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UN Emergency Appeal for the Drought in the Horn of Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya, Eritrea, Somalia and Djibouti (Jun - Dec 2000)

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JUNE - DECEMBER 2000

JUNE 2000

FOREWORD BY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL’S SPECIAL ENVOY FOR THE DROUGHT IN THE GREATER HORN OF AFRICA

In January this year, nine countries, Burundi, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda of the Greater Horn of Africa indicated that they had some 16 million people affected by drought and displaced by internal conflict. As the main rains failed across the region and the situation worsened, it became evident that the United Nations would have to focus their humanitarian efforts on the drought related needs of populations in these countries separately from the needs of populations affected by the conflicts in the region. In this context, the UN system is now launching the emergency drought appeal covering 13.4 million drought-affected persons in the five most affected countries in the region. The drought-induced needs in the other four countries will be covered through ongoing humanitarian programmes.

As we launch this Appeal, timely assistance is the difference between survival and death for a large section of the 13.4 million people, mostly women, children and elderly persons, whose households and communities have succumbed to several vicious cycles of drought, and instability, in the Horn of Africa. If medicine, safe water, food, and livestock regeneration support are provided in time, we can save lives and support the initial stages to restoring communities. If relief aid is late and inadequate, this humanitarian crisis can easily become a human tragedy of historic proportions.

Mechanisms set up by Governments and UN relief agencies to address the needs of populations affected annually by drought have also been overwhelmed. Late last year, humanitarian organisations assumed that the primary rainy seasons throughout the region would enable communities to have a good harvest. This assumption was the basis for the common humanitarian action plans in the Appeals for Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.

As the failure of the main harvest seasons became increasingly apparent across the Horn, UN relief agencies recognised the need for an urgent consolidated plan of action to target those hardest hit by this natural disaster.

It is of utmost importance that our efforts go beyond saving lives to supporting efforts to build local capacities, to mitigate and prevent similar levels of distress from what is a recurrent disaster in this part of the world. Failure to do so will condemn the future ability of these nations to deal with similar calamities, as most of those affected are their leaders of tomorrow - their children. With a view to going beyond life-saving assistance, humanitarian organisations have incorporated activities that will ease the return to normalcy for the surviving members of families decimated by the drought, particularly women and children. The success of this approach will depend to a large extent on the commitment of the international community to support this Appeal, long after the image of the starving child is no longer shown on the evening news. We also count on the close links we maintain with development actors to ensure that longer-term recovery activities closely follow the recovery initiatives in this Appeal.

The UN Emergency Appeal for the Drought in the Horn of Africa, provides us with a unique opportunity to save lives today and avert the large-scale and expensive humanitarian operation that may otherwise be required tomorrow.

Catherine Bertini, UN Special Envoy for the Drought in the Greater Horn of Africa

I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

In response to the increasing concern for the drought situation throughout the region the Secretary General appointed Ms Catherine Bertini, Executive Director of WFP as his Special Envoy for the Drought in the Greater Horn of Africa. As a result of Ms Bertini’s visit to the region and consultations with government and UN officials, donors, NGOs and other concerned partners there was a significant increase in the level of awareness of the plight of millions of families in the region and, even more importantly, significant increases in both food and non-food pledges. However, the full effects of the drought are still being felt and additional food resources, as well as, interventions in health, water, agriculture, livestock and other areas are now critical if a major human tragedy is to be avoided.

Three consecutive years of poor rains and the total failure of rains last April throughout the Horn of Africa have affected particularly the pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. Successive droughts have also meant that traditional coping mechanisms have been exhausted, thus increasing the vulnerability of populations already in critical conditions. In this context, UN humanitarian organisations and their partners have revised the emergency requirements to respond to the effects of the drought in this part of Africa. Sparse rains during late May alleviated some of these problems through increased access to water that is expected to last for a short period of time unless rains fall again during June-September. Due to their lateness, these rains will have no positive impact on the harvest. Recent significant increases in food and non-food pledges against the appeal launched in January have increased the potential for relief agencies to address some of the needs of those affected. It is important, however, to note that the full effects of the drought are more severe than was previously forecast in January, hence additional food resources as well as interventions in health, water, agriculture, and livestock regeneration remain critical to avert a major human tragedy.

