Midterm report of the Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo (S/2019/974)
During the period under review, a new Government was appointed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo (the Group) has begun to establish working relations with the new authorities at the local, provincial and national levels.
The Group notes that, since the outset of its mandate, there have been increased armed clashes between the armed groups Nduma défense du Congo-Rénové (NDC-R) and the Collectif des mouvements pour le changement (CMC) in Masisi and Rutshuru territories, North Kivu Province. NDC-R continued to recruit and expand while its leader, sanctioned individual Guidon Shimiray Mwissa (permanent reference number CDi.033 on the sanctions list of the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1533 (2004) concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo), remained at large and subject to a Congolese arrest warrant. NDC-R continued to receive arms and ammunition from some members of the armed forces, the Forces armées de la République démocratique du Congo (FARDC).
The Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) remained a serious threat to peace and stability in Beni and Irumu territories and continued to attack civilians and FARDC positions. ADF came under pressure following the launch, on 30 October 2019, of FARDC operations against its stronghold. Although Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as Da’esh) had publicly claimed responsibility for several attacks carried out in Beni territory, the Group was unable to confirm any direct link between ISIL and ADF at the time of writing the present report.
In Minembwe, South Kivu Province, a Mai-Mai armed group coalition led by Mai-Mai Yakutumba affiliated with Babembe, Bafuliru, Bavira and Banyindu communities clashed with Ngomino and Twigwaneho armed groups affiliated with the Banyamulenge community. The Group continued to document the activities of the armed group Résistance pour un État de droit (RED)-Tabara in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Group found that, since 10 June 2019, multiple attacks had predominantly targeted the Hema population of Djugu territory, Ituri Province. The Group established that Lendu militias had carried out these attacks, although it remained obscure how many militias there were and how they were structured and organiz ed. Some members of the Congolese security forces who have been deployed in Djugu territory to protect the population from these attacks also committed exactions against the population.
On natural resources, preliminary findings indicated that armed groups including NDC-R, Mai-Mai Yakutumba and Nyatura factions, criminal networks and some members of the Congolese security forces were involved in the illicit production of and trade in minerals, in some cases facilitated by financial networks. The Group further notes that new gold refineries have been established within States members of the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region and that one was planned in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Group observed potential violations of the arms embargo and non-compliance on the part of supplier States with the requirement to notify to the Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1533 (2004) in advance of the delivery of arms, related military equipment and provision of training.
Sanctioned individual Sylvestre Mudacumura (CDi.012), also known as Mupenzi Bernard or Pharaon de Poeto, commander of the Forces combattantes abacunguzi, was killed on 18 September 2019.