAGES.

IV - REFUGEES

12. LARGE INFLUXES INTO ETHIOPIA OF SEVERELY MALNOURISHED SUDANESE REFUGEES, CONTINUED THROUGH MAY. NEWLY UPGRADED MEDICAL AND FEEDING SERVICES IN REFUGEE CAMPS INSIDE WESTERN ETHIOPIA LED TO DROP IN DEATH RATE BUT INFLUX OF MORE THAN 11,700 REFUGEES REPORTED IN MAY IN ALL FOUR CAMPS SERIOUSLY STRAINING SERVICES AND ABILITY TO MEET NEEDS.

V - WATER, HEALTH, SANITATION

13. SECOND SOVIET RED CROSS DONATION OF 20 MT DRUGS DUE TO ARRIVE END MAY/EARLY JUNE. AIR SHIPMENT MEANWHILE OF USAID US DLRS 2.5 MILLION DRUGS NOW ENTERED SECOND PHASE WITH ARRIVAL ON MAY 29 OF 30 MT DRUGS DIVIDED EQUALLY BETWEEN ASMARA AND ADDIS. FOUR MORE PLANE LOADS OF USAID DRUGS TO ARRIVE THIS MONTH.

14. FOLLOWING U.K. DONATION OF US DLRS 1.2 MILLION TOWARDS UNICEF WATER PROGRAMME IN NORTHERN WELLO, PROGRAMME NOW PREPARED FOR SIX MONTH ASSISTANCE TO ESTABLISH 15 WATER SCHEMES PROVIDING SAFE WATER TO 12 TOWNS AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION SITES IN NORTH WELLO. AT ASMARA, MEANWHILE, WORK ON ADI SHEIKA DAM CONTINUED ACCORDING TO PLAN AND DELIVERY OF SIX KILOMETERS OF PIPE TO SITE COMPLETED. IF MAIN RAINS ARE GOOD, DAM WILL PROVIDE 16 LITRES OF WATER DAILY PER PERSON TO ASMARA POPULATION. IN MAKELLE UNICEF WORKING WITH ETHIOPIAN WATER AUTHORITY COMPLETED WORK ON NINE BOREHOLES 10 SHALLOW WELLS AND 1 DEEP WELL DURING MAY AFTER DELIVERY TO MAKELLE OF FOUR HERCULES LOADS OF EQUIPMENT. COMPLETED WORK WILL SUPPLY ENOUGH WATER FOR 30,000 PEOPLE BUT WORK ON PROVISION OF AN ADDITIONAL 20 SHALLOW WELLS, 14 BOREHOLES AND OTHER DEEP WELLS TO PROVIDE WATER FOR A TOTAL OF 90,000 PEOPLE TO CONTINUE IN COMING MONTH.

15. US DLRS 415,000 WORTH RELIEF SUPPLIES TO BE AIRFREIGHTED BY UNICEF FOR POSSIBLE SHELTERS IN NORTH AS PART OF UN CONTINGENCY PLANNING. UNEPPG WORKING CLOSELY WITH RRC AND NGOS TO COORDINATE EFFORTS.

VI - AGRICULTURE

16. FAO ESTIMATES CONSIDERABLE REDUCTION OF BELG CROP. SITUATION AGGRAVATED BY UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION RAINFALL IN FEBRUARY AND MARCH IN WOLLO, NORTHERN SHEWA. EFFORTS CONTINUING TO SECURE FUNDING FOR 3,000 MT SEEDS FOR MAIN HARVEST (MEHER) PLANTING.

17. VII - PLEDGES AND UNMET NEEDS

REQUIREMENT
UNMET NEEDS
1. RRC NOVEMBER APPEAL
RELIEF FOOD
1.046 MILLION MT SUPPL. FOOD
5,000 MT
2. WFP APPEAL
PALLETS (PCS)
67,206
28,858
TARPAULINS
555
25
3. UNICEF APPEAL
HEALTH/WATER/CASH FOR FOOD SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD
22 MILLION DLRS
5 MILLION DLRS
4. AGRICULTURAL INPUTS (FAO ESTIMATES)
SEEDS (IMPROVED)
32,000 MT
3,000 MT
DAP FERTILIZER
125,000 MT
28,000 MT
UREA
15,000 MT
-
5. UNDRO SECOND APPEAL
FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORT FUND FOR AIRLIFT
6 MILLION DLRS
1.7 MILLION DLRS
6. UNHCR APPEAL FOR REFUGEES (MAY)
28 MILLION DLRS
13.9 MILLION DLRS
ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1)
DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)

UNDRO 88/1448

ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 8/88
18 JULY 1988

HEREWITH FOLLOWS SUMMARY OF COMPREHENSIVE REPORT FOR MONTH OF JUNE 1988 PREPARED BY SECGEN'S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE. FULL TEXT AVAILABLE FROM UNDRO.

I - GENERAL

1. ON 1/7 RRC CALLED MEETING OF DONOR AND NGO REPRESENTATIVES TO REVIEW ONGOING RELIEF ACTIVITIES. RRC CHIEF COMMISSIONER STATED NOV/87 APPEAL FOR 1.03 MILLION MT FOOD ASSISTANCE FULLY MET AND REITERATED WITHDRAWAL OF RELIEF AGENCY EXPATRIATES FROM NORTH WAS TEMPORARY AND CARRIED OUT SOLELY FOR PURPOSE OF SAFEGUARDING LIVES. HE ASSURED INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY THAT TRAVEL TO NORTH BY UN FIELD OFFICERS AND DONOR REPRESENTATIVES WOULD CONTINUE TO TAKE PLACE PARTICULARLY NOW GOVERNMENT HAD REOCCUPIED KEY TOWNS IN TIGRAY. COMMISSIONER ALSO APPEALED FOR ASSISTANCE FROM DONOR COMMUNITY TO ASSIST ACCELERATED REFUGEE INFLUX FROM SUDAN AND SOMALIA.

2. DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD IN ERITREA CONTINUED WELL THROUGH MONTH WITH GOOD ACCESS FROM MASSAWA AND ASMARA TO MOST DENSELY POPULATED AREAS. IN MAY RRC/JRP REPORTED FEEDING MORE THAN 900,000 PEOPLE WITH HOPE THIS NUMBER EQUALLED OR EXCEEDED IN JUNE.

3. IN TIGRAY, SERIOUS SECURITY SITUATION PREVAILING SINCE APRIL EASED IN JUNE WITH WUKRO, ADIGRAT, MAYCHEW,AXUM, ADWA, IDAGAHAMUS REOCCUPIED BY GOVERNMENT FORCES. SEVERAL COMMERCIAL CONVOYS FROM MEKELE TO ADDIS AND BACK USED SOUTHERN ROUTE THROUGH WOLLO. FOOD ALSO DELIVERED TO MAYCHEW AND WUKRO. ALTHOUGH BENEFICIARY LEVELS IN TIGRAY LOW IN MAY/JUN WITH ABOUT 365,000 PEOPLE RECEIVING FOOD AID NOW EXPECTED THAT WITH REGAINED ACCESS, NUMBERS ASSISTED WILL INCREASE SIGNIFICANTLY.

