- TROPICAL CYCLONE SUMMARIES FOR 1986
In 1986 thirty tropical cyclones developed over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea (i.e. the area between the equator and 45°N and between 100°E and 180°). Nineteen of them attained typhoon intensity, which was higher than the average number of 16 per year. Four tropical cyclones landed over China, nine crossed or passed close to the Philippines, two affected Japan, two landed over Korea, three landed over the island of Taiwan and another five landed over Viet Nam. Two tropical cyclones came close to Hong Kong.
The monthly distribution of the frequency of first occurrence of tropical cyclones is shown in Figure 1 and a brief summary is contained in Table 1. Six-hourly positions of these tropical cyclones together with their estimated minimum central pressures and maximum sustained surface winds are tabulated in Section 5. The monthly mean frequency of first occurrence of tropical cyclones during the 30 years 1951-1980 is given in Figure 2.
During the year there were sixteen tropical cyclones in Hong Kong's area of responsibility for tropical cyclone warnings for shipping, (i.e. the area bounded by 10°N, 30°N, 105°E and 125°E) compared with the 30-year annual average of seventeen. Eleven tropical cyclones moved into this area and five developed within it. Altogether 551 warnings for shipping were issued by the Royal Observatory in connection with these tropical cyclones.
Tropical cyclone warning signals were displayed in Hong Kong for four tropical cyclones. Gale signals were hoisted during the passage of Typhoon Peggy (8607) in July and Typhoon Wayne (8614) in August.
The total tropical cyclone rainfall (defined as the total rainfall recorded at the Royal Observatory, Hong Kong from the first day when a tropical cyclone was centred within 600 km of Hong Kong to the end of the third day after the tropical cyclone has dissipated or moved outside 600 km of Hong Kong) during 1986 amounted to 820.6 mm, which is 45 percent above the annual average value of 566.9 mm (1884-1939 and 1947-1970). It accounted for 35 percent of the year's total rainfall of 2338.3 mm. Six tropical cyclones came within 600 km of Hong Kong. Tropical Storm Mac (8604) and Severe Tropical Storm Ida (8624), for which no warning signals were hoisted in Hong Kong, brought I.I mm and 100.4 mm respectively. Rainfall figures associated with the other four tropical cyclones are given in Table 9.
There was only one tropical cyclone over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea during the first three months of the year. Judy (8601) developed as a tropical depression about 740 km southeast of Yap on 1 February and moved northwestwards. It recurved about 850 km west-northwest of Yap on the evening of 3 February and intensified into a typhoon on 4 February when it was centred about 950 km northwest of the island. Judy finally dissipated about 640 km north-northwest of Guam on 6 February.
Ken (8602) was the only tropical cyclone over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea during April. Ken formed as a tropical depression about 270 km southeast of Yap early on 26 April and drifted northwards slowly. It intensified into a typhoon on 28 April about 130 km east of Yap. Ken turned westwards gradually overnight, weakened on 29 April and eventually dissipated over the Pacific about 390 km west-northwest of the island early on 3 May.
Besides Ken, two other tropical cyclones occurred over the western North Pacific and the. South China Sea in May. Lola (8603) formed about I 780 km east-southeast of Guam early on 17 May. It moved slowly at first and intensified rapidly to a typhoon the next day. Lola took a northwesterly track on 19 May but turned northwards on 21 May over the Pacific about 800 km northeast of Guam. It turned northeastwards early on 22 May and passed about 290 km northwest ofMinamitorishima on the same day. Lola became extratropical on 23 May while accelerating northeastwards towards the Aleutian Islands.
Tropical Storm Mac (8604) formed over the northern part of the South China Sea about 260 km west-southwest of Dongsha on 23 May. It moved eastwards initially but turned northeastwards over the Bashi Channel near Batan on 26 May. Mac became almost stationary in the evening of 27 May about 200 km southeast of Taibei. It then adopted an east-northeast course on 28 May. After passing to the south of the Ryukyu Islands, Mac dissipated about 240 km southeast of Okinawa on 29 May.
Two tropical cyclones developed over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea in June. Nancy (8605) developed as a tropical depression about 1 450 km east-southeast of Manila on 21 June and moved northwestwards. It passed about 180 km to the northeast of Luzon and intensified into a typhoon about 110 km southeast of Batan on 23 June. It skirted the eastern coast of the island of Taiwan and passed close to Taibei early on 24 June. In Taiwan, I person was missing and two others injured when their fishing boat capsized off the eastern coastal waters. Nancy recurved northeastwards on the afternoon of 24 June and accelerated rapidly to a speed of about 60 km/h that night. It crossed the southern coast of Korea about 320 km south-southeast of Seoul on the morning of 25 June and became an extratropical depression over the Sea of Japan soon after. In southern Korea, 12 people were killed and about 10 000 hectares of farmland were inundated.