UN relief agencies and partners are seeking US$ 378 million to address the immediate needs of 13.4 million people affected by the drought in the Horn of Africa, specifically in Ethiopia (10 million), Kenya (2.2 million), Somalia (750,000), Eritrea (335,000) and Djibouti (150,000). The hardest hit are Ethiopia and Kenya with more than 90% of the total drought-affected population. Priority emergency requirements include food aid, health services and safe water. The importance of addressing food and non-food aid needs concurrently cannot be over-estimated. Populations affected by the drought require food aid for survival as well as access to shelter, safe water and adequate sanitation conditions, and health and nutrition services. Other interventions of significance for these populations to initiate the quest for recovery include livestock regeneration, and the provision of seeds and tools. As part of efforts to ensure the successful provision of adequate humanitarian assistance to those affected by the drought in the Horn of Africa, relief agencies will have to mount a large-scale logistics operations including common transport, communications and safety systems in the region.

Two factors are of particular importance for humanitarian actors involved in this operation. The first is the need to ensure coordinated humanitarian strategies in border areas to avoid exacerbating population movements across borders. The second is the need to ensure that relief agencies have the capacity to respond to humanitarian crises before they assume tragic dimensions. In this context, efforts will be made to reinforce monitoring, information exchange and early warning systems, in addition to measures to improve the quality of analysis and information-sharing and the safety of relief workers and populations in the affected areas.

The United Nations Country Teams (UNCTs) in Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia are appealing for funds through this Appeal. The UNCTs in Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda will not be appealing for funds through this emergency drought Appeal as humanitarian interventions in support of drought-affected populations are being undertaken within the context of the ongoing humanitarian programme for these countries.

Total Number of People Severely Affected by the Drought in the Horn of Africa

ETHIOPIA
KENYA
ERITREA
SOMALIA
DJIBOUTI
TOTAL
CURRENT ESTIMATE OF SERIOUSLY DROUGHT-AFFECTED PEOPLE
10,000,000
2,200,000
334,613
750,000
150,000
13,434,613
II. REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE
Table 1: Total Reassessed Drought Emergency Requirements to the
UN Emergency Appeal for the Drought in the Horn of Africa
By Sector
June - December 2000
Sector
Reassessed Drought Emergency Requirements
(US$)
Confirmed Pledges against Requirements
(US$)
Total Unmet Drought-Related Requirements
(US$)
Food
301,647,162
4,113,092
297,534,070
Shelter
1,671,000
-
1,671,000
Water & Sanitation
11,957,506
306,000
11,651,506
Health & Nutrition
24,350,455
1,660,000
22,690,455
Livestock
11,406,720
-
11,406,720
Seeds & Agriculture
10,881,230
1,950,000
8,931,230
Logistics
11,333,070
1,578,060
9,755,010
Coordination & Common Services
8,144,100
250,000
7,894,100
Other Support Services
2,981,975
22,500
2,959,475
Regional Support Costs
3,222,448
-
3,222,448
Total
387,595,666
9,879,652
377,716,014

Table 2: Total Unmet Drought-Related Requirements to the
UN Emergency Appeal for the Drought in the Horn of Africa
By Sector and Country
June - December 2000
SECTOR
ETHIOPIA
(US$)
KENYA
(US$)
SOMALIA
(US$)
ERITREA
(US$)
DJIBOUTI
(US$)
REGIONAL
(US$)
TOTAL
(US$)
Food
152,660,953
131,858,259
5,600,000
5,996,350
1,418,508
-
297,534,070
Shelter
471,000
-
-
-
1,200,000
-
1,671,000
Water & Sanitation
3,520,000
3,460,000
1,405,000
2,494,506
772,000
-
11,651,506
Health & Nutrition
13,700,455
3,347,000
2,795,000
2,545,000
303,000
-
22,690,455
Livestock
2,490,000
3,086,720
1,500,000
3,780,000
550,000
-
11,406,720
Seeds & Agriculture
6,694,100
835,000
659,000
717,500
25,630
-
8,931,230
Logistics
7,050,400
1,186,840
-
-
1,517,770
-
9,755,010
Coordination & Common Services
2,940,700
2,500,000
2,200,000
153,400
100,000
3,222,448
11,116,548
Other Support Services
483,975
-
675,000
1,800,500
-
-
2,959,475
Total
190,011,583
146,273,819
14,834,000
17,487,256
5,886,908
3,222,448
377,716,014
Note: Reassessed drought emergency requirements include unmet needs against earlier appeals, plus additional needs recently identified.