4. ALTHOUGH CONTINGENCY PLANNING FOR SHELTERS IN NORTH FOR 150,000 PEOPLE CONTINUED THROUGH MONTH AND SHELTHER ITEMS WERE AIRLIFTED INTO ASMARA BY UNDRO WITH ITALIAN FUNDING, NO SIGNIFICANT MASS MOVEMENT FROM PEASANT SECTOR INTO TOWNS IN ERITREA AND TIGRAY TOOK PLACE IN JUNE. IN TIGRAY INFLUX OF DISPLACED PEOPLE INTO MEKELE FROM OTHER TOWNS IN REGION SLOWED AND TOTAL NUMBER REGISTERED WAS AROUND 58,500, MOSTLY STILL LIVING INSIDE MEKELE TOWN ITSELF. WATER SHORTAGES IN MEKELE REMAINED SERIOUS. IN ERITREA TOTAL DISPLACED PEOPLE REPORTED AT 62,500.

5. FROM MID-JUNE NEW REFUGEE PROBLEM DEVELOPED IN EASTERN ETHIOPIA WITH ARRIVAL OF 25,000 SOMALIS FLEEING NEIGHBOURING COUNTRY, BRINGING TOTAL IN ETHIOPIA TO AROUND 35,000. IF TREND CONTINUES, UNHCR EXPECTING AT LEAST 60,000 MORE IN COMING MONTH. ARRIVALS CURRENTLY ACCOMMODATED IN TWO CAMPS, HARTI SHEIK AND HARSHIN IN HARARGHE REGION, BUT FACILITIES EXTREMELY LIMITED. SEVERE WATER SHORTAGES IN BOTH SITES REQUIRE URGENT ATTENTION. UNHCR AND RCC LAUNCHING URGENT APPEAL TO DONOR COMMUNITY FOR FOOD, SHELTER MATERIALS, BLANKETS AND VACCINES. INFLUX OF SUDANESE REFUGEES INTO WESTERN ETHIOPIA CONTINUED THROUGH MONTH, BRINGING TOTAL TO OVER 290,000. IMPROVED MEDICAL AND THERAPEUTIC FEEDING SERVICES CONTINUED TO KEEP DEATH RATE LOW, BUT SERIOUS TRANSPORT PROBLEMS CONTINUE TO AFFECT UNHCR'S ABILITY TO BUILD UP STOCKS OF FOOD PARTICULARLY AT FUGNIDO, WHERE ROAD CONDITIONS EXTREMELY POOR.

6. SERIOUS CONCERN DEVELOPED DURING REPORTING PERIOD OVER FUTURE OF COMBINED UNDRO/EEC/CARITAS FUNDED AIRLIFT OPERATION WHICH HAS BEEN PROVIDING MEKELE WITH 8,000 MT RELIEF FOOD PER MONTH AND FERRYING SEEDS AND SHELTER MATERIAL TO ASMARA AND MEKELE. DESPITE UNDRO APPEAL TO DONORS FOR FUNDS FOR EXTENSION OF AIRLIFT UNTIL END SEPTEMBER, SERIOUS SHORTFALL REMAINS. ONE UN-CHARTERED SOUTHERN AIR TRANSPORT HERCULES TERMINATED BEGINNING OF JULY BECAUSE OF DWINDLING FUNDS, REDUCING NUMBER OF HERCULES IN OPERATION TO FOUR (2 CANADIAN AIR FORCE THROUGH UNDRO, 2 SAT THROUGH EEC/CARITAS). GIVEN CURRENT SITUATION IN TIGRAY, SHORTAGE OF TRUCKS, ESCALATING REFUGEE PROBLEMS IN WESTERN AND EASTERN ETHIOPIA AND POOR ROAD ACCESS INTO OTHER PARTS OF COUNTRY, ESSENTIAL THAT AIRLIFT CONTINUES AT LEAST THROUGH SEPTEMBER. TOTAL CARGO SO FAR TRANSPORTED BY AIRLIFT 60,000 MT.

7. ALTHOUGH HEAVILY CONGESTED WITH LARGE STOCKS OF FOOD AID AND GENERAL CARGO, STORAGE SITUATION AT BOTH MASSAWA AND ASSAB UNDER CONTROL AND SHUTTLES TO EMERGENCY STORAGE SITES OUTSIDE MASSAWA PORT WORKING WELL. FOOD AID OFFTAKE AT ASSAB DROPPED SHARPLY DURING MONTH TO 38 PERCENT OF ALL CARGO OFFTAKE BECAUSE OF PRIORITY TO FERTILIZER ARRIVALS. ALTHOUGH DELIVERY OF FERTILIZER IMPERATIVE THROUGH FIRST TWO WEEKS JULY TO BE IN TIME FOR MEHER (MAIN CROP) PLANTING, CONCENTRATION ON FERTILIZER DELIVERY LED TO DELAYS IN FOOD DELIVERIES TO UP-COUNTRY CENTRES. OF PARTICULAR CONCERN ARE WOLLO AND GONDAR, WHERE STOCKS LOW BECAUSE OF SIMILAR DELAYS IN MAY'S FOOD PIPELINE TO BOTH AREAS.

8. AGREEMENT REACHED BETWEEN ICRC AND ETHIOPIAN RED CROSS ABOUT FOOD DISTRIBUTION IN NORTH AND GONDAR. ERCS TO ASSUME RESPONSIBILITY FOR ICRC DISTRIBUTIONS IN BOTH AREAS, WITH RRC TAKING TEMPORARY RESPONSIBILITY IN GONDAR FOR ICRC'S 210,000 REGISTERED BENEFICIARIES UNTIL SUCH TIME ERCS CAN ASSUME TASK. 14 ICRC LONG HAUL TRUCKS HANDED OVER TO WTOE ON LOAN BASIS FOR USE IN NORTH, WHEREAS REST OF ICRC LONG HAUL AND SHORT HAUL FLEET ON LOAN TO ERCS.

9. ALTHOUGH OVERALL NUTRITIONAL SITUATION STILL WITHIN SEASONAL NORMS IN ACCESSIBLE AREAS OF COUNTRY AND NO WIDESPREAD MALNUTRION REPORTED, DETERIORATING TRENDS IN SOME AREAS, PARTICULARLY HARARGHE, GAYINT AND LIBO AWRAJAS IN GONDAR AND PARTS OF WOLLO CAUSING SOME CONCERN. IN HARARGHE SEVERAL AWRAJAS SAID TO BE IN NEED OF IMMEDIATE ATTENTION WITH A NUMBER OF DEATHS REPORTED FROM STARVATION. ACTION BY RRC/NGOS IN REGION TO ALLEVIATE SITUATION NOW UNDERWAY.

