In December 2021, 9,692 movements were observed at Flow Monitoring Points (FMPs) in Djibouti, representing a daily average of 313 movements. Migration flows remained relatively stable (-2%) compared to the month of November 2021, during which an average of 321 movements had been registered daily. It is worth highlighting that migration flows have not yet reached pre-COVID-19 levels (between March 2019 and March 2020, the daily average was 621). Of these 9,692 movements, 1,911 (20%) were observed in Obock. This coastal region of Djibouti is the main gateway for migrants going to and returning from the Arabian Peninsula. Migrants regroup at congregation points in the Obock region where they then cross the Gulf of Aden on boats.
From January to June 2020, the number of entries observed from Djibouti’s western borders decreased by 99 per cent due to the closure of Ethiopian borders. Since Djibouti and Ethiopia resumed land services in July 2020, the number of entries from Ethiopia has increased sharply. They went from 1,307 movements in July 2020 to 5,311 in December 2021. In addition, 16,641 Ethiopian nationals have returned from Yemen since May 2020. Between May 2020 and July 2021, the number of spontaneous returns from Yemen has been multiplied by nine, from 109 to 950. At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, these movements were mainly due to mobility restrictions imposed in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Subsequently, the progressive deterioration of living conditions in Yemen also triggered growing numbers of spontaneous returns, which continue to this day.
However, since August 2021, the average daily number of returns from Yemen has been declining, reaching its lowest level in December 2021 (178 movements).