Djibouti + 5 more

Backgrounder: CIDA's Contribution to the Horn of Africa

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CIDA's Contribution to Djibouti

CIDA's Assistance to Djibouti

Since 1995, Canada, through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), has provided almost $5 million in aid to Djibouti.

Most of the projects in Djibouti are financed by the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives, which provides resources for the implementation of small projects that support the technical, economic, educational, cultural, or social development of local communities. This allows Canadian missions to respond quickly to local requests and development needs. Most of the projects in Djibouti concentrate on fisheries and health, with an emphasis on supporting women's initiatives.

Through core funding to UN organizations and International Financial Institutions with active programming in the drought affected area, Canada is further contributing to the alleviation of poverty and sustainable development in the Horn of Africa.

Background

Djibouti is a free trade zone strategically placed on the Red Sea. Even before the current drought, it was heavily dependent on imported foodstuffs and foreign aid to finance its development. Today, Djibouti's food security is at risk. The drought is affecting grazing land and watering holes that are essential to the well-being of livestock. Since one-third of Djibouti's population of 450,000 are nomadic herders, the survival of livestock is essential.

CIDA's Contribution to Eritrea

CIDA's Assistance to Eritrea

Since 1995, Canada, through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), has provided almost $15 million in development assistance to Eritrea. Canadian assistance to Eritrea has contributed to food security, basic education, the peace process and good governance.

Through core funding to UN organizations and International Financial Institutions with active programming in the drought affected area, Canada is further contributing to the alleviation of poverty and sustainable development in the Horn of Africa.

Examples of CIDA Projects in Eritrea

1. Food Security and Disaster Mitigation Programming

In recent years, a $6 million CIDA project with the Canadian Foodgrains Bank has resulted in major support for the Eritrean Grain Board. It has also helped to improve the management of the distribution, storage and marketing of grain production and imports into Eritrea.

2. Basic Education

A $1.5 million project with UNICEF and the Eritrean Ministry of Education is helping to increase the number of girls attending school in one of Eritrea's poorest regions. The project is also providing more resources for the education system to address the special needs of female students, in a country where only 30% of girls are enrolled in school.

Background

Situated along the northern Red Sea coast of the Horn of Africa, Eritrea is Africa's newest nation, with a population of 3.5 million people. In 1991, it emerged from a devastating 30 year independence struggle with an immense task of reconstruction and nation-building. Currently, the country is involved in a border war with Ethiopia. In 1993, crop pests and drought resulted in an 80% crop failure for most of Eritrea's population, the vast majority of whom are dependent on agriculture. With few natural resources, Eritrea has concentrated on the competitive advantage of its geographic location and industriousness of its people.

CIDA's Contribution to Ethiopia

CIDA's Assistance to Ethiopia

Canadian development assistance to Ethiopia began in 1971. Since 1995, Canada, through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), has contributed $160 million to Ethiopia.

Through core funding to UN organizations and International Financial Institutions with active programming in the drought affected area, Canada is further contributing to the alleviation of poverty and sustainable development in the Horn of Africa.

Canada's aid to Ethiopia has been concentrated on food security and good governance. The food security program comprises three parts:

  • emergency assistance;
  • disaster mitigation;
  • improved household and community food security.

1. Emergency Assistance

On April 20, Minister Minna announced $670,000 for emergency supplies and relief for the regions of Ethiopia most severely hit. Of that amount, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) received $500,000 for medical and emergency supplies and balanced high-protein food supplements to complement existing food aid. The ICRC is also supplying material for the digging of wells and veterinarian medical supplies to help preserve livestock essential to the survival of many agricultural communities. OXFAM-Canada received $170,000 for the supply of clean water and for improvements to existing water sources in the south-eastern area of Ethiopia. OXFAM-Canada is also providing basic health services and urgently needed food supplements for victims of the famine.

On April 20, 2000, Minister Minna announced $7.1 million in food aid for drought victims in Ethiopia. The funding is channelled through World Vision Canada, Canadian Physicians for Aid and Relief, Canadian Lutheran World Relief, and the Canadian Foodgrains Bank.

On April 12, 2000, Minister Minna announced $1.5 million for UNICEF to support emergency operations that are already underway in the Southern and South-eastern areas of Ethiopia. This includes the distribution of medicine and therapeutic feedings for famine victims, as well as water and sanitation projects and education initiatives for those who have been displaced by the drought.