II - LOGISTICS

10. DISTRIBUTIONS REPORTED: TIGRAY: TOTAL MAY - 361,400 (RRC - 93,500, JRP - 201,500, MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE - 5,900, OXFAM (AT ALAMATA) - 60,500). ERITREA: TOTAL MAY 908,410. WOLLO: TOTAL MAY 767,688 (300,000 BY RRC, REST BY NGO'S). GONDAR: TOTAL MAY 149,000. HARARGHE: TOTAL MAY 554,200 (RRC - 75,700, CARE - 334,000, HARARGHE CATHOLIC SECRETARIAT - 144,500).

11. STOCKS: TIGRAY (MEKELE): TOTAL 8,230 MT GRAIN, 920 MT SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD. ERITREA (ASMARA): APPROX. 12,000 MT. WOLLO: TOTAL 15,200 MT. GONDAR: TOTAL 1,000 MT GRAIN, 820 MT SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD. HARARGHE: TOTAL 1,200 MT GRAIN, 1,610 MT OIL, 835 MT SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD.

IV - AGRICULTURE

15. BELG CROP SHORTFALL NOW ESTIMATED BY CENTRAL STATISTIC AUTHORITY/FAO AT ABOUT 80,000 MT DUE TO UNFAVORABLE RAINFALL. RRC EARLY WARNING CURRENTLY UNDERTAKING ASSESSMENT. CONCERN REMAINS ABOUT LONG CYCLE CROPS, MAIZE AND SORGHUM, NORMALLY SOWN FROM LATE MARCH TO MAY AND HARVESTED LATE AUG TO DEC, AS SOWING DELAYED IN SOME AREAS DUE TO INSUFFICIENT RAIN. SITUATION MOST SERIOUS IN LOWLANDS OF WOLLO AND HARARGHE WHERE BAD START OF SEASON COULD EASILY BE AGGRAVATED BY NORMAL DRY SPELL IN JUN/JUL. ALL SEEDS NOW DISTRIBUTED THROUGH COUNTRY FOR MEHER PLANTING.

V - PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS

16. DESPITE CONTINUING EMPHASIS ON EMERGENCY, GOE AND UN/EPPG WORKING ON PRACTICAL FAMINE PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS MEASURES. MAJOR CONFERENCE BEING PLANNED FOR DEC 1988, TO FORMULATE PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS TO BE INCORPORATED INTO GOE'S FIVE YEAR PLAN.

VI - PLEDGES AND UNMET NEEDS

REQUIREMENTS
UNMET NEEDS
1. RRC NOV APPEAL:
RELIEF FOOD
1.046 MILLION MT SUPPL.FOOD
5,000 MT
2. WFP APPEAL:
PALLETS (PCS)
67,206
28,858
TARPAULINS
555
25
3. UNICEF APPEAL:
HEALTH/WATER/CASH FOR FOOD SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD
USD 22.0 MIO
USD 3.8 MIO
4. AG INPUTS (FAO ESTIMATES)
DAP FERTILIZER
125,000 MT
28,000 MT
UREA
15,000 MT
-
5. UNDRO APPEAL:
FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORT FUND FOR EXTENSION AIRLIFT THROUGH SEPTEMBER
USD 8.0 MIO
USD 2.0 MIO
6. UNHCR APPEAL: FOR REFUGEES
USD 28.0 MIO
USD 13.9 MIO
ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1)
DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)

UNDRO 88/1448A

ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 8/88
21 JULY 1988

CORRIGENDUM

AT REQUEST ICRC, FOLLOWING CORRIGENDUM IS ISSUED TO UNDRO SITUATION REPORT 8/88 DATED 18 JULY ON ETHIOPIA DROUGHT.

PLEASE REPLACE PARA 8 WITH FOLLOWING TEXT:

8. ICRC REMITTING ITS RELIEF GOODS AND LOGISTICAL MEANS TO OTHER RELIEF AGENCIES IN ITS FORMER OPERATIONAL AREAS. AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE LEAGUE OF RED CROSS SOCIETIES AND ICRC ALLOWS THE LEAGUE TO TAKE OVER MOST OF THE GOODS, INFRASTRUCTURE AND LOGISTICAL MEANS FOR USE WITHIN FRAMEWORK JOINT APPEAL LEAGUE/ERCS FOR THEIR RELIEF OPERATIONS IN GONDAR, WOLLO, TIGRAY AND ERITREA. RRC TAKING OVER TEMPORARY RESPONSIBILITY IN GONDAR FOR ICRC'S FORMER 210'000 REGISTERED BENEFICIARIES UNTIL SUCH TIME LEAGUE/ERCS CAN ASSUME TASK. 14 ICRC LONG HAUL TRUCKS HANDED OVER TO WTOE ON LOAN BASIS FOR USE IN NORTH, WHEREAS REST OF ICRC LONG HAUL AND SHORT HAUL FLEET PUT AT DISPOSAL OF LEAGUE/ERCS.

ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1)
DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)

UNDRO 88/1588

ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 9/88
10 AUGUST 1988

HEREWITH FOLLOWS SUMMARY OF COMPREHENSIVE REPORT FOR MONTH OF JULY 1988 PREPARED BY SECGEN'S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE. FULL TEXT AVAILABLE FROM UNDRO.

I - GENERAL

1. DESPITE GOVERNMENT ANNOUNCEMENT LATE JUNE THAT MANY TOWNS IN TIGRAY RETAKEN BY GOVERNMENT FORCES, NO RELIEF FOOD DELIVERIES BY ROAD OUTSIDE MAKELLE WERE POSSIBLE DUE CONTINUING SECURITY CONSTRAINTS. ALTHOUGH AIRLIFT CONTINUED TO MEET NEEDS OF MAKELLE, AND SOME 150,000 TIGRAY PEOPLE, MOSTLY FROM AXUM AND ADIGRAT, WERE SUPPLIED WITH FOOD THROUGH SENAFE AND ADI KWALA CENTRES IN ERITREA, BENEFICIARY LEVELS IN TIGRAY REMAINED AROUND 300,000. ALTHOUGH RAINFALL GOOD DURING MONTH AND PEOPLE REPORTED PLANTING, NUTRITIONAL CONDITION OF UNCOVERED POPULATION STILL CAUSE FOR DEEP CONCERN. DISPLACED PEOPLE IN MAKELLE SHELTERS INCREASED FROM AROUND 7,000 TO JUST OVER 10,000 BUT AS YET NO MASS MOVEMENT FROM RURAL SECTOR REPORTED. RELIEF ACTIVITIES IN ERITREA, MEANWHILE, CONTINUED TO GO WELL AND JUNE'S JRP/RRC BENEFICIARY LEVEL OF 861,000 IN ERITREA EXPECTED TO BE EXCEEDED. SHELTER POPULATION IN REGION INCREASED FROM 62,000 TO 80,000. DISPLACED PEOPLE AT GINDA AND ASMARA WELL SUPPLIED WITH RELIEF ITEMS AND FOOD BY RRC/JRP BUT MONITORING OF DISPLACED PERSONS AT KAREN NOT POSSIBLE DUE TO SECURITY. ICRC MEANWHILE COMPLETED HAND-OVER OF MATERIALS AND FOOD TO LEAGUE OF RED CROSS AND ERCS EXPECTED TO BECOME OPERATIONAL IN ERITREA DURING AUGUST, WITH BENEFICIARY LEVEL TARGETED AT 150,000.

