Costa Rica + 6 more

Central America Region Appeal No. 01.50/2003

Format
Appeal
Source
Posted
Originally published

Attachments


2003
(In CHF)
20042
(In CHF)
1. Health and Care
827,669
556,119
2. Disaster Management
624,171
450,610
3. Humanitarian Values
221,711
186,336
4. Organizational Development
1,804,684
1,296,568
5. Federation Coordination
284,920
239,460
6. International Representation
112,139
94,246
Total
3,875,3231
2,823,333
1 USD 2,656,745 or EUR 2,630,556.
2 These are preliminary budget figures for 2004, and are subject to revision.

Introduction

Due to the varying levels of development of the National Societies in the region - a direct reflection of the political and socio-economic diversity of the countries themselves - there exists a wide range of Red Cross realities and therefore a spectrum of priorities which guide each of them in their day to day work. For details on each of the National Societies in the Central American region: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama, please see the individual country strategy documents.

Regional Context

Indicator
Mexico
Guatemala
El Salvador
Honduras
Nicaragua
Costa Rica
Panama
Country ranking HDI 54 120 104 116 118 43 57
Total population (millions) 98.9 11.4 6.3 6.4 5.1 4.0 2.9
% of the population living below $1/day 15.9 10 21.0 24.3 - 12.6 14.0
% of the population living below national poverty line 10.1 57.9 48.3 53.0 50.3 22 37.3
GDP per capita (US$) 9,023 3,821 4,497 2,453 2,366 8,650 6,000
Infant mortality per 1,000 live births 25 44 34 32 37 10 20
Under 5 mortality per 1,000 live births 30 59 40 40 45 12 26
Maternal mortality rate per 100,000 live births 55 190 120 110 150 29 70
% of births attended by skilled health staff 86 41 51 54 65 98 90
% of total population undernourished 5 22 12 21 29 5 16
% of population using improved water sources 86 92 74 90 79 98 87
% of population using adequate sanitation facilities 73 85 83 77 84 96 94
% of people living with HIV/ AIDS 0.28 1.00 0.60 1.60 0.20 0.55 1.50
Annual population growth rate % 1.2 2.4 1.6 2.0 2.4 1.8 1.3
% of population under 15 yrs of age 33.1 43.6 35.6 41.8 42.6 32.4 31.3
% of population aged 65 and above 6.8 3.5 5.0 3.4 3.0 5.1 5.5
Net primary school enrolment ratio % 100 83 81 - - - -
Adult illiteracy rate % Male age 15 + 6.6 23.9 28.4 25.3 33.7 4.5 7.5
Adult illiteracy rate % Female age 15 + 10.5 38.8 23.9 25.5 33.2 4.3 8.7

Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama are characterized by medium to high human development. However, in comparison with the rankings in 2001, each of the countries is lower on the index in 2002. Modest economic growth in 2002 has tended to benefit the wealthy elite and has done little to reduce the major inequalities that have long characterized economies in the region. The chart below shows HDI rankings in 2002, as compared to those in 1975.

Source: Human development report 2002
HDI Ranking 2002
Rankings compared to 1975
Rankings compared to 1999
Human Development
Costa Rica
43
down 3
up 2
high
Mexico
54
-
down 4
medium
Panama
57
down 1
down 8
medium
El Salvador
104
up 3
up 3
medium
Honduras
116
down 3
down 2
medium
Nicaragua
118
down 9
up 3
medium
Guatemala
120
down 1
down 3
medium

A majority underclass of landless peasants and urban unemployed is expanding, with thousands migrating each year from rural areas to the cities. Currently more than 60% of the region's population resides in or around major cities, and the trend toward urbanization continues unabated. Furthermore, environmental degradation, particularly deforestation, increases vulnerability to natural disasters.

Along with the inevitable toll in deaths and property damages wrought by repeated natural disasters in the Americas, recent advances in social and economic development have also been disrupted, and in many cases, turned back completely. In Honduras, it is estimated that an additional 165,000 people fell below the poverty line due to losses in property and income resulting from hurricane Mitch. Health professionals in El Salvador claim that the 2001 earthquakes set back coverage for some water and sanitation services by 20 years. Likewise, fluctuations in the incidence of previously controlled infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, dengue and cholera reflect increased health risks and greater dispersion of services following disasters. The report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic by UNAIDS warns, "the epidemic in Latin America and the Caribbean is well established and is in danger of spreading both more quickly and more widely in the absence of effective responses". It further states "among the factors helping to drive the spread of HIV is the combination of unequal social economic development and high population mobility". In Central America the epidemic is worsening chiefly among socially marginalized populations.

Central America is characterized by vast divides between different social groups: between rich and poor, men and women and between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. This inequity has led to extreme poverty and excluded many from access to social services and the benefits of development. Alongside major cities are vast zones of poverty and low productivity, generally in rural areas and along the borders.

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