Overview

"We believe that the initial impetus for concerted solutions to the other problems we are facing should come from our determination to come to grips with the humanitarian aspects of the challenges of our region. Our people's humanitarian needs cry out for joint action and urgent solution".

The countries in the Horn of Africa that are included in this Appeal are: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. These countries cover an area of about 2.5 million square kilometres (sqm) and are home to about 100 million people, with projections indicating that the population will exceed 140 million by 2015.

The countries of the region share many common features, but there is also great diversity between them in terms of languages, ethnicity, resources, history and politics. Yet, these countries all suffer similarly from under-development and poverty. In the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)’s Human Development Report 1999, all except Kenya are listed under the "low human development" category, with the best performer - Kenya - appearing only 136th amongst 174 countries. The others rank as follows: Djibouti, 157th; Eritrea, 167th; Ethiopia, 172nd. (Somalia, which has no government since 1991, is not included in the UNDP report). About 56% of the total population live in absolute poverty in the rural areas area, a figure that clearly indicates the magnitude of the poverty problem in the region. Even in a non-drought year, the caloric intake is low, with all countries covered in the Appeal falling below 2,200 daily per capita. According to UNICEF’s State of the World’s Children 2000, access to safe water is particularly poor in Eritrea and Ethiopia while measles immunisation for all countries except Kenya is only around 50%. A critical indicator of the well-being of children is the under-five mortality rankings where, again, the picture is bleak with even the best country, Eritrea, ranked only 45th out of 189 countries. The same report shows that adult literacy is also low, as is net primary school attendance, particularly in Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Another major defining characteristic of the Horn is that it has served as a theatre of war for generations, while related political and social instability remain a feature in the region. Instability in the Horn of Africa is occasioned not only by internal conflicts but also by those that flow across borders, the most notable historically being between Ethiopia and Somalia in 1997-98 and the current crisis between Eritrea and Ethiopia. The almost constant refugee flows and displacement of large sections of civilians throughout the region are among two of the many consequences of this instability. Tensions that exacerbate the problems of development exist elsewhere, even if they do not always translate into full-scale war.

It is now generally recognised that the fate of the countries of the Horn are intertwined and that they face a common destiny. Any strategy that seeks to bring about lasting peace and development in the region must take this fact into account. There is considerable interaction between the peoples of the Horn, especially along the borders and there are also many shared resources. Implementing new UN thinking on concepts such as "preventive development" and integrated, "trans-national" emergency interventions and programmes will require close collaboration and coordination between agencies working in neighbouring countries.

III. THE CURRENT DROUGHT EMERGENCY

Consecutive years of poor rains throughout the region have affected many of the highland areas of Ethiopia where it is now estimated that up to ten million people are in need of food assistance; but, even more severely affected have been the pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. Successive droughts have also meant that traditional coping mechanisms have been exhausted and an increasing number of families are becoming more dependent on relief distributions for survival. Total failure of the belg rains in Ethiopia, usually from mid-February to May, have increased relief requirements while severe drought in the pastoral areas has resulted in very significant livestock losses. This in turn has forced pastoralists to move further afield in search of grasing land or water for their ever-diminishing herds. Recent rains have alleviated some of these problems but herd regeneration will take considerable time. For the vulnerable areas of the Ethiopia highlands, food insecurity, malnutrition and land degradation will remain major challenges for many years to come.

