As of 5 November 2020, there were 4,6 million refugees and migrants from the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Venezuela) living in Latin America and the Caribbean.1 Since 2017, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) has conducted surveys in 16 host countries and inside Venezuela with mobile and stationary populations, at border crossings, along migratory routes, and in those areas with a high concentration of refugees and migrants from Venezuela. Although this data is not representative,2 it is possible to conduct a gender analysis of human mobility from Venezuela. To respond in a dignified, appropriate and safe manner to the human mobility crisis, the needs, skills and opportunities of various affected groups, such as women, must be analysed.3 In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic aggravated the conditions of access to services and the guarantee of women's rights,4 which is why it is essential to have a disaggregated analysis of data collected through the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM).
This paper, which is the fourth in a series of four,5 presents and analyses information collected by DTM in 2019, focusing on gender-based violence (GBV) and risk factors faced by migrant and refugee women from Venezuela, as well as the main difficulties they experienced.
Venezuelan migrant and refugee women reported that their main priority needs are the following: income/ employment (28%), legal support (19%), document assistance (16%) and medical help (16%).
At the same time, the four main difficulties during the trip reported by women were: lack of resources (67%), lack of food/water (35%), lack of means of transport (33%) and lack of information (33%).
The most frequently mentioned types of violence suffered by surveyed women were: physical violence (35%), verbal violence (25%), psychological violence (11%) and sexual violence (10%).
Forty per cent of the women surveyed responded that they had experienced discrimination and 86 per cent of them reported that it had been based on their nationality.