Admissions into feeding centres: Admissions into Supplementary Feeding Centres (SFCs) almost doubled compared to the figures reported in January/February, while admissions into Therapeutic Feeding Centres (TFCs) have more than doubled compared to January/February. Most of the SFC and TFC admissions were reported from West and South Darfur. Admissions were in line with seasonal trends. While SFC admissions were below 2006 levels, admissions to TFCs were higher than 2006, and further investigation is recommended.
Localised nutrition surveys: Four localised nutrition surveys were carried out in South and West Darfur. Results indicate a stable nutritional situation of the population, however crude mortality rates at or above alert level indicate potential problems that need to be addressed. The key recommendations from these surveys focus around addressing the longer term underlying causes of malnutrition.
Health: Overall, the incidence of endemic diseases has increased during the reporting period, in line with seasonal trends. Malaria, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) and diarrhoea continue to be reported as primary morbidities. There were 37 cases of measles during the reporting period, with the majority reported from West Darfur. The polio and Vitamin A supplementation campaign (30 April to 2 May) reached more than 95% of the target population. Additionally, cases of bloody diarrhoea have increased, with the majority reported from West Darfur.
Food security: For the most part, the food security situation for resident population appears to be stable, though IDPs remain heavily dependent on food aid. Ongoing monitoring is recommended to identify populations at greatest risk of food insecurity as the dry season progresses.
Humanitarian access across Greater Darfur continues to be limited, due to insecurity as well as travel restrictions. This limitation has resulted in localised suspensions of some activities, and unmet targets due to agencies' inability to access beneficiaries in some areas.
Population movement: The influx of refugees from Chad continued into Greater Darfur during the months of March/April. Additionally, tribal conflict in South and North Darfur resulted in population displacement during the reporting period(1). Ongoing monitoring is recommended.
Greater Darfur- deterioration in nutrition status in line with seasonal trends
The detailed report of the Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment (EFSNA)(2) conducted in September 2006 has been released. This report includes the detailed analysis related to nutrition outcomes and underlying causes. Efforts to reduce and address malnutrition are recommended to focus on addressing the underlying causes of malnutrition, in particular improvement in safe water and hygiene promotion to reduce disease incidence, as well as promotion of appropriate caring practice, and targeting programmes for children under three years of age.
The report is currently available on ReliefWeb (http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/LSGZ- 73NDV8?OpenDocument), and soon to be released on the UN Sudan Information Gateway.
Other nutrition surveys(3)
Four localised nutrition survey were conducted during the reporting period, three in South Darfur and one in West Darfur. Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) rates did not exceed the emergency threshold of 15 per cent in any of the surveys, and there was no statistically significant difference between these results and results from similar time periods in 2006. Mortality rates, however, indicate that the situation may require additional monitoring. In one survey (ACF in South Darfur), both under-5 and crude mortality were at alert levels, while the crude mortality rate in two surveys (ARC in South Darfur and SC-US in West Darfur) were reported at or above alert level.
In the surveys were mortality rates were reported at or above alert levels, primary identified causes of death for children under five were reported to include diarrhoea, ARIs, and malaria. Primary identified causes of death for people older than five were reported to include fever, bloody diarrhoea, and malaria. This indicates that sustained efforts to address underlying causes of malnutrition, as well as the resolution of insecurity, are required.
The rate of GAM for children 6-29 versus 30-59 months continues to be elevated, indicating that sustained efforts are required to address sub optimal infant and young chid care practices.
(1) World Food Programme Sudan Situation Report, Issue 2007/3 and 2007/4
(2) The EFSNA was carried out by the Federal Ministries of Health, and Agriculture, FAO, UNICEF, WFP, and CDC in September 2006.
(3) All nutrition surveys reported in this bulletin use the standard 30x30 cluster methodology in line with international standards unless otherwise stated.