IV. THE REGIONAL EMERGENCY DROUGHT APPEAL

Rationale for the Appeal

The current emergency drought Appeal is being launched to encourage prompt and generous international donor support to obtain US$ 378 million, to address the immediate needs of 13.4 million people affected in Ethiopia, Kenya; Eritrea, Somalia and Djibouti.

Government relief institutions, UN Agencies, and NGOs based their requirements for their humanitarian programmes for the year 2000 on the good rains expected in March and April this year. Insufficient, or the outright absence of, rains throughout most of the Horn of Africa has pushed vulnerable populations to critically low thresholds as the impact of lack of water, food and health care reached unforeseen heights. People, mostly pastoral communities, were forced to migrate after losing all their livestock in search of basic humanitarian assistance - food aid, medicines and safe water. In most instances, vulnerable persons such as women and children have been forced to walk great distances within their countries or across borders seeking refuge and humanitarian assistance.

During the coming months, humanitarian agencies will focus simultaneously on addressing the life-saving needs of the drought-affected people and concurrently on developing modalities to undertake recovery activities as soon as opportunities to do so arise.

V. REGIONAL ISSUES

The crisis in the Horn of Africa has had a direct impact on the lives and livelihoods of an estimated 13.4 million people. In the semi-arid plains of north-eastern Kenya, Somalia and Southern Ethiopia, the drought has resulted in an increase in unusual cross-border movements as people move with their animals in an desperate search for water and better grazing land. While such movements are now and have always been an integral part of everyday life for the nomadic peoples of the Horn, this year people have had to migrate much greater distances, often to areas where competition for scarce water and grazing is already intense.

The movement of people and the inter-clan relationships that allow the sharing of limited resources cut across international boundaries and characterise the historic means by which people survive in this harsh and unforgiving environment. But there have been fundamental changes in these regions in the past two decades that have greatly increased the inherent vulnerability of people to the effects of cyclical droughts. Increasing population pressure, urbanisation, civil war, political instability and changing patterns of pastoralism and agro-pastoralism have played a part.

Increasingly, people in the dry lands of the Horn of Africa have become less mobile and more settled, have switched from drought-tolerant camels and goats to the potentially more profitable but fragile cattle, while the enclosure of land and the loss of traditional markets have also featured in recent years. The sudden return of refugees (caused by the 1977-78 Ogaden War) from Somalia to Ethiopia in the wake of the collapse of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 has also played a role in creating the basis for the crisis affecting the region today. Compounding these historical factors, has been the apparent increase in the frequency and intensity of droughts in the region in recent years and the chronic lack of development assistance and investment in what are generally remote and inaccessible peripheral regions.

Experience in the past decade has demonstrated that, unless properly coordinated, humanitarian assistance in these border areas can create dangerous social and economic imbalances and exacerbate the movement of people across borders, leading to conflict and greater instability. There is also recognition of the high degree of inter-dependence between the peoples of neighbouring states. The response to a crisis of regional dimensions has to be sophisticated, tailored to the specific conditions, integrated, and managed from a regional perspective.

This Appeal outlines a number of specific interventions that will provide opportunities for adopting such a regional approach. One such intervention is the development and improvement of the existing trading corridors linking the ports of Djibouti and Berbera with Ethiopia. Although these interventions are intended to enhance the logistics of moving relief supplies into Ethiopia, there are also any number of associated benefits that will enhance trading relationships between people along these corridors, and so help move the region towards greater economic integration. In the future, investment in the development of other corridors such as those linking Ethiopia with Port Sudan and Mombasa could have similar benefits. WFP will take the lead in the coordination of logistics issues at country and regional level.

Still in this context, efforts will be made to ensure that emergency recovery initiatives support the massive logistical operation required in the region and in the process, reinforce communications and transport networks. In the short-term, this will improve the efficiency of humanitarian activities and in the long-term, provide affected communities with a sustainable basis for future development.