2. LARGE INFLUX OF SOMALI REFUGEES (LARGELY TOWN AND RURAL PEOPLE FROM ISAAK TRIBE) CONTINUED ACROSS BORDER INTO EAST ETHIOPIA AT RATE OF 3,000-4,000 A DAY. BY END OF JULY OVER 140,000 REGISTERED AT TWO CAMPS, HARSHIN AND HARTISHEIK. ANOTHER 30,000 REFUGEES REPORTED BY GOE AT THIRD SITE, WITH UNKNOWN NUMBER SAID TO BE FURTHER SOUTH IN INACCESSIBLE BORDER AREA. WITH MORE REFUGEES BELIEVED ENROUTE, CONTINUING HIGH INFLUX PLACING SEVERE STRAIN ON GOE ABILITY TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE SERVICES. MOST SERIOUS PROBLEMS ARE ACUTE WATER SHORTAGE AND LACK OF SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD AND SHELTER MATERIALS. UNHCR/GOE NOW IN PROCESS OF MOVING 80,500 PEOPLE FROM HARSHIN TO HARTISHEIK, WHICH CLOSER TO NEAREST MAJOR WATER SUPPLY SOURCE, JIJIGA, SOME 70 KMS AWAY. NO SOLUTION IN SIGHT AS YET, HOWEVER, FOR SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD SHORTFALL. SERIOUS PROBLEMS ALSO BEING EXPERIENCED WITH FOOD TRANSPORT TO REFUGEE CAMPS BECAUSE OF POOR ROADS, WORSENED BY HEAVY RAIN. EMERGENCY MEASURES TO ALLEVIATE SITUATION INCLUDE WTOE MAKING AVAILABLE 158 TRUCKS, 35 ON FULL TIME BASIS TO SUDANESE REFUGEE CAMPS, WITH REMAINDER FOR SOMALI REFUGEE CAMPS, AND EXPLORATION OF VIABILITY OF AIRLIFTS INTO AREA. ACCORDINGLY, ADDITIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO UNHCR APPEAL OF 22/7 FOR 20,000 MT OF FOOD AND RELIEF/SHELTER ITEMS WORTH US DLRS 11 MILLION, URGENTLY NEEDED.

3. REFUGEE SITUATION IN WEST ETHIOPIA AGGRAVATED BY ARRIVAL OF ALMOST 10,000 MORE REFUGEES FROM SUDAN. TOTAL SUDANESE REFUGEES IN FOUR CAMPS IN WEST ETHIOPIA NOW AROUND 300,000.

4. SEVERAL LARGE SWARMS OF LOCUSTS REPORTED FROM ERITREA. FAO, IN RESPONSE TO APPEAL FROM MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, FINANCING ONE MONTH AERIAL OBSERVATION IN INACCESSIBLE MOUNTAINOUS REGIONS, BUT FURTHER FUNDS URGENTLY REQUIRED FOR EXTENSION OF AIRCRAFT SERVICES FOR SURVEYING AND SPRAYING.

5. UNSEASONAL HEAVY RAINFALL AT MASSAWA AND ASSAB LATE JULY DAMAGED SOME FOOD AID, BELIEVED MINIMAL AT ASSAB DUE PROMPT ACTION TAKEN BY PORT AUTHORITY. DAMAGE AT MASSAWA UNCLEAR AS YET BUT SURVEY UNDERWAY.

6. RAINFALL THROUGH MOST OF ETHIOPIA REPORTED GOOD AND WIDE-SPREAD. IN ERITREA/TIGRAY SAID TO BE BEST IN 20-30 YEARS. PROSPECTS FOR MEHER (MAIN) HARVEST GOOD IF RAINS CONTINUE THROUGH MID SEPTEMBER.

7. FOLLOWING APPEAL TO DONORS, ADDITIONAL US DLRS 2 MILLION FUNDING RECEIVED (FROM BAND AID, CANADA, SWEDEN AND SWITZERLAND) FOR UN/UNDRO EMERGENCY TRANSPORT FUND TO FACILITATE CONTINUATION AIRLIFT THROUGH SEPTEMBER. ALTHOUGH CANADIAN AIRFORCE, JOINTLY FUNDED BY U.N. AND CIDA, DUE TO LEAVE BEGINNING SEPTEMBER, EXTRA FUNDS WILL PROVIDE CHARTER FOR TWO HERCULES TO REPLACE THEM UNTIL END OF MONTH. IN ADDITION TO CONTINUATION OF AIRLIFT TO MEKELE, EMERGENCY FLIGHTS POSSIBLY REQUIRED FOR SOMALI REFUGEES IN EAST ETHIOPIA. CONTINUATION SAME PERIOD OF SUBVENTIONS TO BAPTIST MISSION AND FFHI FOR LIGHT AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS NOW ALSO ENSURED.

8. SHORTFALL OF SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD FOR BOTH REFUGEES AND DROUGHT AFFECTED POPULATION NOW AROUND 25,000 MT. IF DEFICIT NOT URGENTLY MET RAPID DETERIORATION FEARED IN NUTRITIONAL STANDARDS OF MOST VULNERABLE GROUPS.

II - LOGISTICS

9. PORTS: WITH FERTILISER NO LONGER RECEIVING PRIORITY, FOOD AID OFFTAKE AT ASSAB INCREASED, AVERAGING 1,856 MT DAILY BY END JULY. OFFTAKE AT MASSAWA, HOWEVER, DROPPED TO AVERAGE DAILY RATE OF 886 BUT NOW EXPECTED TO RETURN TO PREVIOUS HIGH LEVEL. STOCKS REMAINED HIGH IN BOTH PORTS BUT SITUATION, THROUGH USE OF EMERGENCY STORAGE SITES, GENERALLY UNDER CONTROL. ON BASIS OF PRESENT SHIPPING SCHEDULES PEAK OF DELIVERIES TO MASSAWA NOW REACHED AND STOCKS LIKELY TO REDUCE SLOWLY DURING COMING MONTHS. WAITING TIME FOR BERTHS AT ASSAB NOW DOWN TO MAXIMUM 6 DAYS AND NO WAITING TIME REPORTED AT MASSAWA. STOCKS IN PORT AS OF END OF JULY:

- ASSAB: 312,500 MT OF WHICH 184,500 MT FOOD AID
- MASSAWA: 141,000 MT OF WHICH 113,000 MT FOOD AID
- DJIBOUTI: 50,000 MT OF WHICH 38,000 MT FOOD AID

