This climate change profile is designed to help integrate climate actions into development activities. It complements the publication ‘Climate-smart = Future-Proof! – Guidelines for Integrating climate-smart actions into development policies and activities’ and provides answers to some of the questions that are raised in the step-by-step approach in these guidelines.
The current and expected effects of climate change differ locally, nationally and regionally. The impacts of climate change effects on livelihoods, food and water security, ecosystems, infrastructure etc. differ per country and region as well as community and individual, with gender a particularly important vulnerability factor. This profile aims to give insight in the climate change effects and impacts in Ethiopia, with particular attention for food security and water. It also sheds light on the policies, priorities and commitments of the government in responding to climate change and important climate-relevant activities that are being implemented, including activities being internationally financed.
Climate change poses a huge challenge to Ethiopia and its people. One of the world’s most drought-prone countries,
Ethiopia is faced with increasingly unpredictable rains, and in some years the complete failure of seasonal rains – occurrences that are linked to climate change. It is a country with large differences across its regions, which is reflected in the country’s climate vulnerability (see Map set 1). The lowlands are vulnerable to increased temperatures and prolonged droughts that may affect livestock rearing. The highlands may suffer from more intense and irregular rainfall, leading to erosion, which together with higher temperatures may result in lower agricultural production.
This, combined with an increasing population and conflict, may lead to greater food insecurity in some areas. Climate change related hotspots of increased food insecurity in the future are likely to include areas in Afar and Tigray, southern Oromia, the central Rift Valley, and the eastern lowlands.