Owen (8606) formed about l 530 km east of Manila on 28 June. It became a tropical storm early on 29 June and moved generally northwestwards. Owen recurved east-northeast of Luzon on I July and dissipated about 140 km southeast of Okinawa on 2 July.
Altogether three tropical cyclones formed over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea during July. Peggy (8607) developed as a tropical depression over the western Pacific about 770 km east of Guam on 3 July and moved westwards. It intensified into a typhoon on 5 July and took a west-northwestward course the next day. During the morning of 9 July, Peggy crossed northern Luzon, bringing about a death toll of 93 in the Philippines. Peggy moved northwestwards over the South China Sea. In the afternoon of 11 July, Peggy crossed the China coast near Shanwei, killing about 210 people in eastern Guangdong and 13 people in the province of Fujian. In Hong Kong, a six-year-old boy was drowned. Peggy finally degenerated into an area of low pressure about 430 km west-northwest of Hong Kong late on 12 July.
Roger (8608) formed about 380 km north-northwest of Guam on 12 July. Moving northwestwards, it intensified into a typhoon about 450 km southeast of Okinawa on 15 July. It recurved northeastwards over the Ryukyus on 16 July and passed about 90 km southeast of Kagoshima early on 17 July. Roger then accelerated eastnortheastwards off the coast of Japan and, moving at about 57 km/h, passed about 140 km south-southeast of Tokyo early on 18 July. Roger became extratropical about 500 km east-southeast of Tokyo that afternoon.
Sarah (8610) developed about 1 190 km east of Manila on 30 July. It moved west-northwestwards and became a tropical storm the following day.
In August, six tropical cyclones occurred over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea. Tropical Storm Sarah which moved westwards towards the Philippines late in July, remained slow-moving and weakened over Luzon on 2 August. At the same time, another centre of circulation developed over the sea about 470 km northeast of Manila. This centre subsequently became the main centre of Sarah and intensified into a severe tropical storm on 3 August. It accelerated northeastwards and became extratropical about I 10 km east of Tokyo late on 4 August. Serious damage was inflicted in Japan. At least 14 people were killed and 60 others injured. About 80 houses were destroyed and 54 000 houses flooded.
A tropical depression formed near Xisha on 9 August and moved on a west-northwesterly track, crossing Hainan on 11 August. It landed about 100 km east of Hanoi early on 12 August and dissipated inland soon after. The tropical depression brought heavy rain to western Guangdong and Guangxi on 11 and 12 August. On Hainan, 2 people were drowned. In western Guangdong, about 52 000 hectares of farmland were inundated. In Guangxi, 15 counties near Nanning were affected and about 7 000 people were stranded by floods.
Georgette (8611) moved westwards across the date-line from the central Pacific on the evening of 8 August. It intensified into a typhoon on 11 August about 490 km southeast of Wake Island. Moving northwestwards, Georgette passed over Wake Island around noon on 13 August. On the same day, Tropical Storm Tip (8612) developed about 980 km west of Georgette. These two tropical cyclones then interacted with each other and Georgette finally dissipated within the circulation of Tip about 610 km south-southeast of Minamitorishima on 15 August. Tip became a typhoon on 16 August and recurved near Minamitorishima the following morning. It moved generally eastwards from 17 to 19 August and turned northwards on 20 August. Tip finally became extratropical about 1 900 km east of Tokyo on 21 August.
Vera (8613) developed about 1 020 km east-northeast of Manila on 15 August. It was slow-moving during the first two days and moved northeastwards on 17 August. Vera moved in an anticlockwise loop on 18 August about 420 km west-southwest of Iwo Jima. It moved eastwards between 19 and 21 August and intensified into a typhoon on 20 August. Vera slowed down and made a complete turn to the west while it was about 540 km southeast oflwo Jima on 22 August. On 24 August, Vera moved west-northwestwards and passed close to Okinawa early on 26 August, killing 1 fisherman there. Vera turned northwards overnight and passed about 290 km east of Shanghai on 27 August. In Shanghai, 7 people were killed and 28 were injured. Power supply and transportation were seriously disrupted. In Shengsi Qundao off the coast of Shanghai, 1 person was killed, 7 were reported missing, and 70 fishing boats were sunk. Vera passed close to Seoul on the evening of 28 August and finally became extratropical about 420 km south-southwest of Vladivostok on 29 August. In southern Korea, 14 people were killed, 13 were reported missing and 78 others were injured. Economic loss was estimated at US$22 million. In the Soviet Far East, Vera caused severe floods near Vladivostok and about 40 000 hectares of farmland were inundated.