10. FOOD AID ARRIVALS (MT):
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
ASSAB
82,300
80,000
MASSAWA
25,200
1,375
11. WTOE/SURFACE TRANSPORT: 88 NEW LONG HAUL TRUCKS PLEDGED BY DONORS FOR WTOE ARRIVED IN COUNTRY DURING MONTH, BRINGING TOTAL IN WTOE FLEET TO 316 OF WHICH 69 LOCATED IN NORTH. WITH ADDITIONAL 14 TRUCKS ON LOAN FROM ICRC, WTOE EXCEEDED JUNE DELIVERY OF 20,000 MT IN ERITREA BY ALMOST 6,000 MT AND TOTAL MOVED THROUGHOUT ETHIOPIA DURING MONTH ABOUT 39,000 MT. MEANWHILE WTOE TECHNICAL MISSION WITH REPRESENTATIVES FROM BANDAID, ITALY, FRG AND USA UNDERTAKING ASSESSMENT OF PRESENT WTOE TRUCK/TRAILER FLEET, MAINTENANCE FACILITIES AND SPARE PARTS INVENTORY IN ORDER TO DETERMINE FUTURE FLEET REQUIREMENTS.

12. AIRLIFT: HEAVY RAIN AND CLOUDS OVER MEKELE LED TO DECREASE FROM PREVIOUS MONTH TOTAL DELIVERIES OF 8,000 MT TO 6,575 MT IN JULY. SOME DISRUPTIONS, ALSO DUE TO HEAVY RAIN, EXPERIENCED IN LIGHT AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS SUPPLYING FOOD TO INACCESSIBLE AREAS IN NORTH SHEWA AND GONDAR. THESE AIRCRAFT - 5 POLISH ANTONOV 2S AND 2 TWIN OTTERS, SUBVENTIONED BY TRANSPORT FUND - DELIVERED IN JULY APPROX. 1,800 MT OF RELIEF FOOD TO AREAS INACCESSIBLE BY ROAD.

III - WATER/HEALTH/SANITATION

13. UNICEF SUPPLIED 6 KM PIPELINE, FROM RECONSTRUCTED ADI SCIACA DAM TO ASMARA, EXPECTED TO BE COMPLETED AUGUST. DAM, WITH CAPACITY OF 5 MIO CUBIC METRES, NOW REPORTED TO BE 25 PER CENT FULL FOLLOWING HEAVY RAINS. DELIVERY OF USAID DRUGS WORTH US DLRS 2.5 MILLION TO REGIONAL HEALTH FACILITIES IN ERITREA, TIGRAY, WOLLO, GONDAR AND SHEWA, COMPLETED MID-JULY. DISTRIBUTION TO OTHER REGIONS TO BE COMPLETED IN AUGUST.

14. THIRD ORDER FOR SHELTER MATERIALS FOR 10,000 PEOPLE NOW PLACED BY UNICEF, FULFILLING RRC REQUEST TO U.N. FOR ASSISTANCE FOR TOTAL 30,000 KITS. UNDRO AIRFREIGHTED 170 MT OF SHELTER MATERIALS FROM PISA.

IV - AGRICULTURE

15. FOLLOWING RENEWED LOCUST THREAT, MOA ASKING FOR: 2 HELICOPTERS FOR SURVEY AND CONTROL OPERATIONS, 2-3 SPRAYING AIRCRAFT AND 10 PICK-UP LAND-ROVERS, 50,000 KGS BENDICARB 1 0/0 DUST TO BE USED ON GROUND BY PEASANT ASSOCIATIONS TO SUPPLEMENT AIR CONTROL OPERATIONS, 80,000 DRY CELL BATTERIES FOR USE WITH SPRAYERS. FAO PROVIDING FUNDS FOR ONE MONTH HELICOPTER USE BUT FUNDING FOR ADDITIONAL TWO MONTHS MINIMUM URGENTLY REQUIRED.

ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1)
DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)

UNDRO 88/1851

ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 10/88
5 SEPTEMBER 1988

HEREWITH FOLLOWS SUMMARY OF COMPREHENSIVE REPORT FOR MONTH OF AUGUST 1988 PREPARED BY SECGEN'S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE. FULL TEXT AVAILABLE FROM UNDRO.

I - GENERAL

1. IN ERITREA SITUATION GENERALLY UNCHANGED AND IN GOVERNMENT- CONTROLLED AREAS RELIEF EFFORTS CONTINUED UNINTERRUPTED. BENEFICIARY LEVELS FOR AUGUST ANTICIPATED AT AROUND 1 MILLION, INCLUDING NORTHERN TIGRAYANS WHO CONTINUE TO RECEIVE ASSISTANCE AT SENAFE AND ADI KWALA NEAR BORDER WITH TIGRAY. NEW ETHIOPIAN RED CROSS (ERCS) PROGRAMME PLANS COVERAGE FOR 50,000 PERSONS DURING AUGUST. TOTAL DISPLACED IN ERITREA NOW AROUND 90,000.

2. ALTHOUGH JULY FOOD DISTRIBUTION IN TIGRAY MET ONLY 24 PERCENT OF OFFICIALLY ESTIMATED NEEDS DUE SECURITY CONDITIONS, SOME IMPROVEMENT EXPECTED WITH PLANNED RESUMPTION OF DISTRIBUTION AT ALAMATA, MAYCHEW AND ADI GUDOM. BENEFICIARY TARGET FOR TIGRAY IN AUGUST: 350,000 PEOPLE, 100,000 MORE THAN JULY TOTAL DUE INTRODUCTION ERCS PROGRAMME. ALTHOUGH RELIEF FOOD SUPPLY TO MEKELLE STILL DEPENDENT ON AIRLIFT, COMMERCIAL CON- VOYS REACHED MEKELLE FROM SOUTHERN ROUTE AND ETHIOPIAN CATHOLIC SECRETARIAT DELIVERED 128 MT FOOD TO MAYCHEW FROM MEKELLE EARLY AUGUST. AS YET NO ACCESS TO NORTH OR EAST TIGRAY POSSIBLE BUT SITUATION COULD IMPROVE IN COMING WEEKS. NO MASS MOVEMENT OF PEASANT SECTOR REPORTED. SHELTER POPULATION IN MEKELLE INCREASED SLIGHTLY AND THEN DECLINED WITH VOLUNTARY DEPARTURE OF MORE THAN 1,500 FARM FAMILIES WHO WERE ASSISTED BY RRC TO RETURN HOME TO ADIGRAT AND TEMBEN AREAS. RRC PROVIDED EACH FAMILY WITH FOOD, SEEDS AND FARMING TOOLS.

