Djibouti + 4 more

Somalia: Complex Emergency Situation Report #2 (FY 2009)

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Posted
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Attachments

U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
BUREAU FOR DEMOCRACY, CONFLICT, AND HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE (DCHA)
OFFICE OF U.S. FOREIGN DISASTER ASSISTANCE (OFDA)

Note: The last situation report was dated October 8, 2008.

BACKGROUND

Since 1991, widespread violence, endemic poverty, recurrent droughts, and floods have generated a complex emergency in Somalia. Continued civil strife and inter-clan conflicts have complicated the humanitarian situation and limited access to affected areas. In addition, ongoing fighting since late December 2006 between the Somalia Transitional Federal Government (TFG), Ethiopian forces, and armed militias opposed to the TFG has led to a further deterioration in humanitarian conditions. As a result, approximately 476,000 Somali refugees have fled the country and more than 1.1 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) are uprooted within Somalia, including long-term IDPs as well as individuals displaced by increased fighting since February 2007.

On November 11, the USAID-supported Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) reported that 3.2 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance in Somalia, representing 43 percent of the total population and a 77 percent increase since January 2008. Despite the onset of near-normal September to December deyr rains, the affected population is expected to remain highly or extremely food insecure depending on location. The combined effects of consecutive seasons of failed or poor rainfall, continuing conflict, rising inflation, massive displacement, and diarrheal disease outbreaks have severely exacerbated the food security situation and resulted in a significant increase in acute malnutrition rates, according to the 2009 U.N. Consolidated Appeals Process for Somalia. U.N. and partner agencies are coordinating efforts to improve access, but insecurity and targeted attacks against relief staff hinder the provision of emergency assistance to affected populations.

On October 31, 2008, U.S. Ambassador to Kenya Michael E. Ranneberger redeclared a disaster in Somalia due to the ongoing complex emergency. In FY 2008 and to date in FY 2009, the U.S. Government (USG) has provided nearly $350 million for emergency food assistance, health, nutrition, livelihoods support, protection, humanitarian coordination and information management, agriculture and food security, and water, sanitation, and hygiene programs, as well as refugee assistance and air operations.

NUMBERS AT A GLANCE
SOURCE
Total Population in Need of Emergency Assistance
3.2 million
FEWS NET - November 2008
Urban Caseload
705,000
FEWS NET - November 2008
IDPs since February 2007
870,000
FEWS NET - November 2008
Long-Term IDPs
275,000
FEWS NET - November 2008
Rural Caseload
1,395,000
FEWS NET - November 2008
Somali Refugees in Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Yemen
476,000
UNHCR Global Trends Report - June 2008


FY 2009 AND FY 2008 HUMANITARIAN FUNDING

USAID/OFDA Assistance to Somalia: $51,215,015
USAID/FFP Assistance to Somalia: $276,915,600
State/PRM Assistance to Somalia: $21,850,000
Total USAID and State Humanitarian Assistance to Somalia: $349,980,615

CURRENT SITUATION

The collective impact of rising food and fuel prices, drought conditions, and widespread insecurity continues to exacerbate food insecurity and malnutrition levels in Somalia. According to FEWS NET, 3.2 million people, or 43 percent of the total population of Somalia, are in need of emergency humanitarian assistance, representing a 77 percent increase since January 2008. The most affected populations are rural populations in southern and central Somalia. However, FEWS NET also notes that new areas of Somalia are now confronting high levels of food insecurity, including Sool, Nugal, and Togdheer regions in the north. Although early September to December deyr rains have replenished water sources and improved browsing conditions in parts of drought-affected Central, Bakool, and Hiran regions, humanitarian emergency conditions continue to deteriorate countrywide, according to FEWS NET.

Map: USG Humanitarian Assistance to Somalia (as of 13 Nov 2008)