A major reason why the peripheral border zones of the Horn of Africa have suffered neglect and indifferent investment over the years is based on concerns over political instability and personal insecurity. It is essential that a safe and a secure working environment be established in these critical zones, not only to allow safe and unimpeded access to people in desperate need of relief assistance, but also to provide access to better basic services and encourage external investment in long-term recovery and development. Under this current Appeal, mechanisms are proposed to improve the level of analysis and information-sharing on issues of security so that appropriate measures can be taken in cooperation with national governments to protect relief and development workers.

Being able to respond to emerging crises before they reach unmanageable proportions is important in these peripheral pastoral lowlands of the Horn of Africa. Therefore, appropriate monitoring, information exchange and early warning systems have to be implemented. In Ethiopia, there is a well-established and sophisticated national early warning system, but it is largely geared to monitoring farming communities and has little coverage in the lowlands. In Somalia, an innovative programme is being jointly implemented by a number of organisations to support a network of monitors and provide regular analysis and reporting on food security and other developments. The approaches adopted in different countries need to be integrated and expanded to provide the kind of region-wide coverage required.

The scale of the problems facing the Horn of Africa at present, especially people in the vulnerable border areas, requires new ideas, innovation and a commitment to an integrated regional approach. The regional and country-specific interventions outlined in this Consolidated Appeal are seen as a first step in this direction.

VI. REGIONAL COORDINATION

The UN Special Humanitarian Envoy for the drought in the Greater Horn of Africa provided the Secretary-General with a series of recommendations to improve the response of the UN to this crisis after a whirlwind visit to the region at the end of April. On 1 May 2000, the Secretary-General appointed Mr. Manuel Aranda da Silva as the UN Regional Humanitarian Coordinator (RHC) for the Drought in the Horn of Africa, which was one of the primary recommendations made by the Special Envoy. The Regional Humanitarian Coordinator reports to the Secretary-General through the Emergency Relief Coordinator.

The Office of the Regional Humanitarian Coordinator for the Drought in the Horn of Africa (ORHC) has been established in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. While core staff are in the process of being recruited, the RHC has already initiated the implementation of his mandate. The ORHC is to ensure coordination at the regional level of the inter-agency humanitarian response to the drought in the Horn of Africa, including the preparation of the present inter-agency emergency drought appeal.

Coordination will be undertaken at two levels, regional and country. The RHC for the Drought in the Horn of Africa will continue to liaise closely with the UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinators in the drought-affected countries to identify constraints to the delivery of humanitarian assistance and agree on feasible solutions. This will be done through periodic meetings among the Resident/Humanitarian Coordinators and the RHC. At country level, the RHC will work closely with the UNCTs through the respective Resident/Humanitarian Coordinator. This will include regular updates on their activities and concerns as well as occasional visits by the RHC to the respective countries. In addition to his Regional role, the Regional Humanitarian Coordinator will be responsible for coordinating the humanitarian response to the drought in Ethiopia.

The Office of the UN Secretary-General will revise the current coordination arrangements, instituted in light of the unforeseen scope of the drought in the Greater Horn of Africa, by the end of September this year. If the crisis has abated, coordination will revert to the regular arrangements.

VII. FINAL REMARKS

The negative effects of the drought in the Greater Horn of Africa can be contained if the required resources are committed in time. The additional resources being requested through this UN regional emergency drought Appeal are relatively modest compared to the resources that would be needed if the current crisis is allowed to degenerate into widespread famine. During the last six weeks, the international community has displayed evidence of its great generosity which will soon enable relief organisations to increase the flow of much needed humanitarian assistance to the affected populations being targeted through this effort.

This Appeal is aimed at sustaining the current relief efforts, overcoming the present crisis and simultaneously creating an enabling environment to initiate recovery activities, before the end of the year.

The effectiveness of the humanitarian programme outlined in this Appeal will be measured by the duration of the period during which affected populations will require humanitarian aid. The shorter the duration, the more efficient one may consider the programme to have been.