Wayne (8614) developed as a tropical depression over the South China Sea about 360 km west-northwest of Manila on 18 August. It moved northwestwards and intensified into a typhoon the next afternoon. It turned northeastwards and passed about 100 km southeast of Hong Kong early on 21 August. On 22 August, Wayne crossed Taiwan where at least 52 people were killed, 24 people were missing and 300 others were injured. According to the press, economic damage was estimated at about US$343 million. On 23 August, Wayne weakened and reversed its course. After skirting the southern tip of the island of Taiwan, Wayne entered the South China Sea on 25 August and moved southwestwards. During the early hours of 27 August, Wayne turned eastwards under the influence of Typhoon Vera which was centred over the East China Sea about 440 km northeast of Taibei. On 28 August Wayne moved northeastwards across the Balintang Channel. Wayne became slow-moving over the Bashi Channel near Batan between 29 and 31 August and re-intensified into a typhoon on 31 August.
Altogether four tropical cyclones occurred over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea during September. Typhoon Wayne (8614), which was slow-moving over the Bashi Channel in late August, moved southwestwards on 1 September and passed about 40 km north of Luzon during the night of 2 September. Wayne caused the death of 36 people in the Philippines and brought heavy rain to northern Luzon. About 20 000 people were affected. On 3 September, Wayne entered the South China Sea once again. It passed about 300 km south of Hong Kong on the evening of 4 September. Around noon on 5 September, Wayne passed about 20 km north of Haikou, bringing heavy rain and severe floods to Hainan and western Guangdong. On Hainan, 2 people were killed, 3 were missing and 52 injured. Damage to property, crops and public utilities was estimated at US$56 million. Early on 6 September, Wayne crossed the Viet Nam coast about 100 km southeast of Hanoi. The typhoon finally dissipated over Laos about 220 km north of Vientiane that evening. Severe damage was inflicted in Viet Nam. About 400 people were killed and 2 500 injured.
A tropical depression (8615) formed over the Pacific about 660 km south of Tokyo on 2 September. It landed over Honshu about 100 km southwest of Tokyo early on 3 September. The tropical depression turned northeastwards and passed near Tokyo around noon. It then accelerated along the east coast of Honshu and dissipated on re-entering the Pacific early on 4 September.
Abby (8616) developed over the Pacific about 240 km south-southeast of Guam on 13 September. It moved west-northwestwards and intensified to a typhoon on 17 September about 820 km southeast of Taibei. On 19 September, Abby crossed Taiwan along a northwesterly track, then recurved towards the northeast over the Taiwan Strait in the evening and weakened rapidly. It became extratropical over the East China Sea about 410 km southeast of Shanghai late on 20 September. Abby brought substantial damage to Taiwan. According to press reports, 13 people were killed, over 200 houses were damaged. Power supply to 2 million households was interrupted and traffic was disrupted on 18 and 19 September. Agricultural damage was estimated at US$8 l million.
Ben (8617) originated as a tropical depression over the Pacific about 1 690 km east-southeast of Guam on the morning of 19 September. It attained typhoon intensity on the afternoon of 23 September before passing west-northwestwards over the Mariana Islands during the night. It then turned to the northwest on 25 September about 1 000 km northwest of Guam and drifted northward slowly the next day. On 26 September a fishing boat capsized about 650 km north of Guam and 13 people were missing. Ben took up a north-northeast track on 27 September, passing about 60 km west oflwo Jima on the morning of28 September. It accelerated north-eastwards on 29 September and became extratropical about I 070 km east of Honshu on 30 September.
Five tropical cyclones developed over the western North Pacific during October. Carmen (8618) formed on 2 October about 910 km east-southeast of Guam. It moved northwestwards passing between Guam and Saipan on 3 October. Carmen intensified into a typhoon on 4 October and recurved to the north on 6 October. On the morning of 7 October, it passed about 230 km northwest of Iwo Jima and accelerated northeastwards. Carmen passed about 350 km southeast of Tokyo on the morning of 8 October and became extra tropical early on 9 October about 950 km east-northeast of Tokyo.
Dom (8619) developed into a tropical depression about 110 km northeast of Manila early on 6 October. It moved westwards and crossed Luzon, causing extensive damage there. At least 16 people were killed. Over 30 towns in central Luzon were flooded and almost 60 000 people had to be evacuated from their homes. Five bridges were also destroyed. Property damage was estimated at US$ 4 million. Dom intensified into a tropical storm about 310 km east-southeast of Xisha on 9 October and moved west-northwestwards. After passing close to the south of Xisha on the morning of 10 October, Dom turned westwards and landed over Viet Nam about 100 km northwest of Danang on the evening of 11 October. Dom finally dissipated over central Viet Nam during the night.