On April 5, 2000, Minister Minna announced a $6.25 million contribution to the World Food Programme as an emergency, interim measure to help purchase, transport, and distribute emergency food supplies for drought victims.

In 1999, CIDA contributed over $9 million in emergency food aid to drought victims in Ethiopia and to help the Ethiopian Food Security Reserve Agency (EFSRA) replenish its stocks. Canada was one of the major contributors to the establishment of EFSRA, which is now playing a key role in coordinating and managing responses from donors and non-governmental organizations to food emergencies.

2. Disaster Mitigation

CIDA is supporting a $7.1 million project to strengthen the Ethiopian government's early warning and disaster response capacity. The five-year project is being implemented by Save the Children-Canada. It is because of this early warning system that CIDA is now contributing to food security in Northern Ethiopia.

3. Household and Community Food Security

In 1995, CIDA began a set of long-term food-for-work projects with Canadian Lutheran World Relief, Canadian Physicians for Aid and Relief, OXFAM Canada, and World Vision Canada. For these projects, Canadian food aid is used as a resource to pay for local labour. The projects support work such as irrigation and transportation, aimed at increasing food production and availability. CIDA has contributed $40 million to this program.

A $15-million CIDA project is also helping Ethiopian institutions design water collection systems in northern Ethiopia, which will improve agricultural production. The project is implemented by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, a division of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. A food-for-work component of this project will allow for the construction of water catchments and irrigation works.

Since 1995, CIDA has been supporting a project to fight malnutrition and infections in five countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. World Vision Canada is implementing this project with local non-governmental organizations such as World Vision and CARE in Ethiopia. Approximately $10 million of the total contribution is going to Ethiopia.

Background

Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world. More than 80% of its population of 60 million live in rural areas where agriculture is the cornerstone of the economy. Over the past three decades, Ethiopia has been plagued by poor rainfall and recurring drought. This has proved to be a major challenge for Ethiopia's agricultural sector and has led to severe crop failures, as well as food and water shortages. In 1993, the situation finally began to improve and food production increased.

In the last three years, sporadic and untimely rainfall in a number of regions once again resulted in a major agricultural crisis. Today, one of Ethiopia's most serious problems continues to be food security: 4 to 5 % of the population is in a state of chronic food insecurity and a further 30 to 40 % are vulnerable to seasonal food shortages. The country is also currently involved in a border war with Eritrea.

CIDA's Contribution to Kenya

CIDA's Assistance to Kenya

Canada, through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), has been providing development assistance to Kenya since the early 1960s. Since 1995, CIDA has provided over $110 million in development assistance to Kenya.

CIDA's assistance to Kenya focuses on poverty reduction, specifically, improving basic education and gender equality. CIDA has also supported projects in community health, the provision of safe water supply and human rights.

Through core funding to UN organizations and International Financial Institutions with active programming in the drought affected area, Canada is further contributing to the alleviation of poverty and sustainable development in the Horn of Africa.

Examples of CIDA Projects in Kenya

1. Food Aid

Two CIDA projects are strengthening long-term food security in the region. National researchers are developing improved maize and wheat varieties and crop management practices for the well-being of farmers. Twenty countries benefit from these projects, including Kenya. CIDA has contributed $10 million to these projects.

2. Poverty Reduction

CIDA is supporting a $2.1 million project to improve the standard of living of nomadic pastoralists in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya. This four-year project with Partners in Rural Development, is helping pastoralist communities to better manage their own well-being and their available resources.

3. Health

CIDA is supporting a five-year $4.7 million project that is increasing awareness and the prevention of HIV/AIDS. In this project, the University of Manitoba, in collaboration with the University of Nairobi, is working with clinics in Kenya to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and promote a reduction in high-risk behaviour among commercial sex workers.

CIDA has also provided $240,000 in funding to Compassion Canada of London, Ontario, for a two-year project that will educate community leaders in Kenya on issues related to HIV/AIDS.

4. Education

CIDA is helping to improve access to primary education for girls. One $900,000 project is supporting the Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE) in its effort to increase female participation in education across Africa, including in Kenya.

