Report of the Secretary-General on the implementation of the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Region (S/2017/825)
- The present report is submitted pursuant to Security Council resolution 2348 (2017), in which the Council requested a report on the implementation of the commitments under the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Region. 1 It covers developments since the issuance of the latest report of 10 March 2017 (S/2017/208) and provides information on peace and security developments in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Great Lakes region up to 15 September 2017.
II. Major developments
A. Security situation
The security situation in the region was affected by the activities of armed groups in North Kivu, South Kivu, Ituri and Tanganyika provinces and the crisis in the Kasai region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Persisting conflicts in the Central African Republic and in South Sudan, as well as the political situation in Burundi and tensions in the Pool region in the Republic of the Congo, created additional challenges to peace and security in the region.
As detailed in the latest reports on the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), despite cooperation between and continuing military operations by the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) and MONUSCO, foreign and Congolese armed groups, notably the Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda (FDLR), the Allied Democratic Forces and several Mai-Mai groups, perpetrated violence and human rights abuses against civilians, attacked security agents and institutions and engaged in illegal economic activities, including illicit exploitation of and trade in natural resources. New armed group alliances such as the Mouvement national pour la révolution in North Kivu and the Coalition nationale du peuple pour la souveraineté du Congo in South Kivu seemed to deliberately target the Congolese security forces and symbols of state authority.
The crisis in the Kasai region in western Democratic Republic of the Congo resulted in high levels of violence and human rights violations against civilians. It also threatened regional peace and security, following the influx of Congolese refugees into Angola, leading the Government of Angola to reinforce its security presence in the border areas.
There was a relative lull in fighting in the Kasai region during the reporting period, although there were periodic instances of serious violence, such as in Tshikapa (Kasai) and Luiza territory (Kasai Central), with women and children continuing to account for a significant portion of the victims. Ethnically ba sed violence continued, with clashes between Kamuina Nsapu, some of whom have an allegiance to the Luba and Lulua communities, and the emerging Bana Mura militia, generally comprised of individuals from the Tshokwe, Pende and Tetela ethnic groups. Clashes took place in Kamonia and Luiza territories (Kasai Central). The Bana Mura, which has received some support from prominent political figures in Kasai, was allegedly armed and supported by State security forces and local chiefs.
In the context of the political crisis and the stalled transition, violence continued to spread into western Democratic Republic of the Congo. In Kongo Central and Kinshasa, strategic facilities and Congolese security forces were recently targeted by Bundu Dia Kongo (BDK) and Bundu Dia Mayala (BDM).
Violence perpetrated by the latter in the Congolese capital and the neighbouring Kongo Central province on 7 August resulted in the death of 70 persons.
Security incidents also occurred along the border between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic, as a result of the activities of the Lord’s Resistance Army, which had increased again in the context of the withdrawal of United States Africa Command troops and the drawdown of the African Union-led Regional Cooperation Initiative for the Elimination of the Lord’s Resistance Army. Furthermore, the conflict in South Sudan exacerbated insecurity along the border of South Sudan with those two countries. At the time of finalizing the present report, 577 members of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/ArmyIn Opposition (SPLM/A-IO) remained on MONUSCO premises near Goma, and little progress was made towards their repatriation or resettlement in a third country during the reporting period.
In Uganda, intercommunal tensions in the Kasese district, near the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, continued to raise concern. Tensions also increased along the Ugandan border with South Sudan as a result of the continued influx of refugees fleeing conflict in South Sudan.