Typhoon Ellen (8620) formed over the Pacific about 840 km southeast of Manila on 11 October. After crossing central Philippines, it moved slowly towards the south China coast between 13 and 18 October. Ellen passed about 150 km south-southwest of Hong Kong on the morning of 18 October. Early on 19 October, a surge of the northeast monsoon affected the south China coastal areas. With the intrusion of drier monsoon air into its centre, Ellen weakened rapidly. After crossing the Leizhou peninsula around midday, it dissipated over Beibu Wan on the evening of 19 October.
Forrest (8621) developed early on 16 October over the western Pacific about I 000 km east-northeast of Guam. It intensified quickly into a typhoon on the same day while moving west-northwestwards. Forrest slowed down on I 7 October and recurved to the northeast about 330 km south oflwo Jima on 18 October. Forrest moved rapidly northeastwards on 19 October and weakened into a severe tropical storm the next day. It became extratropical over the Pacific about 1 530 km east of Tokyo later on the same day.
Georgia (8622) formed on 18 October about 880 km east-southeast of Manila. It intensified into a tropical storm and moved westwards across the Philippines on 19 October. Georgia continued to move westwards across the South China Sea in the next two days and landed over Viet Nam about 110 km southeast of Danang on the morning of 22 October. It finally dissipated over east Thailand early on 23 October.
Five tropical cyclones developed over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea during November. Herbert (8623) formed over the South China Sea about 230 km southwest of Manila on 8 November and intensified to a tropical storm the next day. It followed a generally westerly track, landed over Viet Nam on 12 November about 190 km south-southeast of Danang and dissipated soon after.
Ida (8624) formed over the Pacific about 630 km west-southwest of Yap on 11 November. It moved northwestwards across the central Philippines on 13 November and became a severe tropical storm over the South China Sea on the morning of 15 November when it was about 230 km east-northeast ofXisha. Ida recurved to the northeast that evening and weakened to a tropical storm early the next day. During the night of 16 November, a Lebanese cargo ship "Hymetus" sank near Dongsha and two crewmen were drowned. On 17 November, Ida degenerated to an area of low pressure about 100 km southeast of Dongsha.
Joe (8625) developed over the Pacific about 970 km east-southeast of Manila on 18 November and moved northwestwards. It then turned northwards about 370 km east of Manila on 20 November and intensified to a typhoon. Joe turned northeastwards on 22 November when it was about 560 km south-southeast of Taibei and weakened gradually. It made a sharp turn to the southeast on the evening of 24 November about 220 km south-southwest of Okinawa and dissipated early next morning.
A tropical depression formed over the South China Sea about 490 km southeast of Ho Chi Minh City on 24 November. It remained slow-moving and dissipated the next day.
Kim (8626) developed over the Pacific near the Marshall Islands on 28 November and moved westnorthwestwards. It intensified into a typhoon on 29 November and moved northwestwards towards the Mariana Islands on 30 November.
Four tropical cyclones occurred over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea during December. On 3 December, Typhoon Kim passed westwards about 40 km north of Saipan. More than I 000 homes on the island were destroyed. Damage to property was estimated at US$2.3 million. Kim continued moving generally westwards for the following four days. It weakened into a severe tropical storm under the influence of a surge of the winter monsoon on 8 December, and moved slowly in an anticlockwise loop about I 230 km east of Manila on 8 and 9 December. Kim moved northwestwards on IO December and dissipated over the Pacific waters about 1 130 km east-northeast of Manila on 11 December.
Lex (8627) developed near the Marshall Islands on 3 December. It became a tropical storm early on 4 December and moved west-northwestwards. It weakened into a tropical depression on 6 December and passed about 100 km northeast of Guam on 7 December. Under the influence of Typhoon Kim to its west, Lex turned northwestwards on 7 December and dissipated over the ocean about 850 km northwest of Guam on 8 December.
Marge (8628) developed as a tropical depression about 300 km east of Ponape in the Caroline Islands on 14 December. It moved generally west-northwestwards and passed about 310 km south of Guam on 17 December. It intensified into a typhoon about 620 km west-southwest of Guam on 19 December and turned southwestwards on 20 December. The typhoon took a west-northwesterly course again on 21 December and crossed the central Philippines between 21 and 22 December. Marge weakened into a tropical storm near Palawan and entered the South China Sea on 23 December. It dissipated over the sea about 320 km northwest of Nansha on 25 December.
Typhoon Norris (8629) adopted approximately the same track as Typhoon Marge about 10 days later. Norris developed near the Marshall Islands on 22 December. It moved generally westwards during the first week and passed about 210 km south of Guam early on 27 December. Norris intensified into a typhoon about 460 km west-southwest of Guam in the evening. On 29 December, Norris turned southwestwards about 780 km west of Guam. Norris weakened into a severe tropical storm about 760 km east-northeast of Mindanao on 30 December. It then took a west-northwestward course across the central Philippines the next day. Late on 31 December, Norris was centred about 440 km south-southeast of Manila, moving westwards into the Sulu Sea.