Colombia: Plan de Respuesta Humanitaria, Enero - Diciembre 2017 | Nov 2016 [EN/ES]

PANORAMA DE LA CRISIS

Cerca de 4,9 millones de personas en Colombia necesitan asistencia humanitaria como consecuencia de la violencia, el conflicto armado y los desastres naturales.

La atención humanitaria y el cumplimiento de las obligaciones internacionales de derechos humanos deben continuar siendo una prioridad en el escenario presente.

Como resultado de las acciones de desescalamiento del conflicto con las FARC-EP, se ha evidenciado una reducción de las acciones armadas que han tenido un impacto positivo en algunos indicadores humanitarios; en especial las relacionadas con el desplazamiento masivo, los ataques a la población civil, y las acciones bélicas.

Sin embargo, la victoria del “no” en el plebiscito por la paz el 2 de octubre de 2016 ha generado un clima de incertidumbre en el país para implementar lo acordado y avanzar con el proceso de dejación de armas y desmovilización de las FARC-EP.

Al mismo tiempo, otros actores como el ELN, el EPL y los grupos armados organizados, y otros grupos armados post-desmovilización continúan representando una amenaza para la protección de civiles en especial para los grupos en mayor situación de riesgos y vulnerabilidad como las mujeres, niñas, niños, adolescentes y grupos étnicos. Las acciones armadas de estos grupos preocupan a los miembros del Equipo Humanitario de País y comprometen la construcción y consolidación de una paz sostenible. El inicio de diálogos públicos con el ELN en octubre de 2016 podría tener un impacto positivo, particularmente en las zonas donde la presencia de este grupo armado ha tenido un mayor impacto en la población.

Sin embargo, mientras no se tomen medidas de desescalamiento del conflicto con este grupo, es posible que se sigan presentando emergencias humanitarias que requieran del apoyo y complementariedad de la comunidad internacional.

En los primeros ocho meses de 2016 se evidencia una disminución significativa en la medición de algunos indicadores del conflicto; no obstante también hay un aumento de otras formas de intimidación y control social, como las amenazas, las restricciones a la movilidad y limitaciones al acceso a bienes y servicios básicos por causas relacionadas con la violencia armada.

Según el monitoreo de OCHA, los eventos de amenazas registraron un incremento del 34 por ciento en los pimeros ocho meses de 2016, frente al mismo periodo del año anterior. Las amenazas son cada vez más utilizadas por los grupos armados y otros actores irregulares para generar zozobra e intimidar a la población. Defensores y defensoras de derechos humanos, líderes sociales, maestros, niños, niñas, adolescentes y jóvenes (NNAJ), funcionarios públicos y organizaciones sociales son por lo general los principales afectados. Los medios más empleados para la amenaza e intimidación son los panfletos, mensajes de texto y correos electrónicos. Se destacan en particular las amenazas contra lideresas y organizaciones de mujeres que algunos analistas han vinculado a la participación e involucramiento de estas organizaciones en los temas de paz, y contra organizaciones y lideres sociales que han apoyado el proceso de paz.

PANORAMA OF THE CRISIS

Nearly 4.9 million people in Colombia are in need of humanitarian assistance as a result of violence, armed conflict and natural disasters. Humanitarian assistance and compliance with international humanitarian law and Human Rights remain a priority in the current country context.

Generally, armed hostilities have decreased following the adoption of de-escalation measures by the FARC-EP guerrillas. This has positively impacted several humanitarian indicators, particularly those related to mass displacement and attacks on civilians. Nonetheless, the referendum and related rejection of the peace accord on 2 October 2016 created a climate of uncertainty in the country around implementation, disarmament and the demobilization of the FARC-EP.

At the same time, other actors such as the National Liberation Army (ELN) and Army for the People (EPL) guerrillas, and other organized armed groups including those which formed after the demobilization of paramilitary groups, continue to threaten civilians. Particularly at risk and vulnerable are women, children, adolescents and ethnic minorities. Continuing armed actions concern the Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) and require sustained peace-building and consolidation efforts. The initiation of public negotiations with the ELN in October 2016 could generate positive impacts, particularly in areas where this guerrilla group has had a significant impact on the local population; however, until effective de-escalation measures are adopted, humanitarian issues are likely to persist and will require complementary international assistance.

During the first eight months of 2016, several conflict indicators have decreased. At the same time, other forms of intimidation and social control such as threats, movement restrictions, and limitations to accessing basic goods and services due to armed violence are on the rise. Threats – via pamphlets, text messages and e-mails – are increasingly used by armed groups to sow terror and fear in the population. OCHA has recorded a 34 per cent increase in the use of threats during the first eight months of 2016, as compared to the same period in 2015. Mainly threatened are Human rights activists, civil-society leaders, school teachers, children and adolescents and public officials, and particularly women’s groups and organizations involved in the peace process.

Conflict- and violence-related restrictions to movement and for accessing basic goods and services continue to generate humanitarian needs. Access restrictions continue to be caused mainly by social control through threats and the imposition of ‘armed strikes’, as well as armed confrontations over territorial control related to illicit economies. For example, between January and August 2016, more than 2.6 million people were affected by ‘armed strikes’ organized by the Clan del Golfo and the ELN. These events, although of short duration, intimidated the population and limited movement and daily activities, restricting access to basic goods and services.

Official data by the Government’s Victim Unit (Unidad para la Atención y Reparación Integral a las Víctimas, UARIV) indicates that 32,464 people registered as internally displaced between January and August 2016. However, based on trends in past years OCHA estimates that, once the official IDP registry is updated, the number of IDPs which were registered throughout 2016 is likely to rise to around 100,000.

This underlines the persistence of forced displacement in the country. OCHA estimates that the proportion between mass displacement and individual displacement is one to nine.1 Between January and August 2016, OCHA registered a 21 per cent drop in mass displacements compared to the same period in 2015, with indigenous and Afro-Colombian remaining to be disproportionately affected. In 2016, a total of 9,121 people were mass displaced, of whom 27 per cent were Afro-Colombian and 43 per cent indigenous. Geographically, Chocó and Norte de Santander departments are most affected.

In Chocó, between February and August 2016, more than 9,000 people from indigenous and afro-colombian communities were mass displaced; more than 8,000 suffered movement restrictions due to clashes between the ELN and Clan del Golfo, as well as military operations against the ELN. It is likely that humanitarian emergencies continue to occur in this area due to its strategic importance for several armed actors. Many affected locations are hard to access, challenging the HCT’s capacity to ensure protection by presence and respond. Chocó has been impacted by the armed conflict for a long time, rendering an integral response and durable solutions particularly challenging.

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs:

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