VIII. REGIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COORDINATION

The ORHC has been established in Addis Ababa with the aim of ensuring coordination at the regional level of the inter-agency humanitarian response to the drought in the Horn of Africa. OCHA is supporting the ORHC by advancing funds and providing staff as well as temporary deploying experts in information technology and geographic information systems. Further to the recommendations made by the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General upon conclusion of her visit to the region, the World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of seconding staff to the ORHC for the Drought in the Horn of Africa to facilitate the coordination of regional issues in the health sector, respectively. FAO is the lead coordinating agency within the UN system in the support to the agriculture and livestock sector. FAO has seconded a staff member to assist the RHC with the coordination of agricultural issues related to the drought in the Horn of Africa. In addition, they have fielded an agronomist and a livestock expert to strengthen the UN Country Team in Ethiopia and the capacity of the country office. Funds are also urgently required to continue the FAO sectoral support to the regional coordination of agricultural interventions in Somalia. The budgetary requirements for coordination are included in the respective country appeals. Further, a Regional Safety Officer will be temporarily assigned to the ORHC to establish an adequate safety network for humanitarian operations in the region and ensure that country-specific security arrangements are interlinked.

The present UN communications capabilities in various emergency operation locations within the Horn of Africa are fragmented, with each agency having its own designated frequency. In most cases the number of available repeaters in each locality and the terrain also restricts the communications range. The scope of the operation now dictates that the special drought emergency appeal include funding for a special common trunked radio network that will enable all parties involved in the Horn of Africa emergency operations to communicate effectively on a regional and cross border basis.

The RHC will focus on: (a) continuing to strengthen cooperation between the UNCTs in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Eritrea and Djibouti, in particular; (b) enhancing the capacity of UNCTs to address common regional issues such as security, trans-border movements and monitoring; (c) reinforcing the use of a common approach to humanitarian advocacy in the region; and (d) sustaining a comprehensive network of international and national actors involved or interested in the drought-relief operations. US$ 542,295 for OCHA (on behalf of the ORHC).

BUDGET
ITEM
(US$)
Regional Humanitarian Coordinator (6 months)
(WFP)
Humanitarian Affairs Officer (6 months)
65,000
Special Assistant/Resource Management Officer (6 months)
54,000
Public Information Officer (6 months)
65,000
Regional Safety Officer (3 months)
32,500
Consultants
100,000
Telecommunications/office equipment
50,000
Publications and advocacy material
50,000
Vehicles
60,000
Travel for ORHC staff
50,000
Sub-total
526,500
Programme Support 3%
15,795
Total
542,295
IX. UNICEF REGIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COORDINATION

In the Special Envoy's mission report, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) was identified as the lead coordinating agency within the UN system in the areas of water, sanitation and environmental hygiene, health (relating to control of epidemics and immunisation against vaccine-preventable diseases) and nutrition in coordination with WHO and WFP rspectively. UNICEF will deploy three highly experienced staff to coordinate technical leadership to cover these three areas. These staff will provide technical back-up training and support other technical staff the UNICEF Country Offices plan to second to local and central line Ministries and to other partners. This will be particularly important in nutrition where Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs) will be agreed, defining standards and protocols for supplementary and therapeutic feeding that will then have to be disseminated to all partners.

These staff will be essential to augment the country office capacity in the five affected countries and will be managed through UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office (ESARO's) Regional Director based in Nairobi. US$ 401,153 for UNICEF

BUDGET
ITEM
(US$)
Emergency Nutrition Adviser (6 months)
97,000
Water & Sanitation Adviser (6 months)
97,000
Health (EPI) Emergency Adviser (6 months)
97,000
Travel for ESARO staff support
30,000
Programme Support
61,050
Sub-Total:
382,050
5% Indirect Programme Support Costs
19,103
Total
401,153
X. WHO Regional Requirement to Promote and Coordinate Health Response to the Drought

Objectives

  • To coordinate public health management and accountability
  • To expand it’s existing HOA Initiative (1997)which covers border areas of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda

Justification of the Regional Plan of Action

Key issues in all countries of the Horn are the scarcity and inadequacy of health facilities and the limited managerial capacities. Communicable disease (CD) transmission across borders in the sub-region has also been aggravated by the high percentage of mobile populations.