3. INFLUX OF SOMALI REFUGEES INTO EASTERN ETHIOPIA CONTINUED THROUGH AUGUST AT RATE OF 2,000-3,000 A DAY. BY LAST WEEK AUGUST REFUGEE POPULATION EXCEEDED 300,000. ALTHOUGH WATER STILL MAJOR PROBLEM, RECENT RAINS EASED SITUATION BY PROVIDING SURFACE WATER. WATER TRUCKS STILL SUPPLYING BOTH HARSHIN AND HARTISHEIK FROM JIJIGA. OF MOST SERIOUS CONCERN IS REFUGEE POPULATION IN AWARE AREA OF HARARGHE, WHERE 60,000 SOMALIS REPORTED LIVING IN 6 SEPARATE SITES, MANY OF THEM VIRTUALLY WITHOUT FOOD FOR SOME WEEKS. UN/UNDRO AIRLIFT WAS DIVERTED FROM NORTH TO FLY FROM DJIBOUTI AND ADDIS TO TRANSPORT FOOD, SHELTER AND OTHER EMERGENCY SUPPLIES TO JIJIGA AND AWARE. IN ADDITION, UNHCR AIRLIFTING 36 PLANE LOADS OF SHELTER MATERIALS, WATER EQUIPMENT AND FOOD. WFP PROVIDING BASIC RATIONS FOR 200,000 REFUGEES UNTIL END OF YEAR. BORROWING OF AVAILABLE LOCAL COMMODITIES AGAINST FUTURE SHIPMENTS ARRANGED. UNICEF DIVERTING PART OF SHELTER MATERIALS IT ORDERED FOR NORTH. WTOE TRUCK FLEET ASSISTING IN ROAD TRANS- PORT. INFLUX OF SUDANESE REFUGEES INTO WEST ETHIOPIA CONTINUES, INCREASING TOTAL POPULATION TO OVER 310,000. HEAVY RAINS IN WEST ETHIOPIA LED TO SERIOUS FLOODING AND DAMAGED HOUSING OF SOME 45,000 REFUGEES AT ITANG.

4. LOCUST INFESTATION NOW VERY THREATENING. SWARMS REPORTED IN ASMARA, KAREN, CHINDE, OTHER AREAS OF ERITREA AND WELLO. WIDE-SPREAD MATING AND EGG LAYING OCCURRED THROUGH MONTH. HOPPER BANDS ALSO REPORTED IN ERITREA. NOW ESTIMATED THAT HALF A MILLION HECTARES OF LAND NEED TO BE SPRAYED. DESPITE SERIOUSNESS OF SITUATION LITTLE RESPONSE SO FAR FROM DONORS TO URGENT FAO APPEAL LATE JULY. FAO PROVIDING USD 200,000 TO COVER HELICOPTER SURVEILLANCE/SPRAYING IN ERITREA FOR ONE MONTH AND TO SUPPLY DRY CELL BATTERIES AND SPRAYERS. SOME BENDIOCARB 1 PERCENT DUST DISTRIBUTED TO FARMERS FOR GROUND CONTROL, BUT 50 MT MORE DUST AND ADDITIONAL FUNDING FOR HELICOPTERS URGENTLY REQUIRED.

5. WFP ASSESSMENT OF FOOD AID AT MASSAWA FOLLOWING HEAVY UNSEASONAL RAIN INDICATES DAMAGE LESS SEVERE THAN FIRST EXPECTED. SOME 5,000 MT OUT OF 70,000 MT STACKED IN OPEN AREAS DAMAGED TO VARYING DEGREES, BUT 60-70 PERCENT OF THIS CONSIDERED SALVAGEABLE.

6. UNMET SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD NEEDS OF MORE THAN 25,000 MT FOR BOTH REFUGEES AND DROUGHT-AFFECTED PEOPLE STILL MAJOR CONCERN.

7. HEAVY RAIN CONTINUED TO FALL JULY/AUGUST IN MOST PARTS OF THE COUNTRY AND PROSPECTS FOR WHEAT, BARLEY, TEFF AND PULSES PLANTED JUNE/JULY EXCELLENT. SOME LOCAL FLOODING AND WATERLOGGING REPORTED IN PARTS OF SHEWA, WELLO, LAKE TANA AREA (GOJAM/GONDAR) AND GAMBELLA. PROSPECTS LESS GOOD FOR MAIZE DUE TO LACK OF RAIN IN APRIL/MAY BUT SORGHUM PLANTED AT SAME TIME RECOVERED DURING GOOD JULY RAINS.

II - LOGISTICS

8. JULY DISTRIBUTION REPORTED AS FOLLOWS: TIGRAY - 243,322, ERITREA - 1,114,269, HARARGHE - NO DATA YET AVAILABLE, WELLO - 744,104, GONDAR - 293,107.

9. STOCKS AT END JULY: TIGRAY - 11,198 MT, ERITREA AND HARARGHE - NO DATA YET AVAILABLE, WELLO - 12,000 MT, GONDAR - 8,458 MT.

10. FOOD AID OFFTAKE INCREASED AT BOTH PORTS, AVERAGING ALMOST 1,900 MT A DAY AT ASSAB AND AROUND 1,200 MT AT MASSAWA. ALTHOUGH STOCKS STILL HIGH AT ASSAB, PORT WELL MANAGED AND SITUATION CONTINUED TO BE UNDER CONTROL. OFFTAKE AT DJIBOUTI IMPROVED SLIGHTLY, AVERAGING 307 MT DAY FOR FOOD AID. STOCKS IN PORT AS OF END OF AUGUST:

- ASSAB: 261,160 MT OF WHICH 143,470 MT FOOD AID
- MASSAWA: 113,260 MT OF WHICH 91,000 MT FOOD AID
- DJIBOUTI: 40,940 MT OF WHICH 31,000 MT FOOD AID

11. EXPECTED FOOD AID ARRIVALS (MT) IN SEPTEMBER:

- ASSAB: 95,000
- MASSAWA: 33,600
- DJIBOUTI: 9,500

12. SURFACE AND AIR TRANSPORT: COUNTRYWIDE WTOE MOVED 27,593 MT RELIEF FOOD AND OTHER EMERGENCY SUPPLIES, OF WHICH 17,884 MT BY NORTHERN FLEET TO SITES IN ERITREA. 20 NEWLY DONATED FIAT TRUCKS AND 7 MERCEDES BENZ SEMI-TRAILERS JOINED WTOE FLEET, WITH ANOTHER 62 EXPECTED IN NEAR FUTURE. AMOUNT DELIVERED BY ALL HERCULES THROUGH MONTH REACHED AROUND 6,200 MT, BRINGING TOTAL DELIVERED SINCE START OF OPERATION IN NOVEMBER LAST YEAR TO MORE THAN 71,500 MT. LIGHT AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS IN NORTH SHEWA AND SOUTH EAST GONDAR, COMPRISING 5 POLISH ANTONOV-2S AND TWO AIRSERV PLANES, DELIVERED 778 MT FOOD.

III - WATER/HEALTH/SANITATION

13. UNICEF ASSISTED ADI SCIACA DAM NOW EXPECTED TO BE IN OPERATION END OF SEPTEMBER. DAM WILL PROVIDE WATER FOR 450,000 PEOPLE IN ASMARA.

