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IOM East and Horn of Africa: Drought Response (May - December 2022)

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May - December 2022

SITUATION OVERVIEW

With four consecutive failed rainy seasons, the Horn of Africa (HoA) is facing one of its most severe droughts in at least 40 years. More than 18.5 million people are acutely food insecure in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. Due to below-average rainfall in the current rainy season (March – May 2022), Early forecasts indicate that the October- December 2022 rainy season is also likely to fail (USGS FEWS NET), the numbers are expected to rise, making this the longest drought in the Horn of Africa in at least four decades (OCHA).

While resilience-building efforts across the region have made important progress, the frequency and severity of droughts in recent years, combined with the exceptionally prolonged nature of the 2020-2022 drought, have made it harder and harder for families to recover between shocks. The arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) in the region are prone to recurrent droughts and most severe climatic shocks. The region’s population exceeds 230 million people who are mostly pastoral and agro-pastoral communities dependent on livestock production.

In the context of growing resource scarcity especially over the availability of water linked to climate change and associated livelihood losses, there has been an increase in localized conflict over cattle, crowding at drying waterpoints for livestock, and other sources of competition. The region has also been negatively impacted by the deteriorating macroeconomic conditions and trade disruptions related to the war in Ukraine, at a time when households are still facing the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on livelihoods and income sources.

This has led to a spike in food prices in many droughtaffected areas. This is causing a serious food security crisis accompanied by high malnutrition. For example, in Southern Somalia, Malnutrition rates are as high as 58 per cent in some locations.

Families are using increasingly desperate coping strategies to survive, with more than 1.1 million people across the Horn of Africa leaving their homes in search of food, water, pasture and alternative livelihoods, heightening pressure on already limited basic services.
IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) trends show displacement from rural to peri-urban and urban areas in search of food and water; pastoralists moving even further in search of pasture and water for their livestock, increasing the risk of inter-communal and resource-based conflict. With increased migration, inter-communal conflicts are expected to intensify.
While IOM is actively responding to drought-affected populations, needs are rapidly outpacing capacities, due to limited resources. Prioritization continues to drive the response; humanitarian partners, authorities and local communities have prioritized responses, reprogrammed activities and scaled up assistance to meet the staggeringly increased needs.

IOM also integrates the delivery of early recovery approaches and peacebuilding programming, strengthening the resilience of drought-affected communities on a highly-contextualized understanding based on, IOM’s Humanitarian Development Peace Nexus (HDPN) framework. Sustained and timely humanitarian assistance, improved humanitarian access to conflict-affected areas and urgent additional funding for the outlined priority sectors are needed to prevent the loss of lives and livelihoods, as well as to avert the risk of a more broad-based famine.
This plan presents the aggregation of IOM’s financial requirements to respond to the Horn of Africa drought crisis and has been developed to provide donors a single reference for these requirements. IOM remains fully committed to a closely coordinated and prioritized inter-agency response to this crisis and, to that end, with respect to immediate life-saving requirements, this plan is closely aligned with the respective country-level consolidated humanitarian appeals, which remain the primary basis for joint strategic planning and resource mobilization for the respective country responses, namely the: Kenya Flash Appeal, Ethiopia Drought Response Plan (which is a subset of the Ethiopia Humanitarian Response Plan) and Somalia Drought Response and Famine Prevention Plan (which is a subset of the Somalia Humanitarian Response Plan)

People in need

18.5 Million People acutely food insecure in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia

The region’s population exceeds 230 million people who are mostly pastoral and agro-pastoral communities dependent on livestock production. As climate change leads to unpredictable and extreme weather patterns, the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) in the region are prone to recurrent droughts and most severe climatic shocks.

At the regional and country level IOM works in close coordination with its UN sister agencies and other humanitarian actors. This document presents the respective country contexts and IOM sectors of intervention.