Health Ministers of Countries in the Horn of Africa shared this concern during a Regional Conference on Public Health held in Addis Ababa in March 1998 and a Protocol for Cooperation was signed. The document called for inter-country collaboration on human security and cross border control of major health problems.

The WHO-Horn of Africa Initiative (HoAI)

For these reasons, WHO established a Horn of Africa Initiative. This programme has established cross border institutional channels for communication, joint planning and implementation. These channels can now be used through other forms of inter-country and inter agency collaboration in delivering emergency humanitarian assistance in health and related areas.

Furthermore, the programme can provide substantial opportunities for shifting focus from emergency to rehabilitation and development in critical and post conflict situation and vice versa. It provides early warning, community emergency preparedness and response, food security and even conflict mitigation and peace building activities.

Budget of WHO regional Plan of Action
ACTIVITY
BUDGET
Continue to strengthen capacity of cross border health relief committees
100,000
Urgent review priority needs (assessment visits)
160,000
Joint planning for priority needs response
40,000
Facilitating joint public health interventions in areas of malnutrition, diseases prevention, case management, surveillance and epidemic response specially for diarrhea, malaria, measles and meningitis
50,000
Strengthening border health facilities through procurements
250,000
Consolidating cross border communication-information systems
200,000
Harmonisation of HIS and case management, development of cross border communication-information network
80,000
Contribute to the establishment of a sub-regional data base and network
150,000
Conduct community risk assessment
100,000
Develop preparedness and response plans for management of emergencies and contingencies involving border areas:-
50,000
Develop early warning systems and action plans
120,000
Provide emergency stockpile and operational support
250,000
Provide Mental Health care and psychosocial response
350,000
Regional Coordination, monitoring and reporting
250,000
Subtotal
2,150,000
PSC 6%
129,000
Grand Total
2,279,000
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword By The Secretary-General’s Special Envoy For The Drought In The Greater Horn Of Africa

I. Executive Summary
II. Regional Perspective
III. The Current Drought Emergency
IV. The Regional Emergency Drought Appeal
V. Regional Issues
VI. Regional Coordination
VII. Final Remarks
VIII. Regional Requirements For Coordination
IX. UNICEF Regional Requirements For Coordination
X. WHO Regional Requirement To Promote And Coordinate Health Response To The Drought

UN Special Drought Emergency Appeal For Ethiopia

I. Executive Summary
II. Situation Analysis
III. Assistance Strategy
IV. Host Country Institutional Framework
V. UN Country Team
VI. Implementation Arrangements
VII. Sectoral Activities And Support Components
VIII. Modalities For Donor Funding

UN Special Drought Emergency Appeal For Kenya

I. Executive Summary
II. Situation Analysis And Emergency Requirements
III. Drought Situation And Humanitarian Implications
IV. Immediately Feasible Emergency Recovery Opportunities
V. Modalities For Donor Funding
VI. UNCT Management Of The Drought Emergency Programme
VII. Sectoral Activities And Support Components

UN Special Drought Emergency Appeal For Somalia

I. Executive Summary
II. Situation Analysis
III. Current Emergency Responses
IV. Sectoral Activities And Support Components
V. Modalities For Funding
VI. Special Recovery Initiatives

UN Special Drought Emergency Appeal For Eritrea

I. Executive Summary
II. Situation Analysis And Emergency Requirements
III. The Drought Situation And Its Humanitarian Implications
IV. Sectoral Activities And Emergency Requirements
V. Regional Programming And Coordination
VI. Modalities For Donor Funding
VII. UNCT Management Of The Drought Emergency Programme

UN Special Drought Emergency Appeal For Djibouti

I. Executive Summary
II. Sectoral Activities And Support Components
III. Establishment Of Mechanisms For The Coordination Of Humanitarian Assistance
IV. Modalities For Funding

The Drought Situation In Tanzania
The Drought Situation In Uganda
The Drought Situation In Burundi
Acronyms And Abbreviations

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