IV - PLEDGES AND UNMET NEEDS

REQUIREMENT
UNMET NEEDS
1. RRC NOVEMBER APPEAL
1. FOOD - FOR DROUGHT AFFECTED NORTH FOOD REFUGEES
1,046 MILLION MT SUPPL. FOOD
11,000 MT
CEREALS
14,000 MT SUPPL. FOOD
12,000 MT
2. WFP APPEAL
PALLETS
67,206
28,858
TARPAULINS
555
25
3. UNICEF APPEAL
HEALTH/WATER/CASH FOR FOOD/SUPPLEMENTARY FOOD
USD 22 MILLION
USD 3.8 MILLION
4. UNDRO APPEAL
FOR EMERGENCY TRANSPORT FUND DECEMBER 1987 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 1988
USD 14.25 MIL.
NIL
5. UNHCR APPEAL FOR REFUGEES
USD 28 MILLION
USD 11.5 MILLION
6. FAO LOCUST APPEAL
HELICOPTERS, BENDIOCARB DUST, KNAPSACK SPRAYERS, DRY CELL BATTERIES AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT
USD 2.7 MILLION
USD 2.5 MILLION
ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1)
DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)

UNDRO 88/2252

ETHIOPIA - DROUGHT
UNDRO SITREP NO. 11/88
13 OCTOBER 1988

HEREWITH FOLLOWS SUMMARY OF COMPREHENSIVE REPORT FOR MONTH OF SEPTEMBER 1988 PREPARED BY SECGEN'S SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE. FULL TEXT AVAILABLE FROM UNDRO.

I - GENERAL

1. IN TIGRAY, THANKS TO IMPROVED ROAD ACCESS, BENEFICIARY LEVELS FOR AUGUST REACHED ALMOST DOUBLE THAT OF JULY WITH FURTHER SUBSTANTIAL INCREASES EXPECTED SEPTEMBER. ON 27 SEPTEMBER, RELIEF CONVOY OF 25 WTOE TRUCKS, CARRYING 617 MT GRAIN, REACHED ADIGRAT FOR FIRST TIME IN ALMOST SIX MONTHS. LIMITED ROAD ACCESS FROM WOLLO TO MAYCHEW AND MEKELE CONTINUED THROUGH AUG/SEP AND 18,000 PEOPLE - SOME REPORTED TO BE FROM AXUM AND ADWA - ALSO PROVIDED WITH FOOD RATIONS AT INDASELASSIE. RRC FOOD DISTRIBUTION TO TIGRAY FAMILIES AT ALAMATA BEGAN IN AUGUST AND CONTINUED THROUGH SEP. WITH SOME 200,000 TIGRAY PEOPLE SERVED BY SENAFE AND ADI KWALA CENTRES IN SOUTHERN ERITREA, REPORTED AUG TOTAL BENEFICIARIES FOR TIGRAY (INCLUDING THOSE ASSISTED IN ERITREA AND WOLLO) ROSE TO MORE THAN 685,000. DISPLACED POPULATION UNCHANGED.

2. RECORD LEVEL FOOD DISTRIBUTION ALSO REPORTED FROM ERITREA, REACHING OVER 1.4 MILLION BENEFICIAIRIES. NEW ERCS/LEAGUE PROGRAMME EXCEEDED 80,000 BENEFICIAIRY TARGET DURING AUG AND RRC REPORTED TO HAVE DISTRIBUTED TO 500,000 ERITREANS - 250,000 MORE THAN PREVIOUS MONTH. WITH ERCS/LEAGUE TARGET INCREASED TO 150,000, SEPTEMBER DISTRIBUTION FIGURES LIKELY TO BE SIMILAR OR SLIGHTLY HIGHER. DISPLACED POPULATION REDUCED IN KEREN AS FAMILIES RETURNED HOME BUT NEW INFLUX REPORTED IN HAGEZA. TOTAL DISPLACED SHELTER POPULATION IN ERITREA REPORTED BY RRC NOW TO BE APPROX. 87,000 - SLIGHTLY LESS THAN PREVIOUS MONTH. THEIR BASIC NEEDS CONTINUED TO BE COVERED BY RRC, JRP AND ERCS.

3. AUGUST FOOD DISTRIBUTION IN WOLLO HIGHEST RECORDED BY RRC AND NGOS, REACHING OVER 802,000 BENEFICIARIES. RRC NOW PLANNING ONE MORE FULL DISTRIBUTION BEFORE STOPPING OPERATIONS FOR THIS YEAR. FOOD SUPPLY FROM ASSAB MUCH IMPROVED DURING MONTH WITH TOTAL INCOMING FOOD FOR WOLLO AROUND 10,000 MT - OF WHICH 7,000 MT FOR RRC.

4. IN GONDAR WATERLOGGING AND FLOODING OCCURRED IN MANY AREAS. FOOD DISTRIBUTION CONTINUED ALBEIT ON REDUCED SCALE DUE LOGISTIC PROBLEMS FACED BY MOST AGENCIES. ERCS, HOWEVER, EXCEEDED 70,000 BENEFICIARY TARGET BY ALMOST 15,000. BY LAST TWO WEEKS SEPTEMBER FOOD SUPPLY TO REGION IMPROVED.

II - REFUGEES

5. INFLUX OF SOMALI REFUGEES INTO EASTERN ETHIOPIA ABATED, WITH NEW ARRIVALS DOWN TO 1,000 DAILY SINCE BEGINNING OF MONTH AND REDUCED EVEN FURTHER BY END SEP. MOVEMENT OF REFUGEES BETWEEN CAMPS IN BOTH JIJIGA AND AWARE AREA CONTINUED, HOWEVER, MAKING ACCURATE COUNT OF REFUGEE POPULATION EXTREMELY DIFFICULT. SIGNIFICANT DECLINE REPORTED IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN AND SCF/UK STARTING IMMEDIATE THERAPEUTIC WET FEEDING PROGRAMME IN HARTISHEIK CAMP. UNHCR/RRC OFFICIAL REGISTRATION FOR HARTISHEIK/HARSHIN END SEPTEMBER REACHED 237,000 WITH FURTHER 105,000 REPORTED AT SITES IN AWARE AREA. UNKNOWN NUMBER OF REFUGEES REMAIN IN MISRAK GASHAMO. SOME IMPROVEMENT IN FOOD STOCKS AND WATER SUPPLY BEING ACHIEVED. HOWEVER, MORE TENTS, BLANKETS AND PLASTIC SHEETING URGENTLY REQUIRED.

6. INFLUX OF SUDANESE REFUGEES INTO WESTERN ETHIOPIA, MEANWHILE, CONTINUED THROUGH AUGUST BUT DECLINED SHARPLY TO ONLY 3,000 NEW ARRIVALS DURING SEP. POPULATION AS OF END SEP FOR ALL 4 SUDANESE REFUGEE CAMPS: 318,000. SERIOUS FLOODING BADLY AFFECTED ITANG CAMP AND CONTINUED TO DISRUPT FOOD PIPELINE TO BOTH ITANG AND FUGNIDO RESULTING IN PRECARIOUS STOCK POSITION.