5. Gender Equity

A six-year gender equity project is promoting the full participation of women in Kenya as equal partners in the sustainable development of their society. This project supports activities and programs proposed by a variety of Kenyan organizations and institutions that offer training, research, encouragement, and managerial and technical advice to women in Kenya. CIDA has contributed $5 million to this project.

Background

Kenya is the most industrialized country in East Africa. It has a well-developed infrastructure, transportation facilities, and considerable private sector activity. Despite this, Kenya is still a poor country, with a population of 31.8 million people, an average annual income of $400, and a life expectancy of 54 years. Agriculture remains the sole source of income for most people, with 80% of the labour force making their living from the land.

Over the years, Kenya has experienced slow economic growth, drought, smaller landholdings, and a growing population. In 1999, sporadic and poorly distributed rainfall led to crop failures in agricultural regions. The drought-like conditions have dried up pasture and water used for livestock, which are the main source of food and income for the pastoralists in Northern Kenya, who depend on livestock as their primary source of income. The World Food Programme estimates that over 2 million people are currently affected by the drought in the country.

CIDA's Contribution to Somalia

CIDA's Assistance to Somalia

Canada, through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), has contributed close to $16 million to Somalia since 1995, of which $2.3 million was destined for humanitarian assistance and $3.5 million for food aid.

Most of the projects in Somalia are financed by the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives, designed to pay for the implementation of small projects that support the technical, economic, educational, cultural, or social development of local communities. This allows Canadian missions to respond quickly to local requests and development needs. Most of the projects concentrate on revitalizing the micro-economy of the community and supporting household food security.

Through core funding to UN organizations and International Financial Institutions with active programming in the drought affected area, Canada is further contributing to the alleviation of poverty and sustainable development in the Horn of Africa.

Background

In Somalia, recurrent drought leading to frequent famine and continued clan-based fighting have led to families fleeing their homes, particularly in the southern parts of the country. In addition to the difficult climate and security environment, Somalia does not have a functioning central government. Of a total population of more than 7 million, some 1.2 to 1.5 million people are at risk of starving.

CIDA's Contribution to Sudan

CIDA's Assistance to Sudan

Canada suspended government-to-government assistance to Sudan in 1992, due to serious concerns about the human rights record of the Government of Sudan.

Canada's aid to Sudan is focused on emergency humanitarian assistance and promoting the search for peace. Since 1995, Canada, through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), has provided over $42 million in humanitarian assistance and peacebuilding efforts in Sudan.

Through core funding of UN organizations and International Financial Institutions with active programming in the drought affected area, Canada is further contributing to the alleviation of poverty and sustainable development in the Horn of Africa.

Examples of CIDA Projects in Sudan

1. Emergency Humanitarian Assistance

Over the last two years, CIDA provided more than $17.5 million to Canadian non-governmental and international organizations for emergency humanitarian assistance to Sudan. Funding was channelled through organizations such as UNICEF, the World Food Programme, Doctors without Borders Canada, World Vision Canada, and the International Committee of the Red Cross to provide medical assistance, food, seeds, tools, clean water and cooking supplies. It also helped to provide air transportation of relief supplies, and therapeutic feeding programs for children under five and malnourished adults.

2. Peacebuilding

Since 1994, Canada has been working with other donor countries to support regional African efforts towards peace. CIDA provided $100,000 to the Inter-Africa Group, a regional non-governmental organization which organizes expert support for the peace process and $100,000 to finance some of the costs of an international conference on the role of women in the Sudan peace process.

In July 1999, Canada announced a contribution of $300,000 to support the peace process in Sudan. Funding was provided to the Intergovernmental Authority for Development's (IGAD) Sudan Peace Talks Secretariat.

Background

Sudan, with a population of more than 34 million people, has been torn by 15 years of civil war and human rights abuses. The country has also been affected by drought, crop failures, and a famine that has been threatening more than 700,000 people living in the southern province of Bahr-el-Ghazal.

The conflict in Sudan is now on the agenda of the official peace talks sponsored by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), a group of seven countries in the Horn of Africa whose mandate is conflict prevention, economic cooperation and food security.

Information:

Media Relations Office

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)

Telephone: 819 953-6534

E-mail: info@acdi-cida.gc.ca

=A9 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 1999