III - LOCUSTS

7. ALARMING LOCUST INFESTATION CONTINUED DURING SEP. HATCHING INCREASED WITH HOPPER BANDS SAID TO BE OCCUPYING LARGE AREAS OF ERITREA. LOCUSTS ALSO REPORTED IN TIGRAY AND HARARGHE. GROUND SPRAYING CONTINUED AND AERIAL SURVEILLANCE/SPRAYING BY ONE LIGHT AIRCRAFT AND ONE HELICOPTER COMMENCED 21/9. DONOR PLEDGING FOR FAO LOCUST APPEAL STILL AT LOW LEVEL AND MORE FUNDS FOR HELICOPTER SERVICES AND BENDIOCARB 1 PERCENT DUST, URGENTLY NEEDED.

IV - AGRICULTURE

8. CONTINUED HEAVY RAINFALL THROUGH MANY PARTS OF ETHIOPIA NOW CAUSING SOME CONCERN FOR MEHER (MAIN HARVEST) CROPS. WATERLOGGING, FLOODING AND SUBSEQUENT DAMAGE TO MAIZE, TEFF, SORGHUM AND WHEAT REPORTED FROM MANY AREAS. FAO CONCERNED IF RAINS CONTINUE FOR ANOTHER TWO WEEKS EXTENSIVE CROP DAMAGE LIKELY, PARTICULARLY IN HIGHLAND AREAS. FAO CROP ASSESSMENT MISSION EXPECTED IN COUNTRY 10/11.

V - LOGISTICS

9. EMERGENCY FOOD STOCKS (SEPTEMBER): TIGRAY (MEKELE/MAYCHEW: 14,460 MT. ERITREA (ASMARA/AWRAJAS/MASSAWA): 95,000 MT. WOLLO: 12,400 MT. GONDAR 6,000 MT. HARARGHE: NO DATA AVAILABLE.

10. PORT OFFTAKE REMAINED HIGH AT MASSAWA WITH DAILY AVERAGE 1,350 MT. AS RESULT FOOD AID STOCKS REDUCED CONSIDERABLY, TO 61,650 MT. STOCKS REMAINED HIGH AT ASSAB, HOWEVER, WITH OVER 173,585 MT. FOOD AID IN PORT AT END OF MONTH. DAILY OFFTAKE DISAPPOINTING, AVERAGING 1,366 MT. FOOD AID STOCKS IN DJIBOUTI END SEP 26,000 MT. EXPECTED FOOD AID ARRIVALS OCT: ASSAB - 108,220 MT EMERGENCY FOOD, 4,120 MT REGULAR. MASSAWA - 49,000 MT EMERGENCY, 197 MT REGULAR. DJIBOUTI - NONE.

11. TOTAL RELIEF FOOD MOVED BY WTOE DURING SEP AROUND 38,000 MT, OF WHICH 24,650 BY NORTHERN FLEETS. TRANSPORT FOR SOMALI AND SUDANESE REFUGEES CONTINUED AND DESPITE HEAVY RAIN AND FLOODING IN BOTH WEST AND EAST 6,900 MT DELIVERED TO REFUGEE CAMPS BY END SEP. FORTY-FIVE NEW TRUCK/TRAILERS DONATED TO WTOE BY BANDAID AND ITALIAN GOVERNMENT, NOW OPERATIONAL.

12. AIRLIFT REDUCED TO THREE HERCULES FOLLOWING DEPARTURE 8/9 OF TWO UNDRO CHARTERED CANADIAN AIR FORCE HERCULES. THESE TRANSPORTED OVER 8,000 MT DURING THREE-MONTH OPERATION. TWO EEC/CARITAS SOUTHERN AIR TRANSPORT (SAT) HERCULES AND ONE UN/SAT HERCULES CONTINUING AIRLIFT FERRYING APPROX 7,500 MT RELIEF CARGO MONTHLY TO NORTH AND TO REFUGEE PROGRAMMES IN JIJIGA AND AWARE. TOTAL CARGO CARRIED SINCE AIRLIFT BEGAN OVER 79,000 MT. IN ADDITION , 3 SOVIET ANTONOV-12 ALSO INVOLVED IN NORTH. DUE INACCESSIBILITY (FLASH-FLOODS) OF STAGING AREA WHERE FOOD AND FUEL PREPOSITIONED, LIGHT AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS BY POLISH ANTONOV-2S IN NORTH SHEWA DISRUPTED AUG/SEP. TWO POLISH AIRCRAFT MEANWHILE DEPLOYED IN GONDAR, ASSISTING FOOD FOR THE HUNGRY. FLOODING OF AIRSTRIPS CONTINUED AND TOTAL RELIEF SUPPLIES CARRIED DURING SEP AROUND 750 MT, ABOUT A THIRD OF CAPACITY PRIOR TO RAINY SEASON.

VI - WATER/HEALTH/SANITATION

13. NEW US DLRS 28 MILLION APPEAL FOR WATER/HEALTH/SANITATION BEING LAUNCHED BY UNICEF. FUNDS WILL ASSIST REFUGEES, DISPLACED AND DROUGHT-AFFECTED ETHIOPIANS AND RESETTLEMENT SITES. NEW ORDER FOR US DLRS 350,000 WORTH DRUGS, MEDICAL SUPPLIES, TENTS, HOSPITAL BEDS, WATER PURIFICATION POWDER AND HOUSE-HOLD UTENSILS MEANWHILE PLACED.

VII - PLEDGES AND UNMET NEEDS

REQUIREMENT
UNMET NEEDS
1. FOOD
RRC NOV. APPEAL
1,046 MIO MT FOOD SUPPL
5,400 MT
REFUGEES (CEREALS)
32,109 MT
480 MT OIL
1,275 MT WHEAT
2. WFP APPEAL
PALLETS (PCS)
67,206
28,858
TARPAULINS
555
25
3. UNICEF APPEAL
HEALTH/WATER/CASH FOR FOOD/SUPPL. FOOD
USD 22 MIO
USD 3.8 MIO
4. UNDRO APPEAL
FOR EMERG. TRANSPORT FUND DEC 1987 THRU OCT 1988
USD 14.25 MIO
NIL
5. UNHCR APPEAL
FOR REFUGEES
USD 28 MIO
USD 11.5 MIO
6. FAO LOCUST APPEAL
HELICOPTERS, BENDIOCARB DUST, KNAPSACK SPRAYERS DRY CELL BATTERIES AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT
USD 2.7 MIO
USD 2.11 MIO
14. DONORS ARE REQUESTED TO INFORM UNDRO DIRECTLY, PREFERABLY BY TELEX (28148 UNDR CH), OF THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS AND CORRESPONDING VALUES.

ESSAAFI UNDRO GENEVA 28148

DPR 310 ETH '87 (1)
DPR 310 ETH '87 (1-2)